FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Theses, dissertations, documentation

Pages:   || 2 | 3 |

«Development and structural validation of a scale to assess regulation of anger and sadness in interpersonal situations* M. Florencia Giuliani1 ...»

-- [ Page 1 ] --

Anuario de Psicología/The UB Journal of Psychology

2015, vol. 45, nº 1, 115-130

© 2015, Facultat de Psicologia

Universitat de Barcelona

Development and structural validation of a

scale to assess regulation of anger and

sadness in interpersonal situations*

M. Florencia Giuliani1

Feliciano Villar2

Claudia J. Arias1

Rodrigo Serrat1

Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata (Argentina)

Universitat de Barcelona

The purpose of this research was to develop and validate a new instrument

to assess the regulation of anger and sadness in interpersonal situations, covering a wide range of emotion regulation strategies. Two studies were carried out, both of them using purposively selected samples. In Study 1 we created a set of items based on previous studies of emotion regulation, applied a preliminary version of this scale to a pilot sample of undergraduate students (n = 400), and then selected, using exploratory factor analysis (EFA), the best 28 items to include in a brief version of the instrument, the Scale of Emotion Regulation in Interpersonal Situations (SERIS). In Study 2 we tested the resulting scale in a new sample of undergraduate students (n = 259) by means of confirmatory factor analysis. Study 2 validated the factor structure identified in the EFA.

Results showed that the scale has adequate internal consistency and psychometric properties. The new scale also identifies the strategies that are most frequently used in the anger and sadness scenarios, showing differential patterns which are consistent with previous literature on emotion regulation. We discuss the limitations of the study and acknowledge that future studies addressing the scale’s convergent and discriminant validity are now required.

Keywords: Emotions, emotion regulation, interpersonal situations, structural validation.

* Acknowledgments: This research was supported by the National University of Mar del Plata through the Perfeccionamiento grant for the project Diferencias según grupo de edad de las características de la percepción temporal futura, las metas vitales y las estrategias de regulación de la ira y la tristeza en escenarios intrafamiliares. We would also like to thank all participants for their collaboration.

Correspondence: María Florencia Giuliani. Grupo de Investigación en Evaluación Psicológica, Facultad de Psicología, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata. Rawson 1550, 7600, Mar del Plata, Argentina. E-mail: mariaflorenciagiuliani@gmail.com 116 Emotional regulation in interpersonal situations Desarrollo y validación estructural de una escala para evaluar la regulación de la ira y la tristeza en situaciones interpersonales El objetivo de este trabajo es desarrollar una escala para evaluar la regulación emocional de la ira y la tristeza en situaciones interpersonales y que incluya un amplio rango de estrategias de regulación. Se realizaron dos estudios, contando ambos con muestras seleccionadas de manera intencional. En el estudio 1, se construyó un banco de ítems a partir de la revisión de la literatura, se aplicó a una muestra de estudiantes universitarios (n = 400) y se seleccionaron, mediante análisis factorial exploratorio, los mejores 28 indicadores para conformar una escala breve llamada Escala de Regulación Emocional en Situaciones Interpersonales (ERESI). En el estudio 2 se validó en una nueva muestra, compuesta también por estudiantes universitarios (n = 259), la estructura factorial de la escala desarrollada en el estudio 1, aplicando un análisis factorial confirmatorio. Los resultados validaron la estructura factorial extraída del estudio 1, y señalaron que el instrumento cuenta con adecuada consistencia interna y validez estructural. También se verificó que el instrumento permite identificar las estrategias más aplicadas en las situaciones de ira y de tristeza, hallando patrones diferenciales para cada emoción, y consistentes con la literatura existente sobre regulación emocional. Se discutieron las limitaciones y la necesidad de continuar con estudios de validación convergente y discriminante.

Palabras clave: emociones, regulación emocional, situaciones interpersonales, validación estructural.


Emotions influence our everyday experiences and play a key role in many aspects of our life. The ways in which people regulate their emotions is therefore an issue of central importance.

Emotion regulation (ER) refers to strategies aimed at redirecting the spontaneous flow of emotions by modifying the quality or the intensity of the emotional experience. ER processes become central when our spontaneous emotional experiences do not contribute to the achievement of our goals, since it is through ER that we seek to attain those goals, satisfying our needs or maintaining our selfconcept (Koole, Van Dillen, & Sheppes, 2011). ER processes also have a protective value when dealing with adversity, since they serve as buffers against stress and post-traumatic stress disorder (Blanchard-Fields, 2007; Boden, Bonn-Miller, Kashdan, Alvarez, & Gross, 2012).

Types and assessment of emotion regulation Although there is not a single model for ER one of the most influential is that proposed by Gross (2014). This author considers that ER involves changes

–  –  –

in the latency, rise time, magnitude, duration, and offset of the emotion response, and he proposes five families of ER processes: 1) situation selection, 2) situation modification, 3) attentional deployment, 4) cognitive change, and 5) response modulation. These processes would apply to different stages of the emotiongenerative cycle. From this perspective, processes which start before the emotion arises (antecedent-focused strategies) are deemed to be more adaptive than those occurring once the emotion is already underway (response-focused strategies), because they imply a preventive modulation rather than a reaction to an emotion already generated.

The empirical evidence supporting this model has assessed ER by means of self-reports or psychophysiological measures (cf. Gross, 2014). Gross developed the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ; Gross & John, 2003), which is focused on two strategies: cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression. Garnefski and Kraaij (2007) focused on the cognitive aspects of ER, identifying nine different strategies: 1) rumination, 2) catastrophizing, 3) self-blame, 4) blaming others, 5) putting into perspective, 6) acceptance, 7) positive refocusing, 8) positive reappraisal, and 9) refocus on planning. Although this approach extends the scope of assessment, it focuses solely on cognitive strategies.

Even though both approaches recognize the role of context in relation to regulation processes, they still assess ER from a trait perspective, regardless of the specific emotion and the context within which emotions are generated. However, these latter aspects have proved to be relevant to the selection and application of ER strategies.

The role of the interpersonal context and the type of emotion

It has been argued that the suitability of ER strategies depends on, among other factors, the coherence of the strategy with respect to the person’s goals and on the context in which it is applied. In this vein, research has shown that psychopathology symptoms are not predicted by the use of ER strategies traditionally classified as adaptive or maladaptive (Aldao & Nolen-Hoeksema, 2012), and neither does this distinction account for the recovery of well-being after stressful events (Schraub, Turgut, Clavairoly, & Sonntag, 2013). These findings call into question the traditional approach to ER assessment, and suggest that contextual factors must be included in order to increase its predictive value (Aldao, 2013).

ER is relevant in interpersonal contexts because it communicates internal states and guides social interactions. Emotional expression is essential for social ties (English, John, & Gross, 2013), and efficient ER can therefore help to avoid interpersonal conflicts and maintain better relationships.

Anuario de Psicología/The UB Journal of Psychology, vol. 45, nº 1, abril 2015, pp. 115-130 © 2015, Universitat de Barcelona, Facultat de Psicologia 118 Emotional regulation in interpersonal situations The type of emotion also has an influence on ER. Anger and sadness are frequent in interpersonal situations (Rivers, Brackett, Katulak, & Salovey, 2007) and each emotion trigger different responses. Anger triggers fight responses and may lead to violence and mistreatment if it is not appropriately regulated. Conversely, its adequate expression has been associated with conflict resolution and positive change within interpersonal relationships (Kennedy-Moore & Watson, 1999). In the case of sadness, effective regulation has been related to altruism and empathy, whereas deficits in this area have been linked to anxiety and depression (Zeman, Shipman, & Suveg, 2002). A more detailed assessment of ER, which takes into account the contextual factors (Aldao, 2013) and the characteristics of the emotion in question (Izard, 2010), would allow us to understand under which conditions different ER strategies might be beneficial or harmful for relationships (English et al., 2013).

Some studies (e.g. Oberst, Sánchez, Oriol-Granado, & Páez, 2013) have tried to assess ER in accordance with these premises, asking participants to recall lived situations and the ER strategies they applied. Although such studies have provided valuable insight to an ecologically valid study of ER, using personal memories hinders the generalization and comparison of results, since the event that triggers the emotion is not homogenous.

Blanchard-Fields (2007) has proposed an alternative that balances the standardization of the situation that triggers ER processes and the focus on ecological validity. In her studies, she has used vignettes showing conflicts among friends (Coats & Blanchard-Fields, 2008). However, it also presents some limitations.

First, application of the questionnaire to other cultural contexts is problematic because it is mainly based on data obtained in qualitative studies. Second, the questionnaire does not cover the full range of ER strategies identified in previous studies and it does not specify the emotion being assessed, which could increase the variability of responses.

The present research seeks to fill this gap and has the following objectives.


The purpose of this research was to develop and validate a new instrument to assess ER strategies in interpersonal situations of anger and sadness. The proposed scale incorporates vignettes in order to facilitate the respondent’s identification with the situation and his or her experience of emotions which are explicitly mentioned.

In order to achieve this goal we conducted two studies. Study 1 aimed to develop a brief scale to assess the regulation of anger and sadness in the context of family ties. The objective of Study 2 was to validate the scale’s factor structure in a new sample.

–  –  –

Study 1 Method Participants This study used a convenience sample of 400 first-year, second-year, and third-year undergraduates studying Business Administration, Economy, and Psychology at the National University of Mar del Plata (Argentina). The mean age of the sample was 22.8 years (SD = 6.5), and there were 307 females and 90 males (3 students did not indicate their gender).


A questionnaire with two sections was designed and administered to participants. Section 1 covered sociodemographic information (age and gender).

Section 2 included the self-administered scale regarding ER of anger and sadness in the context of family ties, the instrument developed in this study. The design of the scale was based on the model proposed by Coats and BlanchardFields (2008) and included vignettes that allow participants to identify with the situation and with the emotional experience described in order to respond to the items. To assure the realism and representativeness of the vignettes, they were selected from local studies in which participants were asked to provide typical situations in which they felt anger or sadness (Giuliani, 2012). It was found that both emotions arise with particular frequency and intensity within family relationships, which is consistent with international studies (e.g. Fingerman, Hay, & Birditt, 2004)..

As recommended by Hughes (2004), we included in the vignette the contextual cues triggering the selected emotion (e.g. transgression in the case of anger), as well as the interpersonal scenario in which it appears (e.g. type and quality of the bond). In order to avoid a limitation of previous vignette-based instruments, the emotion elicited by the situation was explicitly mentioned. We selected just two vignettes to have an instrument as brief as possible, which allows for its inclusion in studies exploring constructs that might be related to ER.

In the case of sadness, the vignette was as follows: «Un familiar muy querido está pasando un mal momento personal, se está separando de su pareja de muchos años y esto le duele profundamente. Te sientes muy triste por esta situación [A relative you love dearly is going through a rough time. He/she is separating from his/her partner after many years together and feels terribly hurt. You feel really sad about this]». In the case of anger, the vignette was as follows: «Últimamente Anuario de Psicología/The UB Journal of Psychology, vol. 45, nº 1, abril 2015, pp. 115-130 © 2015, Universitat de Barcelona, Facultat de Psicologia 120 Emotional regulation in interpersonal situations te resulta complicado llevarte bien con un familiar al que quieres mucho porque está teniendo actitudes que te molestan. Durante una cena discutís intensamente con él y te enojas mucho [Lately you have been finding it very hard to get along with a relative you love dearly because his/her attitude upsets you. Over dinner one day you have an argument and you get really mad with him/her]».

After reading the vignette, participants were asked to indicate the degree to which they agreed with 62 statements representing different reactions to the emotional experience and the situation described, using a scale ranging from 1 (“not at all like me”) to 5 (“this is very like me”).

Pages:   || 2 | 3 |

Similar works:

«2011 International Conference on Environmental, Biomedical and Biotechnology IPCBEE vol.16 (2011) © (2011)IACSIT Press, Singapoore Effective digital technologies and new media on increasing the size of the sports audience Mahdi Bigdely, 1Habib Honari, 2Keivan Mollanoroozi 1Allameh Tabatabaei University, 2Islamic Azad University (Aslamshar Branch) Abstract. New media has emerged as an important communication tool for both sport marketers and fans. Using Psychological Continuum Model (PCM) as...»

«All Players and Parents/Guardians must read this Athletic Handbook and acknowledge and agree by signing and returning the Masters Regional Academy Sports Permission Form. Masters Regional Academy Athletic Handbook I press toward the mark for the prize of the high calling of God in Christ Jesus. Philippians 3:14 Dated As of March, 2014 INTRODUCTION We believe that athletics functions as an important and integral part of Masters Regional Academy’s total Christian education program, as it...»

«Publish Book Psychiater Und Psychorapeuten books document, also Download PDF Psychiater Und Psychorapeuten digital file PSYCHIATER UND PSYCHORAPEUTEN PDF Get file psychiater und psychorapeuten PDF update. So you are person who likes to download psychiater und psychorapeuten Pdf to any kind of device,whether its your laptop, Kindle or iPhone, there are more options now than ever before. Perhaps because of the growing popularity of Kindle, or competitors like The Nook, or maybe just because...»

«EDUCATING ABOUT PLAGIARISM 1 Educating Students About Plagiarism Marika Lamoreaux, Kim Darnell, Elizabeth Sheehan, and Chantal Tusher Georgia State University Author contact information: Marika Lamoreaux PO Box 5010 Psychology Department Georgia State University Atlanta, GA 30302-5010 mlamoreaux@gsu.edu 404-413-6295 The second through fourth authors are listed in alphabetical order. We would like to thank our editor Ruth Ault and reviewers for their helpful and constructive feedback. Copyright...»

«RESEARCH A Review of the Functions and Contribution of Educational Psychologists in England and Wales in light of “Every Child Matters: Change for Children” Peter Farrell, Kevin Woods, Sarah Lewis, Steve Rooney, Garry Squires, Mike O’Connor School of Education, University of Manchester Research Report RR792 A REVIEW OF THE FUNCTIONS AND CONTRIBUTION OF EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGISTS IN ENGLAND AND WALES IN LIGHT OF “EVERY CHILD MATTERS: CHANGE FOR CHILDREN” Peter Farrell, Kevin Woods,...»

«Oracle HCM Cloud Using Reports and Analytics This guide also applies to on-premise implementations Release 8 April 2014 Oracle HCM Cloud: Using Reports and Analytics Part Number E50713-03 Copyright (C) 2014 Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Authors: Megan Wallace, Essan Jirman Oracle and Java are registered trademarks of Oracle and/or its affiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respective owners. This software and related documentation are provided under a license...»

«Session 2351 A Contribution to Validation of Score Meaning for FelderSoloman’s Index of Learning Styles Malgorzata S. Zywno Ryerson University Abstract In 1988, Richard Felder and Linda Silverman developed a learning model that focuses specifically on aspects of learning styles of engineering students. Three years later, a corresponding psychometric assessment instrument, the Felder-Soloman’s Index of Learning Styles, was developed. This paper offers a contribution to an ongoing validation...»

«UNIVERSIDAD SAN FRANCISCO DE QUITO Colegio de Jurisprudencia “Patenting pool y el cross licensing prácticas que ¿promueven o distorsionan la libre competencia? La necesidad de regular estas figuras en el Derecho de competencia del Ecuador” Carlos Alfredo Trujillo Viteri Sophia F. Espinosa Coloma, JSD., Directora de Tesis Tesis de grado presentada como requisito para la obtención del título de Abogado Quito, septiembre de 2014 © DERECHOS DE AUTOR Por medio del presente documento...»

«Dear Homeowner: As you know, a home is more than just a major financial investment. Your home provides you and your family with shelter from the dangers of severe weather. Our goal in this guide is to help you ensure that your home is as safe and strong as it can be, and that your insurance coverage is sufficient to protect you and your belongings inside. With these goals in mind, and as part of our ongoing commitment to safeguard families and homes from disasters, the Federal Alliance for Safe...»

«Psychological Contracts and Age1 A META-ANALYSIS OF AGING, TENURE, THE PSYCHOLOGICAL CONTRACT, AND WORK-RELATED OUTCOMES Running Head: Psychological Contracts and Age P. MATTHIJS BAL Department of Management & Organization, VU University Amsterdam, the Netherlands ANNET H. DE LANGE Department of Social and Organizational Psychology, University of Groningen, the Netherlands PAUL G.W. JANSEN Department of Management & Organization, VU University Amsterdam, the Netherlands MANDY E.G. VAN DER VELDE...»

«La lettre de motivation et le curriculum vitae Guide pratique élaboré par René Reiter éducateur gradué / médiateur / conseiller psychologique rene.reiter@adem.etat.lu Tél. : 247-75428 Copyright / ADEM La lettre de motivation 1. Objectif de la lettre de motivation Elle doit donner envie :  de lire votre CV  de vous accorder un entretien d’embauche 2. Forme et contenu de la lettre de motivation 2.1. La qualité du papier Choisissez de préférence des feuilles blanches, sans lignes...»

«Paraplegia (I976), 95-IOO 14, INFORMATION IN THE EARLY STAGES AFTER SPINAL CORD INJURY B RAAKMAN, 1. J. C. O RBAAN, R. and M. By BLAAU W-VAN DISHOECK Neurosurgical Department, Academisch Ziekenhuis Dijkz�f!t, Rotterdam DURING our annual meetings, it always strikes us that the proportion of papers dealing with psychological and counselling facets of spinal injuries is so small compared with the large numbers of paper covering the physical aspects, in spite of the fact that suddenly becoming...»

<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2016 www.theses.xlibx.info - Theses, dissertations, documentation

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.