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«L., Ratsameemonthon El Achievement Goal Questionnaire-Revised (AGQ-R) para estudiantes universitarios tailandeses y el contexto asiático Electronic ...»

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Identifying a student’s specific achievement goal may be utilized as guidance for teachers, school counselors, and psychologists to assist students to achieve academic performance more effectively. Specially, Eastern students may often pursue others’ goals and strive for success to please significant others in order to maintain harmony between the self and parents as a given family obligation (Pomerantz, Grolnick, & Price 2005). Consequently, students with performance goal who are highly concerned and stressed about demonstrating and proving competence will be more worried and anxious when they face more threatening and challenging goals. Consequently, they will tend to use maladaptive coping strategies such as selfhandicapping or procrastination to protect their self-worth (Wolters, 2004). At the same time, students who adopt performance-avoidance goal may cheat to achieve a high grade in order to fulfill their obligation to their parents (Bong, 2008). Therefore, teachers, school counselors, and psychologists could facilitate students holding a performance oriented goal to realize the negative consequences of fear of failure as well as to enhance students’ self-efficacy to focus on process orientation rather than outcome orientation. This will assist student to be more flexible and to have self-reliance to deal with the challenging tasks and the unexpected negative consequences (Elliot, 2005).


Currently, in Thailand, assessment measure of achievement goal based on 2x2 dimensions in the Thai version is necessary to acquire further research due to different cultural perspective leads to adopt achievement goal differently. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to translate and establish a valid achievement goal in the Thai version in order to convey items’ content equivalent to the original version and also to examine a specific achievement goal for Thai students. The results of EFA and CFA computations confirmed the four-factor structure of Thai version to be similar to the four-factor structure of the original Western version of the

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achievement goal questionnaire. The strong theoretical perspective and the role of significant others could explain the two versions’ (Thai vs. Western) of achievement goal representing the same four-factor structure.

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Awofala, A. O. A., Arigbabu, A. A., Fatade, A. O., & Awofala, A. A. (2013). Examining the psychometric properties of the achievement goals questionnaire among Nigerian preservice mathematics and science teachers. Electronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology, 11(3), 743-770. doi:10.14204/ejrep.31.13037.

Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory.Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Bong, M. (2008). Effect of parent-child relationships and classroom goal structures on motivation, help-seeking avoidance, and cheating. The Journal of Experimental Education, 76, 191-217.

Browne, M. W., & Cudeck, R. (1993). Alternative ways of assessing model fit. In K. A. Bollen & J. S. Long (Eds.), Testing structural equation models (pp. 445-455).

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Cha, Chiu, C.Y., & Hong, Y.Y. (2005). Cultural Competence. In A. J. Elliot & C. Carol (Eds.), Handbook of competence and motivation (pp.489-505). New York: Guilford Press.

De la Fuente, J. (2004). Recent perspectives in the study of motivation: Goal Orientation Theory. Electronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology, 2(1), 35-62.

Elliot, A. J. (1999). Approach and avoidance motivation and achievement goals. Educational Psychologist, 34, 169-189. doi: 10.1207/s15326985ep3403_3 Elliot, A. J. (2005). A conceptual history of the achievement goal construct. In J. A. Elliot & C.

Carol (Eds.), foreword by C.V. Martin, Handbook of competence and motivation (pp. 52NewYork: Guilford Press.

Elliot, A. J., & Church, M. A. (1997). A hierarchical model of approach and avoidance achievement motivation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 72, 218-232.


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Elliot, A. J., & Harackiewicz, J. (1996). Approach and avoidance achievement goals and intrinsic motivation: A mediational analysis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70, 461-475. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.70.3.461.

Elliot, A. J., & McGregor, H. A. (2001). A 2 x 2 achievement goal framework. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 80, 501–519. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.80.3.501.

Elliot, A. J., & Murayama, K. (2008). On the measurement of achievement goals: Critique, illustration, and application. Journal of Educational Psychology, 100, 613-628.

doi: 10.1037/0022-0663.100.3.613.

Gonida, E. N., Karabenick, S. A., Makara, K. A., & Hatzikyriakou, G. A. (2014). Perceived parent goals and student goal orientations as predictors of seeking or not seeking help: does age matter? Learning and Instruction, 33, 120-130. doi:10.1016/j.learninstruc.2014.04.007.

Kline, P. (1994). An easy guide to factor analysis. London: Routledge.

Meece, J.L., Blumenfeld, P.C., & Hoyle, R.H. (1988). Students’ Goal Orientation and Cognitive engagement in classroom activities. Journal of Educational Psychology. 80, 514-523.

doi: 10.1037/0022-0663.80.4.514.

Nunnaly, J. (1978). Psychometric theory. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Oyserman, D., & Sakamoto (1997). Being Asian American: Identity, cultural constructs, and stereotype perception. The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 33, 435-453.

doi: 10.1177/0021886397334002.

Pintrich, P. R. (2000). The role of goal orientation in self-regulated learning. In M. Boekaerts, P. R. Pintrich, & M. Zeidner (Eds.) Handbook of self-regulation (pp.451-502). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

Pomerantz, M. E., Grolnick, S. W., & Price, E. C. (2005). The role of parents in how children approach achievement: A dynamic process perspective. In A. J. Elliot & C. Carol (Eds.), Handbook of competence and motivation (pp.259-278). NewYork: Guilford Press.

Putharaksa, C. (2008). Development of evaluation tools for teachers’ achievement goals in school. (Unpublished master’s thesis). Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand.

Thongnoum, D. (2002). Self-efficacy, goal orientation, and self-regulated learning in Thai students (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Oklahoma State University, United States.

Wolters, C. A. (2004). Advancing achievement goal theory: Using goal structures and goal orientations to predict students’ motivation, cognition, and achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 96, 236-250. doi: 10.1037/0022-0663.96.2.236.

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