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«Gadelrab, Hesham F. Estructura Factorial y Validez Predictora del cuestionario Approaches and Study Skills Inventory for Students en Egipto: ...»

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Electronic Journal of Research in Educational


E-ISSN: 1696-2095


Universidad de Almería


Gadelrab, Hesham F.

Estructura Factorial y Validez Predictora del cuestionario "Approaches and Study Skills Inventory for

Students" en Egipto: Aproximación por Análisis Factorial Confirmatorio

Electronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology, vol. 9, núm. 25, diciembre, 2011, pp. 1197Universidad de Almería

Almeria, España

Disponible en: http://www.redalyc.org/articulo.oa?id=293122852011 Cómo citar el artículo Número completo Sistema de Información Científica Más información del artículo Red de Revistas Científicas de América Latina, el Caribe, España y Portugal Página de la revista en redalyc.org Proyecto académico sin fines de lucro, desarrollado bajo la iniciativa de acceso abierto Estructura Factorial y Validez Predictora del cuestionario "Approaches and Study Skills

Inventory for Students" en Egipto:

Aproximación por Análisis Factorial Confirmatorio Hesham F. Gadelrab Department of Educational Psychology, Mansoura University Department of Psychology, Umm Alqura University Egipto Correspondencia: : Hesham F. Gadelrab, PhD, Mansoura University, College of Education, Department of Educational Psychology, Mansoura, Egypt 35516. Department of Psychology, Umm Alqra University, Makahh Almokrama, Saudia Arabia, P.O. Box 715 Phone: Egypt +20-106076962 Saudi: +966-548538057 Fax: Egypt +20-502269979 E-mail: heshfm@yahoo.com, heshfm@mans.edu.eg, hesham.gadelrab@uqu.edu.sa © Education & Psychology I+D+i and Editorial EOS (España) Gadelrab, H.F.

Resumen Introducción. El objetivo de este estudio es doble. En primer lugar, para evaluar la estructura factorial de los enfoques y el Estudio de Inventario de Habilidades para Estudiantes (ASSIST)como una medida de los enfoques de aprendizaje con estudiantes bilingües de educación superior de Egipto por las pruebas de la verosimilitud de la reproducción de su intención de tres factores de estructura. En segundo lugar, el estudio destinado a comprobar la validez predictiva de asistencia.

Método. La muestra del estudio consistió en (n = 516) estudiantes universitarios de una universidad internacional en Egipto. Para una validación cruzada de la estructura de factores, los sujetos fueron divididos en dos muestras iguales. El análisis factorial confirmatorio se utilizó para probar la estructura de asignación.

Resultados. Los resultados de este estudio confirman los constructos subyacentes de estos tres enfoques distintivos para el aprendizaje. Las escalas principales y subescalas demostraron una consistencia interna adecuada y la validez predictiva de los logros académicos.

Conclusión. Se concluye que ASSIST es una herramienta de investigación válidos para la evaluación de los enfoques de aprendizaje, sin embargo se debe tener cuidado con respecto a la interpretación de las subescalas en particular y los posibles efectos de la muestra.

Palabras Clave: Métodos de aprendizaje, análisis factorial confirmatorio, ASSIST, la validez predictiva, estructura factorial, ambiente de aprendizaje.

Recibido: 25/08/11 Aceptación inicial: 02/09/11 Aceptación final: 09/11/11

Estructura Factorial y Validez Predictora del cuestionario "Approaches and Study Skills Inventory for Students" en Egipto:

Aproximación por Análisis Factorial Confirmatorio Factorial Structure and Predictive Validity of Approaches and Study Skills Inventory for Students (ASSIST) in Egypt: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis Approach Abstract Introduction. The purpose of this study is double. First, to evaluate the factorial structure of Approaches and Study Skills Inventory for Students (ASSIST) as a measure of approaches to learning with bilingual Egyptian higher education students by testing the plausibility of reproducing its intended three-factor structure. Second, the study aimed at testing the predictive validity of ASSIST.

Method. The sample of the study consisted of (n=516) college students from one international university in Egypt. To cross-validate the factor structure, the subjects were divided into two equal samples. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to test the structure of ASSIST.

Results. The findings of this study confirmed the underlying constructs of three distinctive approaches to learning. ASSIST main scales and subscales’ scores showed appropriate internal consistency and predictive validity to academic achievement.

Conclusion. It was concluded that ASSIST is a valid research tool for the assessment of approaches to learning, however caution should be taken with respect to the interpretation of particular subscales and possible sample effects.

Keywords: Approaches to Learning, Confirmatory Factor Analysis, ASSIST, Predictive Validity, Factorial Structure, Learning Environment.

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Introduction Substantive research continuously provides constant evidence that individual differences in how students approach learning exist. These differences in turn have a powerful influence on many aspects of learning and teaching everyday. One of the most widely used frameworks for understanding student learning in higher education, from a student learning perspective, is the approaches to learning paradigm (Biggs, 1987a; Biggs, 1987b; Biggs, 1987c; Marton & Saljo, 1976b).

Approaches to learning may be regarded as a description of acquired intentions, motives and strategies, which are partly determined by the learning context in terms of the students’ responses to situational demands (Entwistle, 1981). They have a relational nature and can vary according to learning context (Entwistle & Ramsden, 1982; Garcia-Ros, Perez Gonzalez, & Talya, 2008; Kember, Leung, & McNaught; 2008; Leung, Ginns, & Kember, 2008; Ramsden, 1987; Richardson, 2003; Trigwell & Prosser, 1991). Therefore, Biggs, Kember, and Leung (2001) suggested that, in general, students adjust their approaches to learning based upon the demands of the course that they enrolled in. The way a student relates to a learning situation is not an intrinsic characteristic of the student, but is rather dependent on the 'learning context' (Entwistle, Tait, & McCune, 2000; Entwistle, McCune, & Hounsell, 2002; Ramsden, 1987; Prosser and Trigwell, 1999).

Because of the culture specificity of approaches to learning, theoretical constructs embodied in the approaches to learning instruments, such as ASSIST might not be consistent across cultures and contexts. Therefore, differences in the conceptual and empirical composition of the factorial structure of the same instrument across different countries and cultures are possible. Consequently, it is very important to confirm that the instrument demonstrate the hypothesized factorial structure before using it in new cultures or learning contexts. Such confirmation of the validity of the use of the instrument across cultures would facilitate comparative national and international research and would help educators in designing and implementing effective teaching and learning strategies and making better instructional and referral decisions. Hence, the purpose of this paper was to investigate the factorial structure of ASSIST as a measure of approaches to learning with bilingual Egyptian higher education students by testing the plausibility of reproducing the intended three-factor

Estructura Factorial y Validez Predictora del cuestionario "Approaches and Study Skills Inventory for Students" en Egipto:

Aproximación por Análisis Factorial Confirmatorio structure of ASSIST. According to the last formal statistics published by Central Agency for Public Mobilization and Statistics (CAPMAS) in Egypt, there were 59852 bilingual higher education students in Egypt in 2008/2009 academic year (CAPMAS, 2009). To our knowledge, this study might be considered the first one testing the structure of ASSIST or any other measure of approaches to learning in any Arabic culture. To avoid cross culture adaptation and translation risks of affecting the underlying structure of the instrument (see Byrne & Watkins, 2003; Osterlind, Miao, Sheng, & Chia, 2004), ASSIST was administered in its original English language. Confirmatory factor analysis appeared to be a powerful statistical technique to achieve the study goals (Bollen, 1989b).

Approaches to learning are derived from two bodies of work. Deep and surface approaches to learning were identified in Marton and Saljo’s (1976a, b) qualitative analysis of students’ reports of what they did when studying a specific academic text, whereas a strategic approach to learning was identified in Ramsden’s (1979) work. Approaches to learning have later been investigated quantitatively using different instruments to assess what a student usually does when they are involved in a specific learning task. A very substantial amount of empirical research and theory development in the field of student learning in higher education has been conducted in the last two decades (Biggs, 1999; Diseth, 2003;

Marton & Booth, 1997; Marton, Hounsell, & Entwistle, 1997). Table (1) shows characteristics, learner intention, motivation and main strategy for the approaches to learning.

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Because Students with a strategic approach have no distinct learning strategy, it is possible to combine a strategic approach with either a surface, or a deep one with respect to strategies (Biggs, 1987c), but with the motivation of maximization of grades, rather than interest in ideas or avoiding failure. Although the approach was originally proposed as a third category. Some evidences has recently found that it is better to be integrated into the other two approaches (see for example; Justicia, Pichardo, Cano, Berbén, & De la Fuente, 2008).

A relation between approaches to learning and measures of student learning (e.g. grade) is well established (Betoret & Artiga, 2011; Biggs, Kember, & Leung, 2001; Byrne, Flood, & Wills, 2004; Davidson, 2002; Diseth, Pallesen, Brunborg & Larsen, 2010; Trigwell & Prosser, 1991), therefore it could be used as an evidence of the predictive validity of the approaches to learning instruments. Researches generally found a relation between approaches to learning in higher education and quality of student learning (Biggs, Kember, & Leung, 2001; Trigwell & Prosser, 1991; Watkins, 1983). A deep approach was found to be associated with high quality of student learning, whereas surface learning was found to be related to poor learning outcomes (Biggs, Kember, & Leung, 2001; Marton & Saljo, 1976a;

Trigwell & Prosser, 1991). Positive correlations between the strategic approach and achievement have been found (Entwistle & Ramsden, 1982; Byrne, Flood, & Willis, 2002), as well as negative ones between the surface approach and achievement (Entwistle & Ramsden, 1982; Booth, Luckett, & Mladenovic,1999).

Estructura Factorial y Validez Predictora del cuestionario "Approaches and Study Skills Inventory for Students" en Egipto:

Aproximación por Análisis Factorial Confirmatorio

Measuring Approaches to Learning

A number of instruments have been developed to measure students’ approaches to learning. These instruments measure what the student usually does when approaching a learning situation. In Australia, Biggs (1987c) designed the study process questionnaire (SPQ) for college level students and its school-level companion, the learning process questionnaire (LPQ, Biggs, 1987a; Biggs et al., 2001; Justicia et al., 2008). Weinstein, Schulte and Palmer (1987) have developed Learning and Study Strategies Inventory (LASSI).

In Britain, Entwistle and Ramsden (1982) developed the approaches to studying inventory (ASI), which is a widely used questionnaire to assess student learning in higher education (Richardson, 2000). However, some studies have found that ASI scores had a limited reliability and validity and troubles in reproducing the intended three-factor structure (Harper & Kember 1989; Tait, Entwistle, & McCune, 1998). To avoid these limitations in ASI, Tait, Entwistle, and McCune (1998) have developed the approaches to study skills inventory for students (ASSIST) after extensive research. The instrument used in the current study is the most recent revision of ASSIST (Entwistle, 2000). This version appears to possess appropriate psychometric properties. Furthermore, a three-factor structure (surface, deep, and strategic) has been supported for ASSIST using first-year British university students (Entwistle, 2000).

The factorial structure of ASSIST has been studied in various samples and cultures, with evidences of plausibility of the reproduction of its intended three-factor structure.

Entwistle, Tait, and McCune (2000) compared the plausibility of the three-factor solution across English, Scottish, and South African university students and found no major differences in terms of factor structures among the three samples. However, many subscales have been cross-loaded. A Norwegian version of ASSIST has been validated (Diseth, 2001) and the expected three-factors were reproduced. However, two of the subscales failed to load appropriately on the strategic approach. When omitting these subscales, the factor analysis was better supported by the three-factor solution. Many subscales, such as achieving, time management, and fear of failure were cross-loaded as well. Recently ASSIST has been validated using Flemish and Chinese university students (Chang, Martin, & Tammy, 2008).

Results again supported the three-factor structure of ASSIST across the two cultural groups.

Gadelrab, H.F.

Richardson (1995), in a study of students at the university of the South Pacific, has concluded that approaches to studying are culture specific, therefore one should be cautious about using approaches to learning instruments in non-western cultures. In this context, Berberogula and Hei (2003) have investigated university students’ approaches to learning across Turkey and Taiwan using an older version of the ASSIST, the ASI. They found significant differences between students in both cultures in all instrument dimensions. Prior to this study, no attempt has been made to investigate the factorial structure of ASSIST in the Arabic culture.

The present study hypotheses

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