FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Theses, dissertations, documentation

Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 6 | 7 || 9 | 10 |   ...   | 31 |

«AmericAn neighborhoods: inclusion And exclusion Volume 16, Number 3 • 2014 U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development | Office of Policy ...»

-- [ Page 8 ] --

Not all benefits of diversity are predicated on cross-group interaction, however. It may be enough for residents to have access to a similar set of amenities and resources (Joseph et al., 2007), which, in many ways, is true in the South End. Residents have access to a broader set of amenities than they might have in a more homogenous neighborhood. Access does not necessarily entail use, however. Lower income and minority residents were priced out of many amenities in the South End and did not feel welcome in places frequented by more advantaged residents. They felt a clear sense of not belonging and relative deprivation, which resulted in resentment of affluent residents in the neighborhood. On the other side, more affluent residents did not feel welcome in places frequented by less advantaged residents, which also led them to avoid those spaces: they did not send their children to local schools, go to certain parks, or walk down particular streets near low-income housing complexes or homeless shelters.

The South End has been economically diverse for nearly 30 years and has been racially diverse for even longer. Despite this stability, the dynamics observed in the South End are similar in many ways to the dynamics observed in gentrifying communities and in newer planned mixed-income developments that have much shorter histories of diversity. Lower income residents of the stably diverse South End perceived benefits in terms of safety but mixed benefits in terms of social control—personally feeling safer yet also feeling greater surveillance—and institutional investment—appreciating the density of retail investment but also feeling priced out (Chapple and Jacobus, 2009; Freeman, 2006; Tach, 2009)—and little benefit in terms of upward mobility (Ludwig et al., 2013). Unlike those studied in previous literature (Putman, 2007), however, higher income residents in the South End also perceived that proximity to diversity made them more tolerant. Despite these perceptions, residents reported little actual integration of institutions and organizations that might promote meaningful cross-group contact. Instead, the key difference between the South End and other newly diverse communities appears to be the extent of organizational differentiation and development, which serves diverse resident interests but also tends to reinforce the segmentation of neighborhood life.

Of course, the data in this study are limited in several ways that preclude strong statements about the consequences of diversity. First, the data are based on a small, albeit geographically and demographically diverse, sample, and it is likely that those who agreed to participate in

Cityscape 39Tach

the study are more involved in the community than those who did not. The use of interview data and respondent self-reports also means that I may have a biased picture of residents’ actual behaviors, although triangulating results with data from stakeholders and from participant observation help to overcome this shortcoming. In addition, the role of organizations and associations emerged as an important finding, but this study was not a formal study of organizations, which would require a different study design. Finally, the South End is somewhat unusual in the coexistence of extreme affluence and extreme poverty and in its density of services and housing for poor residents, owing to its unique location and history. Thus, the dynamics that promoted stable racial and economic diversity in the South End may be difficult to apply to other locations.

In many ways, the South End embodies both the promises and the challenges of maintaining stable diversity. Even when residents appreciate diversity and recognize the organizational and cultural richness that it produces, diverse communities are also microcosms of broader social inequalities. Neighborhood integration may solve some problems associated with large-scale social exclusion while creating new problems associated with microsegregation. Microsegregation was easiest to overcome when neighbors had something in common interpersonally or when organizations designed low-cost events of interest to broad segments of the population.

When multiple forms of social difference overlapped, as was often the case, interactions were limited and exclusion was exacerbated. This exclusion makes it particularly challenging to maintain positive social dynamics in neighborhoods with multiple forms of diversity and suggests a key role for community organizations to serve as bridging organizations that facilitate such cross-group interaction.

Acknowledgments The author thanks Melissa Giangrande and Dwight Pope for superb research assistance and acknowledges financial support from a National Science Foundation Doctoral Dissertation Research Improvement Grant and a research grant from the Real Estate Academic Initiative at Harvard University.

Author Laura M. Tach is an assistant professor in the Department of Policy Analysis and Management at Cornell University.


Acevedo-Garcia, Dolores, and Theresa L. Osypuk. 2008. “Impacts of Housing and Neighborhoods on Health: Pathways, Racial/Ethnic Disparities, and Policy Directions.” In Segregation:

The Rising Costs for America, edited by James H. Carr and Nandinee K. Kutty. New York:

Routledge: 197–236.

Allport, Gordon. 1954. The Nature of Prejudice. New York: Basic Books.

–  –  –

Aronson, Elliot, Diane L. Bridgeman, and Robert Geffner. 1978. “The Effects of a Cooperative

Classroom Structure on Students’ Behavior and Attitudes.” In Social Psychology of Education:

Theory and Research, edited by Daniel Bar-Tal and Leonard Saxe. New York: Halstead Press:


Blalock, Hubert M. 1967. Toward a Theory of Minority-Group Relations. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Blumer, Herbert. 1958. “Race Prejudice As a Sense of Group Position,” Pacific Sociological Review 1: 3–7.

Bobo, Lawrence D. 1999. “Prejudice As Group Position: Microfoundations of a Sociological Approach to Racism and Race Relations,” Journal of Social Issues 55: 445–472.

Breitbart, Myrna Margulies, and Ellen J. Pader. 1995. “Establishing Ground: Representing Gender and Race in a Mixed Housing Development,” Gender, Place and Culture 2 (1): 5–20.

Briggs, Xavier de Souza. 1998. “Brown Kids in White Suburbs: Housing Mobility and the Many Faces of Social Capital,” Housing Policy Debate 9: 177–221.

———. 1997. “Moving Up Versus Moving Out: Neighborhood Effects in Housing Mobility Programs,” Housing Policy Debate 8 (1): 195–234.

Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne, Greg J. Duncan, and J. Lawrence Aber. 1997. Neighborhood Poverty, Volume II: Policy Implications in Studying Neighborhoods. New York: Russell Sage.

Brophy, Paul C., and Rhonda Smith. 1997. “Mixed Income Housing: Factors for Success,” Cityscape 3 (2): 3–31.

Brower, Sidney. 2009. The Feasibility of Mixed-Income Communities. University of Maryland.

Presented at the international symposium jointly organized by the International Association for People-Environment Studies-Centre for a Sustainable Built Environment (IAPS-CSBE) Network and the IAPS Housing Network, Istanbul, Turkey, October.

Buron, Larry E., Susan J. Popkin, Diane K. Levy, Laura E. Harris, and Jill Khadduri. 2002. The HOPE VI Resident Tracking Study: A Snapshot of the Current Living Situation of Original Residents From Eight Sites. Washington, DC: Urban Institute.

Campbell, Karen E., and Barrett A. Lee. 1992. “Sources of Personal Neighbor Networks: Social Integration, Need, or Time?” Social Forces 70: 1077–1100.

Chapple, Karen, and Rick Jacobus. 2009. “Retail Trade As a Route to Neighborhood Revitalization.” In Urban and Regional Policy and Its Effects, edited by Nancy Pindus, Howard Wial, and Harold Wolman. Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution; Urban Institute: 19–68.

Chaskin, Robert, Amy Khare, and Mark Joseph. 2012. “Participation, Deliberation, and Exclusion: The Dynamics of Inclusion and Exclusion in Mixed-Income Developments,” Urban Affairs Review 48 (6): 1–44.

–  –  –

Chaskin, Robert J., and Mark L. Joseph. 2013. “‘Positive’ Gentrification, Social Control, and the ‘Right to the City’ in Mixed-Income Communities: Uses and Expectations of Space and Place,” International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 37 (2): 480–502.

———. 2011. “Social Interaction in Mixed-Income Developments: Relational Expectations and Emerging Reality,” Journal of Urban Affairs 33 (2): 209–237.

———. 2010. “Building Community in Mixed-Income Developments: Assumptions, Approaches, and Early Experiences,” Urban Affairs Review 45 (3): 299–335.

Cook, Stuart W. 1990. “Toward a Psychology of Improving Justice,” Journal of Social Issues 46:


Deener, Andrew. 2012. Venice: A Contested Bohemia in Los Angeles. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Ellen, Ingrid Gould. 2000. Sharing America’s Neighborhoods: The Prospects for Stable Racial Integration. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Ellen, Ingrid Gould, and Margery Turner. 1997. “Does Neighborhood Matter? Assessing Recent Evidence,” Housing Policy Debate 8 (4): 833–866.

Elliott, Delbert S., William J. Wilson, David Huizinga, Robert J. Sampson, Amanda Elliott, and Bruce Rankin. 1996. “The Effects of Neighborhood Disadvantage on Adolescent Development,” Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 33: 389–426.

Freeman, Lance. 2006. There Goes the ’Hood: Views of Gentrification From the Ground Up. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

Gaertner, Samuel L., John F Dovidio, Phyllis A. Anastasio, Betty A. Bachman, and Mary C.


Rust. 1993. “The Common In-Group Identity Model: Recategorization and the Reduction of Intergroup Bias,” European Review of Social Psychology 4: 1–26.

Goodman, Phebe S. 1994. Boston’s South End Squares: Inventory, Analysis, Recommendations.

Boston: Phebe Goodman.

Granovetter, Mark. 1973. “The Strength of Weak Ties,” The American Journal of Sociology 78 (6): 1360–1380.

Green, James. 1975. The South End. Boston: Boston 200 Neighborhood History Series.

Harding, David J. 2010. Living the Drama: Community, Conflict, and Culture Among Inner-City Boys. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Hogan, James B. 1996. Scattered-Site Housing: Characteristics and Consequences. HUD-7470.

Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, Office of Policy Development and Research.

Jacobs, Jane. 1961. The Death and Life of Great American Cities. New York: Random House.

Janowitz, Morris. 1952. The Community Press in an Urban Setting. Glencoe, IL: Free Press.

–  –  –

Jargowsky, Paul. 1996. “Take the Money and Run: Economic Segregation in US Metropolitan Areas,” American Sociological Review 61 (6): 984–998.

Jencks, Christopher, and Susan E. Mayer. 1990. “The Social Consequences of Growing Up in a Poor Neighborhood.” In Inner-City Poverty in the United States, edited by Lawrence E. Lynn, Jr., and Michael G.H. McGreary. Washington, DC: National Academies Press: 111–186.

Joseph, Mark. 2008. “Early Resident Experiences at a New Mixed-Income Development in Chicago,” Journal of Urban Affairs 30 (3): 229–257.

Joseph, Mark L., Robert J. Chaskin, and Henry S. Webber. 2007. “The Theoretical Basis for

Addressing Poverty Through Mixed-Income Development,” Urban Affairs Review 42 (3):


Kennedy, Lawrence W. 1992. Planning the City Upon a Hill: Boston Since 1630. Amherst, MA:

University of Massachusetts Press.

Keyes, Langley. 1969. The Rehabilitation Planning Game: A Study in the Diversity of Neighborhood. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

King, Mel. 1981. Chain of Change: Struggles for Black Community Development. Boston: South End Press.

Kleit, Rachel Garshick. 2005. “HOPE VI New Communities: Neighborhood Relationships in Mixed-Income Housing,” Environment and Planning A 37: 1413–1441.

———. 2001a. “The Role of Neighborhood Social Networks in Scattered-Site Public Housing Residents’ Search for Jobs,” Housing Policy Debate 12: 541–574.

———. 2001b. “Neighborhood Relations in Scattered-Site and Clustered Public Housing,” Journal of Urban Affairs 23: 409–430.

Lee, Barrett A., Karen E. Campbell, and Oscar Miller. 1991. “Racial Differences in Urban Neighboring,” Sociological Forum 6 (3): 525–550.

Long, Jack M., James J. Lynch, N. M. Machiran, Sue A. Thomas, and Kenneth L. Malinow.

1982. “The Effect of Status on Blood Pressure During Verbal Communication,” Journal of Behavioral Medicine 5: 165–171.

Ludwig, Jens, Greg J. Duncan, Lisa A. Gennetian, Lawrence F Katz, Ronald C. Kessler, Jeffrey.

R. Kling, and Lisa Sanbonmatsu. 2013. Long-Term Neighborhood Effects on Low-Income Families: Evidence From Moving to Opportunity. NBER Working Paper No. 18772. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research.

Lukas, Anthony. 1985. Common Ground: A Turbulent Decade in the Lives of Three American Families. New York: Vintage Books.

Luttmer, Erzo. 2005. “Neighbors As Negatives: Relative Earnings and Well-Being,” The Quarterly Journal of Economics 120 (3): 963–1002.

–  –  –

Maly, Michael. 2008. Beyond Segregation: Multiracial and Multiethnic Neighborhoods in the United States. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

Massey, Douglas, and Nancy Denton. 1993. American Apartheid: Segregation and the Making of the Underclass. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

McCormick, Naomi, Mark L. Joseph, and Robert J. Chaskin. 2012. “The New Stigma of Relocated Public Housing Residents: Challenges to Social Identity in Mixed-Income Developments,” City & Community 11 (3): 285–308.

Mollenkopf, John. 1983. The Contested City. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Nyden, Philip, John Lukehart, Michael T. Maly, and William Peterman. 1998. “Neighborhood Racial and Ethnic Diversity in U.S. Cities,” Cityscape 4 (2): 1–17.

Oliver, Melvin L., and Thomas M. Shapiro. 1997. Black Wealth/White Wealth: A New Perspective on Racial Inequality. New York: Routledge.

Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 6 | 7 || 9 | 10 |   ...   | 31 |

Similar works:

«NORTH AMERICAN POLICY ADMINISTRATION SYSTEMS PROPERTY & CASUALTY, GENERAL, AND SPECIALTY LINES ABCD VENDOR VIEW Karlyn Carnahan and Donald Light January 2016 This authorized reprint contains material from a recent Celent report profiling North American P&C policy administration systems. The report was not sponsored by Accenture in any way. For more information on the full report, please contact Celent at info@celent.com. CONTENTS Executive Summary Introduction Policy Administration Systems:...»

«2016 HANDBOOK OF IMF FACILITIES FOR LOWINCOME COUNTRIES March 2016 IMF staff regularly produces papers proposing new IMF policies, exploring options for reform, or reviewing existing IMF policies and operations. The Report prepared by IMF staff and completed on February 22, 2016 has been released. The staff report was issued to the Executive Board for information. The report was prepared by IMF staff. The views expressed in this paper are those of the IMF staff and do not necessarily represent...»

«FIPS 140-2, BlockMaster Document Version: 1.3 BlockMaster BM-C1000 FIPS 140-2 Security Policy, Level 2 Revision Date: 19th of April 2011. Firmware Version 4.0 Hardware versions: BM-C1000-01, BM-C1000-02, BM-C1000-04, BM-C1000-08, BM-C1000-16, BM-C1000-32, BM-C1000-64 BM-C1000 Device ©Copyright 2011, BlockMaster. This document may be freely reproduced and distributed whole and intact including this copyright notice. FIPS 140-2, BlockMaster Document Version: 1.3 Table of Contents 1 Introduction...»

«The Song Remains the Same: Converging views on a Rising China Introduction A key problem that has been identified as being central to the deliberations of this book is that of “excessive bipartisanship” in foreign policy-making in modern, and largely western, liberal democracies. Why is it that the so-called “marketplace of ideas” inherent in mature democracies provides for a seemingly limited set of foreign policy options? Why do incumbent governments and their oppositions often...»

«Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited Case #04-0985 MTR 0 4B00 000 17 MITR E TECHN IC AL R EPORT Confirmation Bias in Complex Analyses October 2004 Brant A. Cheikes† Mark J. Brown Paul E. Lehner Leonard Adelman‡ Sponsor: MITRE Sponsored Research Dept. No.: G062 Project No.: 51MSR114-A4 The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. The MITRE Corporation and should not be construed as an official...»

«LIVESTOCK GROSS MARGIN FOR DAIRY CATTLE INSURANCE POLICY QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 1. Q: What is the Livestock Gross Margin for Dairy Cattle Insurance Policy? A: The Livestock Gross Margin for Dairy Cattle Insurance Policy provides protection against the loss of gross margin (market value of milk minus feed costs) on the milk produced from dairy cows. The indemnity at the end of the eleven-month insurance period is the difference, if positive, between the gross margin guarantee and the actual gross...»

«centre for analysis of risk and regulation An ESRC Research Centre Analyzing Public Management Policy Cycles in the European Commission: Oversight of Budget Control and the Integrated Internal Control Framework Michael Barzelay, Roger Levy and Antonio Martin Porras Gomez DISCUSSION PAPER NO: 65 DATE: August 2010 Analyzing Public Management Policy Cycles in the European Commission: Oversight of Budget Control and the Integrated Internal Control Framework Michael Barzelay, Roger Levy and Antonio...»

«Manual on the Development of Cleaner Production Policies— Approaches and Instruments Guidelines for National Cleaner Production Centres and Programmes Vienna, October 2002 UNIDO CP Programme prepared by: Mr. Pawel Kazmierczyk (UNIDO CP Policy Consultant) under the direction of Ms. Mayra Regina Sanchez Osuna and Ms. Petra Schwager-Quijano Cleaner Production and Environmental Management Branch Programme Development and Technical Cooperation Division, UNIDO Table of Contents: BACKGROUND AND...»

«Critical Social Thinking: Policy and Practice, Vol. 2, 2010 School of Applied Social Studies, University College Cork, Ireland Review Essay Raising Princesses? Gender socialisation in early childhood and the Disney Princess franchise Ashlee Hynes, BA (Early Childhood Studies) This essay is an exploration of some of the messages portrayed to children through the Disney Princess franchise about gender roles. Gender socialisation processes in relation to the Disney Princess brand are reviewed with...»

«BAHRAIN EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Bahrain is a monarchy. Noncitizens make up slightly more than half of the population. King Hamad Bin Isa Al-Khalifa, the head of state, appoints the cabinet of ministers; approximately half are members of the Sunni Al-Khalifa ruling family. The parliament consists of an appointed upper house (the Shura Council) and the elected Council of Representatives. Approximately 17 percent of eligible voters participated in parliamentary by-elections on September 24. Independent...»

«RESEARCH PAPERS Centre for Cultural Policy Studies University of Warwick Research Papers No 8 Series Editors: Oliver Bennett and Jeremy Ahearne The Methodological Challenge of Cross-National Research: comparing cultural policy in Britain and Italy Eleonora Belfiore Research Fellow Centre for Cultural Policy Studies TABLE OF CONTENTS Abstract 3 INTRODUCTION 3 THE USE AND ABUSE OF CULTURAL STATISTICS IN CROSS-NATIONAL RESEARCH 4 CULTURAL POLICY ACROSS NATIONAL BOUNDARIES: THE “MODELS OF...»

«Sociological Frameworks for Higher Education Policy Research Michael N. Bastedo Assistant Professor of Education Center for the Study of Higher and Postsecondary Education University of Michigan Book chapter prepared for Patricia J. Gumport (Ed.), The Sociology of Higher Education: Contributions and Their Contexts (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2006). Draft 2: July 31, 2005 Michael N. Bastedo is an assistant professor in the Center for the Study of Higher and Postsecondary...»

<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2016 www.theses.xlibx.info - Theses, dissertations, documentation

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.