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«DiscoVeriNg HomelessNess Volume 13, Number 1 • 2011 U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development | Office of Policy Development and Research ...»

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66 Discovering Homelessness From Exclusion to Destitution: Race, Affordable Housing, and Homelessness Johnson, Roberta A. 2010. “African-Americans and Homelessness: Moving Through History,” Journal of Black Studies 40 (4): 583–605.

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Massey, Douglas S., and Nancy A. Denton. 1988. “The Dimensions of Residential Segregation,” Social Forces 67 (2): 281–315.

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Rosenbaum, Emily. 1996. “Racial/Ethnic Differences in Home Ownership and Housing Quality, 1991,” Social Problems 43 (4): 403–426.

Rossi, Peter H. 1989a. Without Shelter: Homelessness in the 1980s. Twentieth Century Fund Paper.

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––––. 1989b. Down and Out in America: The Origins of Homelessness. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

Shinn, Marybeth, and Colleen Gillespie. 1994. “The Roles of Housing and Poverty in the Origins of Homelessness,” American Behavioral Scientist 37 (4): 505–521.

Shlay, Anne B., and Peter H. Rossi. 1992. “Social-Science Research and Contemporary Studies of Homelessness,” Annual Review of Sociology 18: 129–160.

Stacey, William A. 1972. Black Home Ownership: A Sociological Case Study of Metropolitan Jacksonville. New York: Praeger.

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Wright, James D., Beth A. Rubin, and Joel A. Devine. 1998. Beside the Golden Door: Policy, Politics, and the Homeless. New York: Aldine de Gruyter.

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Additional Reading Aiken, Leona S., and Stephen G. West. 1991. Multiple Regressions: Testing and Interpreting Interactions. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.

Babbie, Earl. 2001. The Practice of Social Research, 9th edition. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Thomson Learning.

Bullard, Robert D., and Charles Lee. 1994. “Introduction: Racism and American Apartheid.” In Residential Apartheid: The American Legacy, edited by Robert D. Bullard, J. Eugene Grigsby, III, and Charles Lee. Los Angeles: CAAS Publications.

Clark, William A.V. 1991. “Residential Preferences and Neighborhood Racial Segregation: A Test of the Schelling Segregation Model,” Demography 28 (1): 1–19.

Conley, Dalton. 1999. Being Black, Living in the Red: Race, Wealth, and Social Policy in America.

Berkeley: University of California Press.

Farley, Reynolds, and William H. Frey. 1994. “Changes in the Segregation of Whites From Blacks During the 1980s: Small Steps Toward a More Integrated Society,” American Sociological Review 59 (1): 23–45.

Farley, Reynolds, Howard Schuman, Suzanne Bianchi, Diane Colasanto, and Shirley Hatchett.

1978. “‘Chocolate City, Vanilla Suburbs’: Will the Trend Toward Racially Separate Communities Continue?” Social Science Research 7 (4): 319–344.

Feagin, Joe R. 1994. “A House Is Not a Home: White Racism and U.S. Housing Practices.” In Residential Apartheid: The American Legacy, edited by Robert D. Bullard, J. Eugene Grigsby, III, and Charles Lee. Los Angeles: CAAS Publications.

Gilens, Martin. 1999. Why Americans Hate Welfare: Race, Media, and the Politics of Antipoverty Policy.

Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Gove, Walter, and Michael Hughes. 1983. Overcrowding in the Household. New York: Academic Press.

Hawley, Amos H., and Vincent P. Rock, eds. 1973. Segregation in Residential Areas: Papers on Racial and Socioeconomic Factors in Choice of Housing. Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences.

Hays, R. Allen, ed. 1993. Ownership, Control, and the Future of Housing Policy. Westport, CT:

Greenwood Press.

He, Yinghua, Brendan O’Flaherty, and Robert A. Rosenheck. 2010. “Is Shared Housing a Way To Reduce Homelessness? The Effect of Household Arrangement on Formerly Homeless People,” Journal of Housing Economics 19: 1–12.

Jaccard, James, Robert Turrisi, and Choi K. Wan. 1990. Interaction Effects in Multiple Regression.

Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.

68 Discovering Homelessness From Exclusion to Destitution: Race, Affordable Housing, and Homelessness Jackman, Mary R., and Robert W. Jackman. 1980. “Racial Inequalities in Home Ownership,” Social Forces 58 (4): 1221–1234.

Jasper, James M. 1998. “The Emotions of Protest: Affective and Reactive Emotions in and Around Social Movements,” Sociological Forum 13 (3): 397–424.

Kain, John F., and John M. Quigley. 1975. Housing Markets and Racial Discrimination: A Microeconomic Analysis. New York: National Bureau of Economic Research.

Krivo, Lauren J., Ruth D. Peterson, Helen Rizzo, and John R. Reynolds. 1998. “Race, Segregation, and the Concentration of Disadvantage: 1980–1990,” Social Problems 45 (1): 61–80.

Kusmer, Kenneth L. 2002. Down and Out, On the Road: The Homeless in American History. Oxford, United Kingdom, and New York: Oxford University Press.

Logan, John R., and Harvey L. Molotch. 1987. Urban Fortunes: The Political Economy of Place.

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Long, James E., and Steven B. Caudill. 1992. “Racial Differences in Homeownership and Housing Wealth, 1970–1986,” Economic Inquiry 30 (1): 83–100.

Massey, Douglas S. 1985. “Ethnic Residential Segregation: A Theoretical Synthesis and Empirical Review,” Sociology and Social Research 69: 315–50.

Massey, Douglas S., Gretchen A. Condran, and Nancy A. Denton. 1987. “The Effect of Residential Segregation on Black Social and Economic Well-Being,” Social Forces 66 (1): 29–56.

Massey, Douglas S., and Nancy A. Denton. 1993. American Apartheid: Segregation and the Making of Underclass. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Massey, Douglas S., and Eric Fong. 1990. “Segregation and Neighborhood Quality: Blacks, Hispanics, and Asians in the San Francisco Area,” Social Forces 69 (1): 15–32.

Massey, Douglas S., Andrew B. Gross, and Kumiko Shibuya. 1994. “Migration, Segregation, and the Geographic Concentration of Poverty,” American Sociological Review 59: 425–445.

Meyer, Stephen G. 2000. As Long As They Don’t Move Next Door: Segregation and Conflict in American Neighborhoods. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.

Oliver, Melvin L., and Thomas M. Shapiro. 1997. Black Wealth/White Wealth: A New Perspective on Racial Inequality. New York: Routledge.

Ong, Paul M., and J. Eugene Grigsby, III. 1988. “Race and Life-Cycle Effects on Home Ownership in Los Angeles, 1970 to 1980,” Urban Affairs Quarterly 23 (4): 601–615.

Parcel, Toby L. 1982. “Wealth Accumulation of Black and White Men: The Case of Housing Equity,” Social Problems 30 (2): 199–211.

Roistacher, Elizabeth A., and John L. Goodman, Jr. 1976. “Race and Home Ownership: Is Discrimination Disappearing?” Economic Inquiry 14: 59–70.

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Rosenthal, Robert. 1994. Homeless in Paradise: A Map of the Terrain. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

Schelling, Thomas C. 1971. “Dynamic Models of Segregation,” Journal of Mathematical Sociology 1: 143–186.

Snow, David A., and Robert D. Benford. 1988. “Ideology, Frame Resonance and Participant Mobilization,” International Social Movement Research 1: 197–217.

Struyk, Raymond J. 1976. Urban Homeownership. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.

Taeuber, Karl E., and Alma F. Taeuber. 1965. Negroes in Cities: Residential Segregation and Neighborhood Change. Chicago: Aldine Publishing Company.

Taggart, Harriet, and Kevin Smith. 1981. “Redlining: An Assessment of the Evidence in Metropolitan Boston,” Urban Affairs Quarterly 17 (1): 91–107.

Takahashi, Lois M. 1998. Homelessness, AIDS, and Stigmatization: The NIMBY Syndrome in the United States at the End of the Twentieth Century. Oxford, United Kingdom: Clarendon Press.

––––. 1997. “The Socio-Spatial Stigmatization of Homelessness and HIV/AIDS: Toward an Explanation of the NIMBY Syndrome,” Social Science and Medicine 45 (6): 903–914.

Takahashi, Lois M., and Sharon Lord Gaber. 1998. “Controversial Facility Siting in the Urban Environment: Resident and Planner Perceptions in the United States,” Environment and Behavior 30 (2): 184–215.

U.S. Census Bureau. 2000. The American Housing Survey National Microdata: 1997. CD-ROM.

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Wagner, David. 1993. Checkerboard Square: Culture and Resistance in a Homeless Community.

Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Wolch, Jennifer, and Michael Dear. 1993. Malign Neglect: Homelessness in an American City. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.

Wright, Talmadge. 1997. Out of Place: Homeless Mobilizations, Subcities, and Contested Landscapes.

Albany: State University of New York Press.

70 Discovering Homelessness

From Street Life to Housing:

Consumer and Provider Perspectives on Service Delivery and Access to Housing Tatjana Meschede Brandeis University Abstract The goal of this qualitative study was to demonstrate the achievements and failures of services that attempt to reach those most likely to be left out of the homeless-services delivery model—the chronically homeless street population. In 36 interviews with current and former chronically homeless street dwellers and the people who serve them, this study analyzed the service needs of chronically homeless street dwellers and the successes and failures of street-based medical and substance abuse services intersecting with the predominant continuum-of-care (CoC) model for homeless individuals, thus connecting chronically homeless street dwellers with services and housing. Using Grounded Theory as the guiding principle for analysis (Strauss and Corbin, 1998), the results of this study emphasize important differences between providers’ and consumers’ perceptions and theories on homelessness, service needs of homeless street dwellers, and service provision. Program and policy recommendations for ending chronic homelessness include the need to increase the affordable housing stock, enhance support systems for successful transition to housing and continuous support, and reduce bureaucratic barriers to housing.

Cityscape 71 Cityscape: A Journal of Policy Development and Research • Volume 13, Number 1 • 2011 U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development • Office of Policy Development and Research Meschede Introduction A large proportion of the homeless population (about 80 percent) is able to move back into housing within a short time (Kuhn and Culhane, 1998). But some among them struggle for many years, adapting their lifestyle to the streets and facing numerous barriers to leaving their homeless plight behind. Years of life on the streets, accompanied by malnutrition, lack of health care, and most often also extensive substance abuse, take a toll on their health and place them at increased risk of death (Hwang, 2000). Because of the multiple problems these chronically homeless individuals face, as a group, they use up to one-half of all homeless-services resources (Kuhn and Culhane, 1998). The prominent public policy response is incremental: providing services aimed at reducing the harm evoked by experiencing homelessness for unsheltered individuals rather than comprehensively addressing its root causes. Similar to other U.S. social policies, U.S. programs for homelessness lack a comprehensive system of care (DiNitto, 2000).

Focusing on street-based medical and substance-abuse services, the primary purpose of this qualitative study was to assess the contribution of these services in connecting chronically homeless street dwellers at risk of death to housing. Although the quantitative analysis of this research project points to a very small effect of these services on housing outcomes (Meschede, 2010), this qualitative research aims to answer the following four questions to illuminate the experience of

providers and street dwellers contributing to these small effects:

1. What are homeless-services providers’ theories of homelessness and assumptions about how their services may improve the housing, health, psychiatric disability, and employment of the street homeless?

2. What factors enable homeless street dwellers to attain and maintain housing?

3. What are the barriers to connecting homeless street dwellers with services so that they can better attain and maintain housing?

4. What changes in the service delivery approach for homeless street dwellers at risk of death would improve housing and other outcomes?

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