WWW.THESES.XLIBX.INFO
FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Theses, dissertations, documentation
 
<< HOME
CONTACTS



Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 42 | 43 || 45 | 46 |   ...   | 56 |

«Moving to opportunity voluMe 14, nuMber 2 • 2012 U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development | Office of Policy Development and Research ...»

-- [ Page 44 ] --

Golledge, Reginald G., and Robert J. Stimson. 1997. Spatial Behavior: A Geographic Perspective. New York: Guilford Press.

Hillery, George A. 1955. “Definitions of Community: Areas of Agreement,” Rural Sociology 20:

111–123.

Hipp, John R. 2007. “Block, Tract, and Levels of Aggregation: Neighborhood Structure and Crime and Disorder as a Case in Point,” American Sociological Review 72: 659–680.

Hunter, Albert. 1979. “The Urban Neighborhood: Its Analytical and Social Contexts,” Urban Affairs Quarterly 14: 267–288.

———. 1975. “The Loss of Community: An Empirical Test Through Replication,” American Sociological Review 40: 537–552.

———. 1974. Symbolic Communities. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Keller, Suzanne. 1968. The Urban Neighborhood. New York: Random House.

Lee, Terrence. 1970. “Urban Neighborhood as Social-Spatial Schema.” In Environmental Psychology:

Man and His Physical Setting, edited by Harold M. Proshansky, William H. Ittleson, and Leanne G.

Rivlin. New York: Holt, Rhinehart, and Winston: 349–370.

Logan, John R., and Harvey L. Molotch. 1987. Urban Fortunes. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Lynch, Kevin. 1960. The Image of the City. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

McKenzie, Roderick Duncan. 1923. The Neighborhood: A Study of Local Life in the City of Columbus, Ohio. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

–  –  –

Oliver, Lisa. 2001. “Shifting Boundaries, Shifting Results: The Modifiable Areal Unit Problem.

Lectures for Graduate GIS Seminar (Geogaphy 570), 2001.” Available at http://www.geog.ubc.ca/ courses/geog570/talks_2001/scale_maup.html.

Openshaw, S., and P.J. Taylor. 1979. “A Million or So Correlation Coefficients.” In Statistical Methods in the Spatial Sciences, edited by Neil Wrigley. London, United Kingdom: Pion: 127–144.

Rengert, George F., and Brian Lockwood. 2009. “Geographical Units of Analysis and the Analysis of Crime.” In Putting Crime in Its Place, edited by David Weisburd, Wim Bernasco, and Gerben J.N.

Bruinsma. New York: Springer: 109–122.

Suttles, Gerald D. 1972. The Social Construction of Communities. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

———. 1968. The Social Order of the Slum. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Taniguchi, Travis A., Jerry H. Ratcliffe, and Ralph B. Taylor. 2011. “Gang Set Space, Drug Markets,

and Crime Around Drug Corners in Camden,” Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 48:

327–363.

Taylor, Ralph B. 2001. Breaking Away From Broken Windows: Evidence From Baltimore Neighborhoods and the Nationwide Fight Against Crime, Grime, Fear and Decline. New York: Westview Press.

———. 1997. “Social Order and Disorder of Streetblocks and Neighborhoods: Ecology, Microecology and the Systemic Model of Social Disorganization,” Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 33: 113–155.

Taylor, Ralph B., and Sidney Brower. 1985. “Home and Near-Home Territories.” In Human Behavior and Environment: Current Theory and Research, Vol. 8, edited by Irwin Altman and Carol M. Werner. New York: Plenum: 183–212.

Taylor, Ralph B., Stephen D. Gottfredson, and Sidney Brower. 1984. “Neighborhood Naming as an Index of Attachment to Place,” Population and Environment 7: 101–111.

Wilson, Ronald E. 2007. “The Impact of Software on Crime Mapping,” Social Science Computer Review 20: 1–8.

230 Point of Contention: Defining Neighborhoods Defining Neighborhoods for Research and Policy Claudia Coulton Case Western Reserve University Introduction The neighborhood is a social and geographic concept that plays an increasingly important role in research, policymaking decisions, and practice that address disparities in the well-being of urban populations. Research on neighborhood effects is burgeoning, with an increasing number of policies being directed at reducing disparities through place-based initiatives. Most studies of neighborhoods and community initiatives geared toward neighborhood improvement, however, make simplifying assumptions about boundaries. Most studies rely on census geography or political jurisdictions to operationalize the neighborhood units. Conversely, theories about the interactions between residents and their neighborhoods are seldom simple. Among the many pathways of influence, it is often assumed that social and psychological processes are at work within a place. The effect these processes have on one another occurs when residents interact with their surrounding context or environment to give the place meaning (Sampson, Morenoff, and Gannon-Rowley, 2002; Shinn and Toohey, 2003). To the degree that neighborhood influence is predicated on residents’ experience in, exposure to, or perceptions of the place in which they live, critical examination of the appropriate delineation of the space designated as the neighborhood unit is important. If neighborhood units depart markedly from real-world experience, the result can be measurement error, misspecification of models, and the solving of practical problems by looking for results or effect in the wrong places.

Standard methods used to define and measure neighborhoods may falter when the methods assume that neighbors share similar perceptions of their neighborhood space or that neighborhood units are fixed or constant in their boundaries. Researchers need a set of spatially calibrated and resident-informed methods that allow variations in perception to be investigated and enable the neighborhood unit to be crafted so that it is optimally bounded regarding the assumptions and purposes of the study. They can use Geographic Information System (GIS) tools, illustrated in this article, to craft neighborhood units that are more useful and authentic for research, policy, and practice than the commonly used administrative boundaries.





Cityscape 231 Cityscape: A Journal of Policy Development and Research • Volume 14, Number 2 • 2012 U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development • Office of Policy Development and Research Coulton Background The problem of defining a neighborhood and the practical struggle of defining its boundaries has received critical attention in recent years (Downey, 2006; Galster, 2001; Nicotera, 2007). Conceptually, neighborhoods are not merely territory, but “social constructions named and bounded differently by numerous and diverse individuals” (Lee, Oropesa, and Kanan, 1994: 252). Individuals have agency regarding neighborhoods (Entwisle, 2007) and, when they move through their surroundings, they carve their own activity space that does not necessarily map onto arbitrary geographic boundaries (Sherman et al., 2005). Neighborhood boundaries are not static but often dynamic and contested, and social interaction shapes the meaning of places for individuals and groups (Gotham, 2003). Residents can embrace some of the surrounding space and disavow other parts of it, making it more or less relevant to their everyday lives (Gotham and Brumley, 2002).

Although residents may live in geographic proximity, it cannot be assumed that their perception of a neighborhood identity is the same (Coulton et al., 2001). In particular, relative position in the social structure, such as that dictated by age, race, class, or gender, may affect how someone evaluates a neighborhood (Burton, Price-Spratlen, and Spencer, 1997; Campbell et al., 2009;

Charles, 2000; Krysan, 2002; Sampson and Raudenbush, 2004). Moreover, neighborhoods themselves may differ in the degree to which they are identifiable, such as whether they have naturally occurring boundaries, demarcations, or commonly recognized neighborhood names (Taylor, 1988).

Although most researchers and practitioners acknowledge the importance of residents’ experience of neighborhood, the fact is that most substantive work relies on fixed units from administrative agencies such as the Census Bureau, city governments, or planning groups. Nevertheless, studies that examine resident perceptions confirm that considerable variation exists in how individuals view the size of their neighborhood and where they locate the boundaries (Campbell et al., 2009; Coulton et al., 2001; Lee and Campbell, 1997; Lohmann and McMurran, 2009; Pebley and Sastry, 2009).

Given this definitional ambiguity, it is important to further investigate residents’ perceptions and other factors affecting neighborhood identity and craft neighborhood units that are informed from their input.

Using GIS Tools in Specification of Neighborhoods for Research Neighborhoods are rooted in geography—the land, buildings, people, and organizations that compose the place—but research has often treated neighborhoods as units that are untethered to their spatial location. Increasingly, however, researchers are using GIS tools to investigate alternative neighborhood definitions and boundaries that can be informed by residents’ perceptions, spatial parameters, or features of the social and physical landscape.

Community Mapping Exercises A community mapping exercise is one technique that researchers have used to identify neighborhood boundaries. An illustration comes from the Annie E. Casey Foundation’s Making Connections program, a community change initiative in low-income sections of 10 cities that focused on 232 Point of Contention: Defining Neighborhoods Defining Neighborhoods for Research and Policy strengthening families and improving neighborhood conditions. Representative samples of adults in each community were asked to draw the boundaries of their neighborhoods as they viewed them onto GIS-generated cartographic maps. One use of these digitized maps was to uncover the core area of collectively defined neighborhoods (Coulton, Chan, and Mikelbank, 2011). This collective definition was made clear by grouping maps from residents who provided the same neighborhood name and then overlaying their maps to find areas of consensus. The blocks that were included in a plurality of resident maps were considered to be core parts of the neighborhood for the purposes of community identity. Local stakeholders reviewed the resulting neighborhood units and provided evidence of face validity of the resident-defined neighborhoods based on their understanding of the local context. These collectively defined neighborhoods were then used as the basis for aggregation of other survey data and block-level census data that yielded social and economic measures for the neighborhood.

Researchers can also use data from the community mapping exercise to create unique persondefined neighborhoods for each resident based on his or her own boundary definitions. For each person-defined neighborhood, the other survey respondents who lived inside the individual’s map were grouped. This made it possible to calculate aggregate scores on social and economic measures for each unique person neighborhood using the data from other residents. In addition, researchers used GIS tools to apportion census block level data into each unique person-defined neighborhood map. In this application of the community maps, it did not matter whether agreement was reached among the residents about neighborhood boundaries, because each person’s neighborhood was uniquely defined.

Person-Centric Buffers Researchers can also use GIS to define neighborhood units by drawing buffers of varying sizes around individuals’ residential locations. They then calculate variables of interest for these overlapping spaces, which enable them to test hypotheses that can further clarify the scale at which neighborhood influences operate. Evidence of the magnitude of contextual effects on some health outcomes is greater when researchers use these sliding, rather than census-defined, neighborhoods in statistical models (Chaix et al., 2005). Moreover, the optimal size of the buffer may depend on the particular neighborhood characteristic being modeled. Neighborhoods based on varying buffers avoid some of the criticisms of fixed neighborhood units, such as the concern that households at the edge of a fixed unit may be more influenced by the contiguous neighborhood than by households in the center. Rather than directly asking residents to define their neighborhood, these methods infer an optimal neighborhood scale from the magnitude of neighborhood effects.

Pedestrian Street Networks To define neighborhood boundaries, researchers can also use aspects of the built environment that structure social processes and everyday life. T-communities are theorized networks of pedestrian streets that structure localized social interaction, which are consistent with the concept of neighborhood (Grannis, 2005). Researchers can use GIS tools to identify pedestrian streets and tertiary streets, drawing neighborhood boundaries along those main streets that bound the intersecting pedestrian areas. They can also combine the resulting areal units with local knowledge to further refine this definition of neighborhood units (Foster and Hipp, 2011).

Cityscape 233Coulton

Automated Zone Design For some purposes, it may be desirable to craft neighborhood units that are demographically homogeneous, are of a designated size, or do not cross selected barriers or landmarks. Researchers can use automated zone-design programs to aggregate areas together while optimizing such criteria (Cockings and Martin, 2005). This method of crafting neighborhood units was investigated after an interactive process that imposed various population and housing characteristic constraints, area size, and geographic considerations (Haynes et al., 2007). The resulting neighborhood units compared favorably with community areas that were designated by local government officers.

Conclusions Currently, the capacity exists to calibrate neighborhood definitions to be more reflective of residents’ experiences and spatial attributes than the commonly used administrative units. On a practical level, these methods require more fine-grained geographic data than are often available from surveys or administrative agencies. Given the nuances of residents’ experience and spatial dynamics, justification is strong for making investments in the data and technology that could validate neighborhood definitions and measures. Such units should provide more explanatory power on which to base neighborhood research, policy formulation, and practical solutions.

Acknowledgments The Annie E. Casey Foundation provided funding support for this article.



Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 42 | 43 || 45 | 46 |   ...   | 56 |


Similar works:

«Policy Memo A Critical Look at the National Popular Vote Proposal Center for Competitive Politics 124 S. West Street, Suite 201 Alexandria, Virginia 22314 http://www.campaignfreedom.org Introduction The National Popular Vote (NPV) proposal would represent a fundamental shift in how our nation elects the President. While many well-intentioned individuals and organizations support this cause and compelling arguments can be made in its favor, the NPV plan ultimately represents a scheme that...»

«COORDINATION OF REGIONAL AND NATIONAL MATERIAL FLOW ACCOUNTING FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY ENV4-CT96-0266 CONCERTED ACTION: COORDINATION OF REGIONAL AND NATIONAL MATERIAL FLOW ACCOUNTING FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY (CONACCOUNT) DECEMBER 1997 SUMMARY FINAL REPORT Key words: Material Flow Accounting (MFA), Sustainability, Policy Support, Decision Makers, Substance Flow Analysis (SFA), Bulk Material Flow Analysis (bMFA), Resource Management, National, Regional, Europe, Resource Flows,...»

«THE BROOKINGS INSTITUTION CENTER FOR EAST ASIA POLICY STUDIES WHITHER NORTHEAST ASIA? MANAGING TENSIONS AND AVOIDING CONFLICT IN A TROUBLED REGION Evans J.R. Revere Nonresident Senior Fellow Center for East Asia Policy Studies The Brookings Institution December 2013 THE BROOKINGS INSTITUTION 1775 Massachusetts Avenue, NW Washington D.C. 20036-2188 Tel: (202)797-6000 Fax: (202)797-2485 http://www.brookings.edu Summary Tensions are rising in Northeast Asia, threatening more than a generation of...»

«Excerpted from ©2001 by the Regents of the University of California. All rights reserved. May not be copied or reused without express written permission of the publisher. click here to BUY THIS BOOK CHAPTER SIX CONCLUSION New Public Management is a field of discussion largely about policy interventions within executive government. The characteristic instruments of such policy interventions are institutional rules and organizational routines affecting expenditure planning and financial...»

«University of Warwick institutional repository This paper is made available online in accordance with publisher policies. Please scroll down to view the document itself. Please refer to the repository record for this item and our policy information available from the repository home page for further information. To see the final version of this paper please visit the publisher’s website. Access to the published version may require a subscription. Authors: Diane Stone Article Title: Global...»

«A Shopper’s Guide To Long-Term Care Insurance About the NAIC. The National Association of Insurance Commissioners (NAIC) is the oldest association of state government officials. Its members consist of the chief insurance regulators in all 50 states, the District of Columbia and five U.S. territories. The primary responsibility of the state regulators is to protect the interests of insurance consumers, and the NAIC helps regulators fulfill that obligation in a number of different ways. This...»

«© 2009 by Markus Haverland European Integration online Papers / ISSN 1027-5193 Vol. 13 (2009), Art. 25 How to cite? Haverland, Markus: How leader states influence EU policy-making: Analysing the expert strategy, European Integration online Papers (EIoP), Vol. 13, Art. 25, http://eiop.or.at/eiop/texte/2009-025a.htm. DOI: 10.1695/2009025 How leader states influence EU policy-making: Analysing the expert strategy* Markus Haverland Department of Public Administration, Erasmus University Rotterdam,...»

«Public Policy Research and Training in Vietnam Public Policy Research and Training in Vietnam Edited by Toru Hashimoto Stefan Hell Sang-Woo Nam Asian Development Bank Institute Hanoi December 2005 Asian Development Bank Institute Kasumigaseki Building, 8th Floor 3-2-5 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku Tokyo 100-6008, Japan Tel: (81-3) 3593-5500 Fax: (81-3) 3593-5571 Email: info@adbi.org Website: www.adbi.org © 2005 Asian Development Bank Institute Publishing Permit/GPXB164-54/XB-QLXB dated 30/11/2005...»

«MODEL POLICY & LEGAL GUIDE FOR PROVIDING CULTURALLY COMPETENT SERVICES TO TRANSGENDER & GENDER NONCONFORMING CLIENTS OF HOMELESS SHELTERS & HOUSING PROGRAMS Transgender Law Center Transgender Law Center works to change law, policy, and attitudes so that all people can live safely, authentically, and free from discrimination regardless of their gender identity or expression. Transgender Law Center 1629 Telegraph Ave, Suite 400 Oakland, CA 94612 p 415.865.0176 f 877.847.1278...»

«211 CMR 65.00 211 CMR 65.00: LONG-TERM CARE INSURANCE Sections 65.01: Purpose 65.02: Applicability 65.03: Authority 65.04: Definitions 65.05: Minimum Standards for Individual Policies 65.06: Mandatory Benefit Offers for Individual Policies 65.07: Form and Rate Filing Procedures for Individual Policies 65.08: Requirements for Agent Training and Marketing 65.09: Requirements for Disclosure 65.10: Protection against Unintentional Lapse 65.11: Prohibition against Post-Claims Underwriting 65.12:...»

«Towards Social Event Detection and Contextualisation for Journalists Prashant Khare Bahareh Rahmanzadeh Heravi Insight Centre for Data Analytics Insight Centre for Data Analytics National University of Ireland, National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland Galway, Ireland prashant.khare@insightbahareh.heravi@insightcentre.org centre.org Abstract Social media platforms have become an important source of information in course of a breaking news event, such as natural calamity, political uproar,...»

«U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Office of the Director (MS 2000) Washington, DC 20529-2000 February 18, 2015 PM-602-0104 Policy Memorandum SUBJECT: Adjudication of H-1B Petitions for Nursing Occupations Purpose This policy memorandum (PM) provides guidance on the adjudication of H-1B petitions for nursing positions. Specifically, this PM assists U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) officers in determining whether or not a nursing position meets the definition of a...»





 
<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2016 www.theses.xlibx.info - Theses, dissertations, documentation

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.