FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Theses, dissertations, documentation

Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 41 | 42 || 44 | 45 |   ...   | 56 |

«Moving to opportunity voluMe 14, nuMber 2 • 2012 U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development | Office of Policy Development and Research ...»

-- [ Page 43 ] --

Salvo, Joseph J. 2012. “Census Tracts.” In Encyclopedia of the U.S. Census, 2nd ed.: From the Constitution to the American Community Survey, edited by Margo J. Anderson, Constance F. Citro, and Joseph J.

Salvo. Washington DC: CQ Press: 82–84.

U.S. Census Bureau. 2012. “Geographic Areas Reference Manual.” http://www.census.gov/geo/ www/GARM/Ch11GARM.pdf (accessed May 12, 2012).

White, Michael J. 1987. American Neighborhoods and Residential Differentiation. National Committee for Research on the 1980 Census. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

Wong, David. 2009. “The Modifiable Areal Unit Problem.” In The SAGE Handbook of Spatial

Analysis, edited by A. Stewart Fotheringham and Peter A. Rogerson. London, United Kingdom:

SAGE Publications: 105–123.

–  –  –

224 Point of Contention: Defining Neighborhoods Defining Neighborhoods in Space and Time Ralph B. Taylor Temple University Defining Neighborhood and Community The terms community and neighborhood reference some of the most notoriously slippery social science concepts. One publication (Hillery, 1955) appearing more than five decades ago listed more than 90 definitions of community, tapping 16 different themes. The concept of neighborhood is similarly diffuse, precluding scholarly consensus (Keller, 1968). “There are many ways of defining neighborhood” and “different definitions serve different interests” (Brower, 1996: 17).

Each of these two concepts has received scholarly attention for a century or more (Burgess, 1925;

McKenzie, 1923), has waxed and waned in that period as a topic of interest to both scholars and policymakers, and has been defined in numerous ways.

The core idea of community is “social interaction, common ties, and coresidency” (Brower, 2011: 3).

The core idea of neighborhood is that it is “a social/spatial unit of social organization, and that it is larger than a household and smaller than a city. The problem with presenting a further list of definitive characteristics is that they often become normative rather than descriptive” (Hunter, 1979: 270;

emphasis added). Although a neighborhood is geographically delimited, all residents may not strongly agree about exactly where it begins and ends, depending on a range of housing, land use, personal, and political factors (Firey, 1945; Taylor, 2001). Recognizing the important differences between the terms community and neighborhood (Brower, 1996; Brower and Taylor, 1997; Hunter, 1974; Hunter, 1975), this work uses the term neighborhood, given the generally stronger spatial and geographical emphasis linked to this term versus community. Quoted materials with the term community retain that language.

Key Structural Attributes In urban and suburban settings, at least in countries such as the United States and Canada and those in Western Europe, neighborhood has several key structural attributes. First, neighborhoods have layers of concentric geography within them, starting with the streetblock or segments thereof (Suttles, 1972). Streetblocks have their own microecological principles (Taylor, 1997). Although the character of and dynamics in a streetblock link to the broader neighborhood setting, residents may feel more socially integrated and safer on their own streetblock compared with locations even a bit farther away (Taylor and Brower, 1985). Additional neighborhood layers extend out from the streetblock and may even include large regions of a city.

Cityscape 225 Cityscape: A Journal of Policy Development and Research • Volume 14, Number 2 • 2012 U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development • Office of Policy Development and Research Taylor No single layer of neighborhood is correct for research or policy purposes. Rather, the spatial scale chosen to represent a neighborhood layer should match the spatial scale of the dynamics considered from a policy or research perspective (Hipp, 2007). For example, if contested drug corners are the focus of policymakers and research analysts, then Thiessen polygons1 around intersections are conceptually compatible for research, policy, and practice purposes (Taniguchi, Ratcliffe, and Taylor, 2011). From a policy perspective, like that of crime analysts, the key definitional issue may be how the operationalization of the concept links to police resource needs and deployment and to quality-of-life concerns of residents (Buslik, 2009).

Second, neighborhoods are imbricated, or overlapping, for organizational and political economy reasons (Logan and Molotch, 1987). “Overlapping of community boundaries not only produces confusion and ambiguity but means that residents do not necessarily see the city as divided into mutually exclusive local areas” (Hunter, 1974: 87). The ambiguous nature of these boundaries has positive integrative aspects and may reinforce rather than undercut the symbolic functions of neighborhood (Hunter, 1974). Operationalizing these overlapping ideas into workable, bounded, and nonoverlapping neighborhoods presents challenges. Consequently, it is not surprising that police struggle “when defining neighborhoods, applying crime-prevention services, and deploying resources to an area” (Buslik, 2009: 5).

Third, neighborhoods change over time, often because of changes in local organizations and connections between those neighborhoods and outside interests. So it is no surprise that neighborhood boundaries and names change over time as well (Hunter, 1974). A study of empirically derived Baltimore neighborhoods and how their boundaries and names shifted between 1979 and 1995 identified eight different types of boundary and name changes (Taylor, 2001: 303–363). The sizes and types of changes arose from how local power differentials and ecological disparities intersected with one another. The disturbing policy implication was that the places most in need of stable coproduction arrangements with agencies such as police at the same time presented the greatest challenges to such partnerships because of just these changes.

Fourth, neighborhoods are personally variable in contour, character, and salience. Sizable literatures in environmental psychology, community psychology, political science, and geography examine what individual and contextual factors link to how people cognitively organize their neighborhood.

Neighborhood cognitions span views about the neighborhood’s character, placement of its boundaries, locations of landmarks or pathways (Devlin, 1976; Devlin and Bernstein, 1995; Downs, 1981;

Downs and Stea, 1977; Evans, 1980; Evans and Pezdek, 1980; Lynch, 1960), and application of which neighborhood names (Crenson, 1983; Hunter, 1974; Taylor, Gottfredson, and Brower, 1984).

Individuals personally construct how and what their neighborhood is and how it changes (Aitken, 1990, 1992). In addition, they have different ways of transacting with their locale, that is, different modes of environmental knowing (Aitken and Bjorklund, 1988; Anooshian, 1996).2 Those modes may shift over time for individuals (Anooshian and Young, 1981). Further deepening the Thiessen polygons around points are such that the area within the polygon is closer to that point than any other point. In this work, the polygons were centered on corners.

Aitken and Bjorklund (1988: 59) identify four modes of “transaction and transformation”: “habitual” vs. “purposive behavior” applied to either “ordinary events” or “extraordinary events.”

–  –  –

variability, in addition to individual differences and different modes of environmental knowing, is a range of different techniques with different properties. These are used for extracting information about mental maps or for organizing features of such maps (Golledge, 1987; Golledge and Stimson, 1997). The toolkit for examining all these matters has expanded dramatically with the arrival of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) (Golledge, 2003). Given these three sources of personal, mode, and toolkit variation, it is no surprise that people often disagree a lot about neighborhood names and boundaries (Coulton, Chan, and Mikelbank, 2010; Coulton et al., 2001; Lee, 1970).

Once thinking starts about where an individual is located relative to a census or community boundary (Rengert and Lockwood, 2009), additional person-place variation is introduced. Finally, overlaid on top of all this psychological and methodological variation are the previously mentioned political (Crenson, 1983; Logan and Molotch, 1987), structural (Hunter, 1974), and small-group (Suttles,

1968) dynamics that are also in play when thinking about labeling or bounding a neighborhood.

To some extent, variation in definitions can be incorporated in a number of meaningful ways for analytic purposes. Census data at the tract, block group, or block levels can be reallocated to correspond to defined areas around an individual or a location. Census-enhanced GIS spatial units can be created (Rengert and Lockwood, 2009; Wilson, 2007). Of course, with different types of units configured different ways, different varieties of the modifiable area unit problem (MAUP) can surface (Openshaw and Taylor, 1979). The MAUP is conceptually related to, but at the same time distinct from, aggregation issues (Oliver, 2001).

Closing Comment When struggling through graduate school more than three decades ago, I heard one faculty

member quip: “this is not so hard.” You have to remember only two laws of psychology. First law:

“everyone is the same.” Second law: “everyone is different.” Of course, what he did not add was the hard part: how to know when someone’s behavior is evidence of the first law, and when it is evidence of the second law. When researchers think about neighborhoods, they have the same dilemma: all neighborhoods are the same; at the same time, all neighborhoods are different. Key structural commonalities do exist in neighborhoods. Which commonalities will be revealed or hidden depends on numerous factors, not the least of which is the researcher’s or policymaker’s disciplinary lens. Nested within those very commonalities are important variations in spatial scale, overlap, and temporal durability. These variations are not problematic per se, and may even be functional. The key issue for researchers and policymakers is finding a definition that aligns with theory and policy. Is the definition theoretically congruent with the dynamics of interest? Does it serve the needs of the policies or agencies in question? After those questions are answered, geographic boundaries representing “the” neighborhood can be delineated.

Author Ralph B. Taylor is a professor in the Department of Criminal Justice and holds a courtesy appointment in the Department of Geography and Urban Studies at Temple University.

–  –  –

References Aitken, Stuart C. 1992. “The Personal Contexts of Neighborhood Change,” Journal of Architectural Planning and Research 9: 338–360.

———. 1990. “Local Evaluations of Neighborhood Change,” Annals of the Association of American Geographers 80: 247–267.

Aitken, Stuart C., and Elaine M. Bjorklund. 1988. “Transactional and Transformational Theories in Behavioral Geography,” Professional Geographer 40: 54–64.

Anooshian, Linda J. 1996. “Diversity Within Spatial Cognition,” Environment and Behavior 28:


Anooshian, Linda J., and Douglas Young. 1981. “Developmental Changes in Cognitive Maps of a Familiar Neighborhood,” Child Development 52: 341–348.

Brower, Sidney. 2011. Neighbors and Neighborhoods: Elements of Successful Community Design.

Washington, DC: American Planning Association Planners Press.

———. 1996. Good Neighborhoods. Westport, CT: Praeger.

Brower, Sidney, and Ralph B. Taylor. 1997. “Qualities of Ideal and Real-World Neighborhoods.” In Evolving Environmental Ideals: Changing Ways of Life, Values, and Design Practices, edited by Madi Gray. Stockholm, Sweden: Kungl Tekniska Hogskolan: 99–106.

Burgess, Ernest W. 1925. “Can Neighborhood Work Have a Scientific Basis?” In The City, edited by Robert E. Park, Ernest W. Burgess, and Roderick Duncan McKenzie. Chicago: University of Chicago Press: 142–155.

Buslik, Marc S. 2009. “Not in My Neighborhood: An Essay on Policing Place,” Geography & Public Safety Bulletin 2 (2): 3–6.

Coulton, Claudia J., Tsui Chan, and Kristen Mikelbank. 2010. “Finding Place in Making Connections

Communities,” Making Connections Research Series, edited by Annie E. Casey. Washington, DC:

Urban Institute.

Coulton, Claudia J., Jill Korbin, Tsui Chan, and Marilyn Su. 2001. “Mapping Residents’ Perceptions of Neighborhood Boundaries: A Methodological Note,” American Journal of Community Psychology 29: 371–383.

Crenson, Matthew. 1983. Neighborhood Politics. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Devlin, Ann S. 1976. “The ‘Small-Town’ Cognitive Map: Adjusting to a New Environment.” In Environmental Knowing: Theories, Research and Methods, edited by Gary T. Moore and Reginald G.

Golledge. Stroudsburg, PA: Dowden, Hutchinson & Ross: 58–66.

Devlin, Ann S., and Jason Bernstein. 1995. “Interactive Wayfinding: Use of Cues by Men and Women,” Journal of Environmental Psychology 15: 23–38.

–  –  –

Downs, Roger M. 1981. “Cognitive Mapping: A Thematic Analysis.” In Behavioral Problems in Geography Revisited, edited by Kevin R. Cox and Reginald G. Golledge. New York: Methuen Publishing:


Downs, Roger M., and David Stea. 1977. Maps in Minds: Reflections on Cognitive Mapping. New York: Harper & Row.

Evans, Gary W. 1980. “Environmental Cognition,” Psychological Bulletin 88: 259–287.

Evans, Gary W., and Kathy Pezdek. 1980. “Cognitive Mapping: Knowledge of Real-World Distance and Location Information,” Journal of Experimental Psychology 6: 13–24.

Firey, Walter. 1945. “Sentiment and Symbolism as Ecological Variables,” American Sociological Review 10: 140–148.

Golledge, Reginald G. 2003. “The Open Door of GIS.” In Handbook of Environmental Psychology, edited by Robert Bechtel and Arza Churchman. New York: John Wiley & Sons: 244–255.

———. 1987. “Environmental Cognition.” In Handbook of Environmental Psychology, edited by Daniel Stokols and Irwin Altman. New York: John Wiley & Sons: 131–174.

Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 41 | 42 || 44 | 45 |   ...   | 56 |

Similar works:

«PART II KEY POLICY ISSUES IN ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND SME DEVELOPMENT Part II of this report is structured in six thematic chapters. Each chapter starts with a summary of main findings from the local case study areas by the OECD. In the following chapter, both theoretical and practical aspects of policy action are discussed in light of new policy approaches and options. References are made to good practice initiatives in East Germany and other regions in OECD member countries. A chapter concludes...»

«IMPLEMENTING MACROPRUDENTIAL POLICY—SELECTED LEGAL ISSUES June 17, 2013 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY As countries design and implement macroprudential policies, they face the challenge of determining what—if any—changes need to be made to their legal and institutional framework to ensure that these policies are effective. Based on a review of experience, it is clear that there are a variety of approaches that can be taken by members, in light of the legal constraints and institutional preferences of...»

«International Journal of Computer Science & Engineering Survey (IJCSES) Vol.2, No.2, May 2011 FIREWALL POLICY MANAGEMENT THROUGH SLIDING WINDOW FILTERING METHOD USING DATA MINING TECHNIQUES Ch.Srinivasa Rao1, Research Scholar Mother Teresa Institute of science & Technology,Sathupalli, A.P, INDIA E-mail: srinivas_research@yahoo.in Dr.Boddi Reddy Rama2 Kakatiya University, Warangal,A.P INDIA K.Naga Mani 3 Research Scholar Mother Teresa Institute of Science & Technology, Sathupalli, A.P,INDIA...»

«Asia Pacific Journal of Research Vol: I Issue XIII, January 2014 ISSN: 2320-5504, E-ISSN-2347-4793 A STUDY ON THE AWARENESS LEVEL OF LIC POLICY HOLDERS IN SALEM DISTRICT Dr.T.Thirupathi, Assistant Professor of Commerce, Government Arts College, (Autonomous), Salem, Tamil Nadu – 636 007 Introduction Life Insurance Corporation of India (LIC) is the largest insurance group and investment company in India. It is a state-owned company where the Government of India has 100% stake. It has assets...»

«PART II KEY POLICY ISSUES IN ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND SME DEVELOPMENT Part II of this report is structured in six thematic chapters. Each chapter starts with a summary of main findings from the local case study areas by the OECD. In the following paper, both theoretical and practical aspects of policy action are discussed in light of new policy approaches and options. References are made to good practice initiatives in East Germany and other regions in OECD member countries. A chapter concludes...»

«Control of Major Accident Hazards COMAH Competent Authority Workstream Secondary and Tertiary Containment of Bulk Hazardous Liquids at COMAH Establishments (Operational Delivery Guide) the Competent Authority Control of Major Accident Hazards 1. Purpose 1.1 To ensure that operator’s adequately discharge their duty under Regulation 4 to take all measures necessary to prevent major accidents and limit their consequences to persons and the environment with regard to the measures set out in the...»

«Timo Turja, Chief information specialist The Library of the Finnish Parliament The 28th IFLA Pre Conference of Library and Research Services for Parliaments, 8 to 10 August 2012 Helsinki Parliamentary Decision-making and the Politics of Knowledge Ladies and gentlemen, My talk today is about how knowledge is used in parliamentary decision-making. I would like to begin by discussing how research findings and scientific knowledge are used in representative bodies such as parliaments. I am sure we...»

«International Law Programme/ Russia and Eurasia Programme Summary The Ukraine Crisis: An International Law Perspective Dr Roy Allison University of Oxford Dr Thomas Grant University of Cambridge Professor Philip Leach Middlesex University Chair: Elizabeth Wilmshurst, CMG Associate Fellow, International Law Programme, Chatham House 11 July 2014 The views expressed in this document are the sole responsibility of the speaker(s) and participants do not necessarily reflect the view of Chatham House,...»

«Program on Criminal Justice Policy & Management 79 JFK Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 www.ksg.harvard.edu/criminaljustice MEMORANDUM To: Students Enrolled in CCJ-100 From: Christopher Stone Date: September 12, 2005 Subject: Writing Policy Memos You will soon be writing your first of three policy memos for this course. Like any writing project, this is an opportunity for you to express yourself creatively, but a policy memo is also meant to be a specific kind of professional product. In a good...»

«Case Study Approach Examining Local Wellness Policy Development and the Perceived Impact to the School Community National Food Service Management Institute The University of Mississippi 1-800-321-3054 This publication has been produced by the National Food Service Management Institute – Applied Research Division, located at The University of Southern Mississippi with headquarters at The University of Mississippi. Funding for the Institute has been provided with federal funds from the U.S....»

«United States Government Accountability Office Report to Congressional Committees FEDERAL TRAVEL July 2016 Opportunities Exist to Improve Data and Information Sharing GAO-16-657 July 2016 FEDERAL TRAVEL Opportunities Exist to Improve Data and Information Sharing Highlights of GAO-16-657, a report to congressional committees Why GAO Did This Study What GAO Found Federal agencies rely on travel to The Departments of Agriculture, Defense, Homeland Security, Justice, State, achieve a broad range of...»

«Sample Drug, Alcohol, and Contraband Policy This sample reflects only one generic approach. Legal obligations differ among U.S. jurisdictions and among industries. For purposes of this presentation paper, this sample policy was drafted in compliance with, and specifically references, Louisiana law and would need to be tailored to other jurisdictions. The contents of this sample are not to be regarded as legal advice. Companies or individuals with particular questions should seek advice of...»

<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2016 www.theses.xlibx.info - Theses, dissertations, documentation

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.