WWW.THESES.XLIBX.INFO
FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Theses, dissertations, documentation
 
<< HOME
CONTACTS



Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 17 | 18 || 20 | 21 |   ...   | 56 |

«Moving to opportunity voluMe 14, nuMber 2 • 2012 U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development | Office of Policy Development and Research ...»

-- [ Page 19 ] --

Khadduri, Jill. 2008. Housing Vouchers Are Critical for Ending Family Homelessness. Washington, DC:

Abt Associates Inc.

Krieger, James, and Donna L. Higgins. 2002. “Housing and Health: Time Again for Public Health Action,” American Journal of Public Health 92 (5): 758–768.

Landrigan, Philip J., Andrew C. Todd, and Richard P. Wedeen. 1995. “Lead Poisoning,” Mount Sinai Journal of Medicine 62 (5): 360–364.

Levy, Diane, and Mark Woodley. 2007. “Relocation Is Not Enough: Employment Barriers Among HOPE VI Families.” Brief no. 6 in the HOPE VI: Where Do We Go From Here? series. Washington, DC: Urban Institute. Also available at http://www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/311491_HOPEVI_ Employment.pdf.

Manjarrez, Carlos A., Susan J. Popkin, and Elizabeth Guernsey. 2007. Poor Health: Adding Insult to Injury for HOPE VI Families. Washington, DC: Urban Institute. Also available at http://www.urban.

org/UploadedPDF/311489_HOPEVI_Health.pdf.

Matte, Thomas D., and David E. Jacobs. 2000. “Housing and Health—Current Issues and Implications for Research and Programs,” Journal of Urban Health 77 (1): 7–25.

McInnis, Debi, Larry Buron, and Susan J. Popkin. 2007. “Are HOPE VI Families at Greater Risk for

Homelessness?” Brief no. 7 in the HOPE VI: Where Do We Go From Here? series. Washington, DC:

Urban Institute. Also available at http://www.urban.org/publications/311490.html.

Cityscape 105Comey, Popkin, and Franks

Mills, Gregory, Daniel Gubits, Larry Orr, David Long, Judie Feins, Bulbul Kaul, Michelle Wood, Amy Jones & Associates, Cloudburst Consulting, and The QED Group. 2006. Effects of Housing Vouchers on Welfare Families. Report prepared for the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, Office of Policy Development and Research. Cambridge, MA: Abt Associates Inc.

National Commission on Severely Distressed Public Housing (NCSDPH). 1992. The Final Report of the National Commission on Severely Distressed Public Housing: A Report to the Congress and the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development. Washington, DC: National Commission on Severely Distressed Public Housing.

Olsen, Edgar O., Scott E. Davis, and Paul E. Carrillo. 2005. “Explaining Attrition in the Housing Voucher Program,” Cityscape 8 (2): 95–113.

Orr, Larry, Judith D. Feins, Robin Jacob, Erik Beecroft, Lisa Sanbonmatsu, Lawrence F. Katz, Jeffrey

B. Liebman, and Jeffrey R. Kling. 2003. Moving to Opportunity for Fair Housing Demonstration Program:

Interim Impacts Evaluation. Report prepared by Abt Associates Inc. and the National Bureau of Economic Research for the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, Office of Policy Development and Research. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development.

Patterson, Rhiannon, Michelle Wood, Ken Lam, Stayendra Patrabansh, Gregory Mills, Steven Sullivan, Hiwotte Amare, and Lily Zandiapour. 2004. Evaluation of the Welfare to Work Voucher Program:

Report to Congress. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. Also available at http://www.huduser.org/Publications/pdf/welfrwrkVchrPrg.pdf.

Platt, Stephen D., Claudia J. Martin, Sonja M. Hunt, and Chris W. Lewis. 1989. “Damp Housing, Mould Growth, and Symptomatic Health State,” British Medical Journal 298: 1673–1678. Also available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1836778/pdf/bmj00237-0021.pdf.

Popkin, Susan J., Victoria E. Gwiasda, Dennis P. Rosenbaum, Lynne M. Olson, and Larry F. Buron.

2000. The Hidden War: Crime and the Tragedy of Public Housing in Chicago. New Brunswick, NJ:

Rutgers University Press.

Popkin, Susan J., Diane K. Levy, and Larry Buron. 2009. “Has HOPE VI Transformed Residents’ Lives? New Evidence From the HOPE VI Panel Study,” Housing Studies 24 (4): 477–502.

Popkin, Susan J., Diane K. Levy, Laura E. Harris, Jennifer Comey, Mary K. Cunningham, and Larry Buron. 2002. HOPE VI Panel Study: Baseline Report. Washington, DC: Urban Institute. Also available at http://www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/410590_HOPEVI_PanelStudy.pdf.

Rosenstreich, David L., Peyton Eggleston, Meyer Kattan, Dean Baker, Raymond G. Slavin, Peter Gergen, Herman Mitchell, Kathleen McNiff-Mortimer, Henry Lynn, Dennis Ownby, and Floyd Malveaux. 1997. “The Role of Cockroach Allergy and Exposure to Cockroach Allergen in Causing

Morbidity Among Inner-City Children With Asthma,” The New England Journal of Medicine 336:

1356–1363.

106 Moving to Opportunity MTO: A Successful Housing Intervention Sanbonmatsu, Lisa, Jens Ludwig, Larry F. Katz, Lisa A. Gennetian, Greg J. Duncan, Ronald C.

Kessler, Emma Adam, Thomas W. McDade, and Stacy Tessler Lindau. 2011. Moving to Opportunity for Fair Housing Demonstration Program: Final Impacts Evaluation. Report prepared by the National Bureau of Economic Research for the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, Office of Policy Development and Research. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, Office of Policy Development and Research.

Scharfstein, Joshua, and Megan Sandel. 1998. Not Safe at Home: How America’s Housing Crisis Threatens the Health of Its Children. The Doc4Kids Project. Boston: Boston Medical Center, Department of Pediatrics.





Shroder, Mark. 2002. “Does Housing Assistance Perversely Affect Self-Sufficiency? A Review Essay,” Journal of Housing Economics 11 (4): 381–417.

Steffen, Barry L., Keith Fudge, Marge Martin, Maria Teresa Souza, David A. Vandenbrouke, and

Yung-Gann David Yao. 2011. Worst Case Housing Needs 2009: Report to Congress. Washington, DC:

U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, Office of Policy Development and Research.

Also available at http://www.huduser.org/publications/pdf/worstcase_HsgNeeds09.pdf.

Theodos, Brett, Susan J. Popkin, Joe Parilla, and Liza Getsinger. 2012. “The Challenge of Targeting Services: A Typology of Public Housing Residents,” Social Service Review.

Turner, Margery Austin, and G. Thomas Kingsley. 2008. Federal Programs for Low-Income Housing Needs: A Policy Primer. Washington, DC: Urban Institute. Also available at http://www.urban.org/ UploadedPDF/411798_low-income_housing.pdf.

Turner, Margery Austin, Sue Popkin, and Lynette Rawlings. 2009. Public Housing and the Legacy of Segregation. Washington, DC: Urban Institute.

U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD). 2006. Guide to Counting Unsheltered Homeless People Revised. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development.

Also available at http://www.hud.gov/offices/cpd/homeless/library/webcast101006/street_count_ guide.pdf.

———. 2003. Public Housing Occupancy Guidebook. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. Also available at http://portal.hud.gov/hudportal/documents/ huddoc?id=DOC_10760.pdf.

———. 1994. Residential Mobility Programs. Urban Policy Brief No. 1. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, Division of Policy Studies. Also available at http:// www.huduser.org/Publications/txt/resmobil.txt.

Verma, Nandita, and James A. Riccio, with Gilda L. Azurdia. 2003. Housing Assistance and the Effects of Welfare Reform: Evidence From Connecticut and Minnesota. Report prepared by MDRC for the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, Office of Policy Development and Research.

Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. Also available at http://www.huduser.org/ Publications/pdf/HousingAssistance.pdf.

–  –  –

The contents of this article are the views of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, the Congressional Budget Office, the U.S. government, or any state or local agency that provided data.

Abstract Adults living in high-poverty neighborhoods often fare worse than adults in more advantaged neighborhoods on their physical health, mental health, and economic well-being.

Although social scientists have observed this association for hundreds of years, they have found it difficult to determine the extent to which the neighborhoods themselves affect

–  –  –

Abstract

(continued) well-being versus the extent to which people at greater risk for adverse outcomes live in impoverished neighborhoods. In this article, we examine neighborhood effects using data from the 10- to 15-year evaluation of the Moving to Opportunity (MTO) for Fair Housing demonstration, which offered randomly selected families a housing voucher. The experimental design of MTO allows us to isolate the effects of neighborhoods from selection bias. We find that, 10 to 15 years after enrolling participants, the program had very few detectable effects on economic well-being but had some substantial effects on the physical and mental health of adults. For adults whose families received the offer of a housing voucher that could be used to move only to a low-poverty neighborhood, we find health benefits in terms of lower prevalence of diabetes, extreme obesity, physical limitations, and psychological distress. For adults offered a Section 8 voucher, we find benefits in terms of less extreme obesity and lower prevalence of lifetime depression.

Introduction Adults living in disadvantaged neighborhoods have worse health and economic outcomes than people living in less distressed areas. Previous research has shown that living in a high-poverty or high-crime neighborhood is associated with an increased risk of poor overall health status, premature mortality, heart disease, obesity, serious mental illness, suicide, unemployment, and dropping out of school (Bagley, Jacobson, and Palmer, 1973; Diez-Roux and Mair, 2010; Kawachi and Berkman, 2003; Macintyre and Ellaway, 2003; Pickett and Pearl, 2001; Rezaeian et al., 2005;

Weinberg, Reagan, and Yankow, 2004; Whitley et al., 1999).

What remains less clear is the extent to which such variation in people’s well-being across neighborhoods reflects the causal influence of the neighborhood environments themselves, beyond the variation explained by the nonrandom sorting of individuals among residential neighborhoods.

People who are at elevated risk for adverse health or labor-market outcomes may face limited housing options and may be more likely to live in distressed neighborhoods. Observational (or nonexperimental) studies try to isolate the independent effects of neighborhoods on people’s well-being by statistically controlling for observable risk and protective factors of individuals and their families. Studies that control for a larger number of individual factors tend to find smaller neighborhood effects than do other studies (Pickett and Pearl, 2001). In addition, substantial concerns remain that some of the key variables that directly affect both neighborhood selection and health or economic outcomes are missing from or are imperfectly measured in standard data sets.

Observational studies may confound the influence of neighborhood environments with the effects of unmeasured individual or family attributes that directly affect outcomes and neighborhood selection, a problem that social scientists call selection bias.

110 Moving to Opportunity The Long-Term Effects of Moving to Opportunity on Adult Health and Economic Self-Sufficiency The existence, magnitude, and nature of any causal neighborhood effects on economic and health outcomes are of great relevance to housing policies that affect the geographic concentration of poverty in America. An understanding of neighborhood effects can inform policy choices related to: (1) whether to help low-income families meet their housing needs through project-based housing or, instead, through housing vouchers; (2) the types of relocation assistance and support to provide voucher holders; (3) where to locate new public housing projects; and (4) the potential value of mixed-income housing projects that subsidize nonpoor families to live near poor families.

The nature of neighborhood effects is also relevant to the design of other social policies, such as suburban zoning rules and education policies that sort children across different schools and influence how low-income families are distributed across social settings (Duncan and Murnane, 2011).

These choices also have important implications for health policy decisions, such as the degree to which governments allocate public health investments for low-income areas to traditional safetynet health care instead of changing “the context to make individuals’ default decisions healthy” (Frieden, 2010: 590). For example, policymakers could allocate investments to creating safe green space for walking and sports, which might lead people to choose more physical activities over sedentary activities.

To more convincingly identify the effects of neighborhood environments on low-income families and to overcome selection bias concerns that may have compromised previous studies, the U.S.

Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) launched the Moving to Opportunity (MTO) for Fair Housing demonstration, a residential mobility experiment, in the early 1990s. The MTO program targeted families living in public or project-based housing in highly impoverished neighborhoods. MTO was open to families living in Baltimore, Boston, Chicago, Los Angeles, and New York City. Between 1994 and 1998, more than 4,600 families enrolled in the MTO program (Goering, Feins, and Richardson, 2003; Goering et al., 1999). To be eligible, a family had to have at least one child younger than age 18 and live in public housing or project-based assisted housing in a high-poverty area, defined as a census tract in which the income of more than 40 percent of residents falls below the federal poverty threshold.

MTO randomly assigned eligible families to one of three groups:



Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 17 | 18 || 20 | 21 |   ...   | 56 |


Similar works:

«Booking Policy – VOSA examiners at ATFs Introduction This document describes the policy and procedures that apply for the booking of VOSA examiners to attend at an ATF Site to conduct testing. VOSA Booking Objective VOSA’s aim is to provide examiners for testing at ATFs at times that are convenient and best suit each individual ATF. VOSA’s ability to meet applications for all dates and times requested will be constrained however, for example, by the total number of examiners available on...»

«FIPS 140-2, BlockMaster Document Version: 1.3 BlockMaster BM-C1000 FIPS 140-2 Security Policy, Level 2 Revision Date: 19th of April 2011. Firmware Version 4.0 Hardware versions: BM-C1000-01, BM-C1000-02, BM-C1000-04, BM-C1000-08, BM-C1000-16, BM-C1000-32, BM-C1000-64 BM-C1000 Device ©Copyright 2011, BlockMaster. This document may be freely reproduced and distributed whole and intact including this copyright notice. FIPS 140-2, BlockMaster Document Version: 1.3 Table of Contents 1 Introduction...»

«Technical Report 2010 049 Soil biodiversity: functions, threats and tools for policy makers February 2010 Europe Direct is a service to help you find answers to your questions about the European Union New freephone number: A great deal of additional information on the European Union is available on the Internet. It can be accessed through the Europa server (http://ec.europa.eu). ISBN : 978-92-79-20668-9 doi : 10.2779/14571 © European Communities, 2010 Reproduction is authorised provided the...»

«Conceptual evolution and policy developments in lifelong learning Edited by Jin Yang and Raúl Valdés-Cotera Conceptual evolution and policy developments in lifelong learning Edited by Jin Yang and Raúl Valdés-Cotera Published 2011 by UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning Feldbrunnenstraße 58 20148 Hamburg Germany © UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning While the programmes of the UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning (UIL) are established along the lines laid down by the General...»

«The administrative working procedures of smaller states in the decision-making process of the EU by Dr. Baldur Thorhallsson University of Iceland e-mail: baldurt@hi.is Abstract This paper argues that the size and characteristics of administrations is a significant variable in explaining the behaviour of smaller states in the decision-making process of the European Union (EU) in the areas of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) and the Regional Policy. It argues that administrative working...»

«February, 2014 BPC Policy Brief V. 4 N. 65 Policy Brief Solidarity Among Brothers? Brazil in Africa: trade, investment and cooperation Solidarity Among Brothers? Brazil in Africa: trade, investment and cooperation Policy Brief February, 2014 BPC Policy Brief V.4 N.65 PUC-Rio RECTOR Pe. Josafá Carlos de Siqueira SJ VICE-RECTOR Pe. Francisco Ivern Simó SJ VICE-RECTOR FOR ACADEMIC AFFAIRS Prof. José Ricardo Bergmann VICE-RECTOR FOR ADMINISTRATIVE AFFAIRS Prof. Luiz Carlos Scavarda do Carmo...»

«A. l oiicyniaKer s Guide to Accrual Funding of Military Retirement RAND William M. Hix William W. Taylor DISTRIBUTION STÄTEMEWfX Approval for public release; Arroyo Center Distribution Unlimited The research described in this report was sponsored by the United States Army under Contract No. DASW0196-C-0004. Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data Hix, William M. (William Michael), 1940A policymaker's guide to accrual funding of military retirement / William M. Hix, William W....»

«2013 LOW-INCOME COUNTRIES GLOBAL RISKS AND VULNERABILITIES REPORT September 2013 IMF staff regularly produces papers proposing new IMF policies, exploring options for reform, or reviewing existing IMF policies and operations. The following documents have been released and are included in this package: The Staff Report on 2013 Low-Income Countries Global Risks and  Vulnerabilities Report, prepared by IMF staff and completed on September 6, 2013 for the Executive Board’s consideration on...»

«TOURISM POLICY MAKING: THE POLICYMAKERS’ PERSPECTIVES Nancy Stevenson University of Westminster, U.K. David Airey, University of Surrey, Faculty of Management and Law, U.K. Graham Miller, University of Surrey, Faculty of Management and Law, U.K.ABSTRACT This research explores tourism policy making, from the perspectives of policy makers using grounded theory. It focuses on Leeds, a city in the North of England, which is characterized by its turbulent environment. The paper identifies themes...»

«Command Encryption Module MSS-FIPS-11-002C Security Policy Version 2.0 Command Encryption Module Security Policy Firmware Version: 2.0 This document may be copied without the author’s permission provided that it is copied in it’s entirety without any modification. Command Encryption Module Security Policy Version 2.0 Table of Contents Page 1. SCOPE OF DOCUMENT 2. CRYPTOGRAPHIC MODULE SPECIFICATION 3. MODULE PORTS AND INTERFACES 4. ROLES, SERVICES, AND AUTHENTICATION 4.1 ACCESS CONTROL...»

«United States Department of the Interior June 2008 DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INTEGRATED CHARGE CARD POLICY MANUAL This page intentionally leftblank. Table of Contents, 1.2 CREDITW ORTHINESS,, Credit Scores 1.4 ROL AND RESPONSiBILITIES 1.4.5 Office of Inspector General (O–  –  – The Department of the Interior's integrated charge card for travel, purchase, and fleet is Bank of America's MasterCard. This card is specifically designed with the United States ofAmerica printed next...»

«The Law Commission (LAW COM No 360) PATENTS, TRADE MARKS AND DESIGNS: UNJUSTIFIED THREATS Presented to Parliament pursuant to section 3(2) of the Law Commissions Act 1965 Ordered by the House of Commons to be printed on 12 October 2015 HC 510 © Crown copyright 2015 This publication is licensed under the terms of the Open Government Licence v3.0 except where otherwise stated. To view this licence, visit nationalarchives.gov.uk/doc/open-government-licence/version/3 or write to the Information...»





 
<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2016 www.theses.xlibx.info - Theses, dissertations, documentation

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.