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«Mixed Messages on Mixed incoMes Volume 15, Number 2 • 2013 U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development | Office of Policy Development and ...»

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Brophy, Paul C., Miguel Garcia, and Karen Pooley. 2008. Mixed-Income Housing: A Promising Approach to Improved Housing and Neighborhoods. Unpublished manuscript.

Brophy, Paul C., and Rhonda N. Smith. 1997. “Mixed-Income Housing: Factors for Success,” Cityscape 3 (2): 3–31.

Brower, Sidney. 2009. “The Feasibility of Mixed-Income Communities.” Paper presented at the international symposium jointly organized by the IAPS-CSBE Network and the IAPS Housing Network, Istanbul, Turkey, October.

Buron, Larry, Jill Khadduri, Judy Weber, and Frances Ferguson. 2006. “Seven Strategies for

Successfully Marketing and Stabilizing the Occupancy of Mixed-Income/Mixed-Race Properties:

Summary Report.” Washington, DC: NeighborWorks America.

Calavita, Nico, and Kenneth Grimes. 1998. “Inclusionary Housing in California: The Experience of Two Decades,” Journal of the American Planning Association 64 (2): 150–169.

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Chaskin, Robert J., and Mark L. Joseph. 2011. “Social Interaction in Mixed-Income Developments:

Relational Expectations and Emerging Reality,” Journal of Urban Affairs 33 (2): 209–237.

———. 2010. “Building ‘Community’ in Mixed-Income Developments: Assumptions, Approaches, and Early Experiences,” Urban Affairs Review 45 (3): 299–335.

Clampet-Lundquist, Susan. 2004. “Hope VI Relocation: Moving to New Neighborhoods and Building New Ties,” Housing Policy Debate 15 (2): 415–447.

Clampet-Lundquist, Susan, and Douglas S. Massey. 2008. “Neighborhood Effects on Economic Self-Sufficiency: A Reconsideration of the Moving to Opportunity Experiment,” American Journal of Sociology 114 (1): 107–143.

Curley, Alexandra M. 2010. “Relocating the Poor: Social Capital and Neighborhood Resources,” Journal of Urban Affairs 32: 79–103.

Doerr, Tom, and Joy Siegal. 1990. “Mixing Incomes at Timberlawn Crescent,” Urban Land 49 (4):


Duke, Joanna. 2009. “Mixed Income Housing Policy and Public Housing Residents’ ‘Right to the City,’” Critical Social Policy 29 (1): 100–120.

Fraser, James, and Michael H. Nelson. 2008. “Can Mixed-Income Housing Ameliorate Concentrated Poverty? The Significance of a Geographically Informed Sense of Community,” Geography Compass 2 (6): 2127–2144.

Galster, George. 2007. “Neighborhood Social Mix As a Goal of Housing Policy: A Theoretical Analysis,” European Journal of Housing Policy 7 (1): 19–43.

Galster, George, Roger Andersson, Sako Musterd, and Timo M. Kauppinen. 2008. “Does Neighborhood Income Mix Affect Earnings of Adults? New Evidence From Sweden,” Journal of Urban Economics 63: 858–870.

Galster, George C., Jason C. Booza, and Jackie M. Cutsinger. 2008. “Income Diversity Within Neighborhoods and Very Low-Income Families,” Cityscape 10 (2): 257–300.

Gans, Herbert J. 1961a. “Planning and Social Life: Friendship and Neighbor Relations in Suburban Communities,” Journal of the American Planning Association 27 (2): 134–140.

———. 1961b. “The Balanced Community: Homogeneity or Heterogeneity in Residential Areas,” Journal of the American Planning Association 27 (3): 176–184.

Goetz, Edward G. 2010. “Better Neighborhoods, Better Outcomes? Explaining Relocation Outcomes in HOPE VI,” Cityscape 12 (1): 5–32.

Graves, Erin. 2012. “Mixed Outcome Developments: Comparing Policy Goals to Resident Outcomes in Mixed-Income Housing,” Journal of the American Planning Association 7 (2): 143–153.

Johnson, Michael P., Helen F. Ladd, and Jens Ludwig. 2001. “The Benefits and Costs of ResidentialMobility Programs for the Poor.” Report prepared for the conference “Opportunities, Deprivation, and the Housing Nexus: Trans-Atlantic Perspectives,” Washington, D.C., April 2001.

26 Mixed Messages on Mixed Incomes Mixed-Income Living: Anticipated and Realized Benefits for Low-Income Households Joseph, Mark, and Robert Chaskin. 2010. “Living in a Mixed-Income Development: Resident Perceptions of the Benefits and Disadvantages of Two Developments in Chicago,” Urban Studies 47 (11): 1–20.

Joseph, Mark, Robert J. Chaskin, and Henry S. Webber. 2007. “The Theoretical Basis for Addressing Poverty Through Mixed-Income Development,” Urban Affairs Review 42 (3): 369–409.

Joseph, Mark L. 2008. “Early Resident Experiences at a New Mixed-Income Development in Chicago,” Journal of Urban Affairs 30 (3): 229–257.

———. 2006. “Is Mixed-Income Development the Antidote to Urban Poverty?” Housing Policy Debate 17 (2): 209–234.

Khadduri, Jill, and Marge Martin. 1997. “Mixed-Income Housing in the HUD Multifamily Stock,” Cityscape 3 (2): 33–69.

Kleit, Rachel. 2005. “HOPE VI New Communities: Neighborhood Relationships in Mixed-Income Housing,” Environment and Planning A 37: 1413–1441.

———. 2002. “Job Search Networks and Strategies in Scattered-Site Public Housing,” Housing Studies 17 (1): 83–100.

———. 2001. “Neighborhood Relations in Suburban Scattered-Site and Clustered Public Housing,” Journal of Urban Affairs 23 (3–4): 409–430.

Kleit, Rachel, and Nicole Carnegie. 2011. “Integrated or Isolated? The Impact of Public Housing Redevelopment on Social Network Homophily,” Social Networks 33 (2): 152–165.

Levy, Diane K., Zach McDade, and Kassie Dumlao. 2010. Effects From Living in Mixed-Income Communities for Low-Income Families: A Review of the Literature. Washington, DC: Urban Institute.

Levy, Diane K., and Mark Woolley. 2007. Relocation Is Not Enough: Employment Barriers Among HOPE VI Families. Brief No. 6. Washington, DC: Urban Institute.

Libson, Brittany. 2007. ”River Garden: New Orleans’ Model for Mixed Income Housing,” Social Policy 37 (3/4): 98–105.

Lipman, Pauline. 2008. “Mixed-Income Schools and Housing: Advancing the Neo-Liberal Urban Agenda,” Journal of Education Policy 23 (2): 119–134.

Ludwig, Jens, Greg J. Duncan, Lisa A. Gennetian, Lawrence F. Katz, Ronald C. Kessler, Jeffrey R.

Kling, and Lisa Sanbonmatsu. 2012. “Neighborhood Effects on the Long-Term Well-Being of LowIncome Adults,” Science 337 (6101): 1505–1510.

Ludwig, Jens, Jeffrey R. Kling, Lawrence F. Katz, Lisa Sanbonmatsu, Jeffrey B. Liebman, Greg J.

Duncan, and Ronald C. Kessler. 2008. “What Can We Learn About Neighborhood Effects From the Moving to Opportunity Experiment?” American Journal of Sociology 114 (1): 144–188.

Mulroy, Elizabeth. 1991. “Mixed-Income Housing in Action,” Urban Land 50 (5): 2–7.

Patillo, Mary. 2007. Black on the Block: The Politics of Race and Class in the City. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

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Popkin, Susan J., Larry Buron, Diane K. Levy, and Mary K. Cunningham. 2000. “The Gautreaux Legacy: What Might Mixed-Income and Dispersal Strategies Mean for the Poorest Public Housing Tenants?” Housing Policy Debate 11 (4): 911–942.

Roberts, Marion. 2007. “Sharing Space: Urban Design and Social Mixing in Mixed Income New Communities,” Planning Theory and Practice 8 (2): 183–204.

Rosenbaum, James E., and Susan J. Popkin. 1991. “Employment and Earnings of Low-Income Blacks Who Move to Middle Class Suburbs.” In The Urban Underclass, edited by Christopher Jencks and Paul E. Peterson. Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution: 342–356.

Rosenbaum, James E., Linda K. Stroh, and Cathy A. Flynn. 1998. “Lake Parc Place: A Study of Mixed-Income Housing,” Housing Policy Debate 9 (4): 703–740.

Ryan, William, Allan Sloan, Maria Seferi, and Elaine Weberly. 1974. All In Together: An Evaluation of Mixed-Income Multi-Family Housing. Boston: Massachusetts Housing Finance Agency.

Sanbonmatsu, Lisa, Jeffrey R. Kling, Greg J. Duncan, and Jeanne Brooks-Gunn. 2006. “Neighborhoods and Academic Achievement: Results From the Moving to Opportunity Experiment,” The Journal of Human Resources 41 (4): 649–691.

Schubert, F. Michael, and Alison Thresher. 1996. Lessons From the Field: Three Case Studies of Mixed-Income Housing Development. Chicago: University of Illinois at Chicago, Great Cities Institute.

Schwartz, Alex, and Kian Tajbakhsh. 2001. “Mixed-Income Housing As Social Policy: The Case for Diminished Expectations.” Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Association of Collegiate Schools of Planning, Cleveland, November 2001.

———. 1997. “Mixed-Income Housing: Unanswered Questions,” Cityscape 3 (2): 71–92.

Schwartz, Heather. 2010. Housing Policy Is School Policy: Economically Integrative Housing Promotes Academic Success in Montgomery County, Maryland. A Century Foundation Report. New York: The Century Foundation.

Smith, Alastair. 2002. Mixed-Income Housing Developments: Promise and Reality. Cambridge, MA:

Joint Center for Housing Studies of Harvard University, Neighborhood Reinvestment Corporation.

Tach, Laura M. 2009. “More Than Bricks and Mortar: Neighborhood Frames, Social Processes,

and the Mixed-Income Redevelopment of a Public Housing Project,” City and Community 8 (3):


Upshur, Carol C., Elaine Werby, and Gayle Epp. 1981. “Social Service Programs Essential for Mixed-Income Housing Developments,” Journal of Housing 38 (5): 262–269.

Wilson, William Julius. 1987. The Truly Disadvantaged: The Inner City, the Underclass, and Public Policy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

28 Mixed Messages on Mixed Incomes Ethnically Diverse HOPE VI Redevelopments: A Community Case Study From the Pacific Northwest JoDee Keller Pacific Lutheran University Janice Laakso Christine Stevens Cathy Tashiro University of Washington, Tacoma Abstract The authors examine a Pacific Northwest Housing Opportunities for People Everywhere (HOPE VI) site that, before redevelopment, was a vibrant, multiethnic community where neighbors united to address personal and community problems. We explore residents’ sense of community, trust, feelings toward neighbors, and views about diversity before and after redevelopment. Findings suggest that residents valued diversity before redevelopment and experienced a diminished sense of community after redevelopment. Results are mixed regarding the re-emergence of community. Identifying and meeting the needs of diverse populations is important to mixed-income HOPE VI sites, particularly with the country’s increasing diversity. Challenges in building and maintaining community are discussed, with recommendations for meeting the needs of ethnically diverse residents.

Introduction The Housing Opportunities for People Everywhere (HOPE VI) program originally was developed to address concerns with severely distressed public housing. Although the goals of the program have evolved and expanded over time, Salama (1999), through a review of legislative history and of U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development Notices of Funding Availability, distilled a list of the program’s major objectives. They include reducing the concentration of low-income

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residents, creating mixed-income communities, serving diverse households, promoting family self-sufficiency, building sustainable communities, and involving residents in planning and implementation.

Extensive HOPE VI research has identified a number of wide-ranging outcomes (Hanlon 2010;

Popkin, Eiseman, and Cove, 2004; Popkin et al., 2004). General outcomes include significant improvements in the physical quality of housing; increases in residents’ incomes, employment, and education (not surprising, because mixed-income communities have replaced exclusively lowincome communities); lower crime rates; an increase in racial diversity; and improved property management (Fraser and Nelson, 2008; Holin et al., 2003; Popkin, Levy, and Buron, 2009; Turbov and Piper, 2005). Other studies have found mixed results on the health and well-being of residents, however (Curley, 2009; Goetz, 2010). Case studies of individual sites are less positive and raise concerns about residents’ loss of social networks, instrumental support, and access to supportive services (Clampet-Lundquist, 2004; Curley, 2009; Goetz, 2010, 2002; Keller, 2012). Although an initial core principle expressed by architects of the HOPE VI program was the expectation that mixed-income communities would increase the social capital of poor residents, little evidence suggests that this outcome occurs (Curley, 2009; Goetz, 2010, 2002), and mixed-income communities may actually reduce social capital in formerly low-income communities (Clampet-Lundquist, 2004; Curley, 2010; Laakso, 2013).

Although HOPE VI sites have been studied extensively, it often is beyond the scope of the research to determine whether changes attributed to HOPE VI can be sustained over time and whether even the communities are viable. Increasingly, discussions have emerged about the program’s feasibility (Abravanel, Levy, and McFarland, 2009; Holin, et al., 2003; Wexler, 2001). Indeed, perhaps growing out of this concern, President Obama replaced HOPE VI with the Choice Neighborhoods program (HUD, 2011), which seeks to directly build on but greatly expand the aims of HOPE VI.

Choice Neighborhoods focuses on the broader community and on services beyond housing, particularly services and amenities that have wide appeal across incomes, including schools, retail, and parks (HUD, 2011). What about the communities that have been redeveloped under HOPE VI?

What are their prospects to maintain mixed-income and increasingly multiethnic communities?

Challenges of Mixed-Income, Mixed-Housing, and Multiethnic Communities Although focus on multiethnic aspects of HOPE VI communities has been limited, the literature on income diversity can illustrate some parallels to the benefits and challenges of promoting ethnic diversity. A central aim of HOPE VI was to create and maintain mixed-income communities. Although such communities were viewed as being beneficial for low-income residents because they could foster instrumental relationships in which low-income residents might find employment or other resources, these instrumental relationships may not have emerged for a number of reasons (Curley, 2009; Goetz, 2010, 2002). In fact, low-income residents may have had more instrumental relationships and stronger social ties within their former communities (Joseph, 2008; Keller, 2011;

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