FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Theses, dissertations, documentation

Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 34 | 35 || 37 | 38 |   ...   | 57 |

«Mixed Messages on Mixed incoMes Volume 15, Number 2 • 2013 U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development | Office of Policy Development and ...»

-- [ Page 36 ] --

When formally housed, the participants in our study were no more stable in terms of length of residence. The reasons for instability in the formal housing market, however, had to do with the inability to continue paying the contract rent and the desire to improve housing or neighborhood conditions. The very low incomes typically reported for the families in this study made contract rents difficult to afford for a long period. The number of moves prompted by a desire to improve housing conditions (and the fewer moves prompted by neighborhood conditions) suggests that these families made tradeoffs between affordability and housing quality that were also difficult to sustain over time.

High residential instability levels were common across all participants in the study. About one-half of the moves reported by households in the study were forced rather than discretionary. The emergent nature of forced moves typically produced a very truncated housing-search strategy that does not at all resemble the classic mobility model of information gathering and weighing of alternatives. The constraints faced by these families and the reliance on interpersonal sources of information and support meant that neighborhood concerns were mostly irrelevant, both in their search for housing and in their evaluation of that housing. When neighborhoods were important to the participants of this study, it was for the ways in which they did or did not enable the families to fulfill other basic needs. That is, the availability of transportation, affordable and accessible grocery shopping, and proximity to friends and family were listed as frequently as crime and safety as the important aspects of neighborhood.

The findings produced by this study of the housing careers of very low-income households provide some important context for current policy initiatives. No evidence from this study, for example, suggests that neighborhood conditions were a central consideration in mobility choices. Neighborhoods were rarely mentioned as a reason for moving or referenced when evaluating the quality of housing accommodations, and the self-evaluation of upward or downward mobility bore no relationship to improvements or declines in neighborhood conditions. These findings are not to say that policy should ignore neighborhood environment or livability issues for very low-income households. Very low-income households benefit from access to decent housing in a safe, livable neighborhood even if “neighborhood” is not often on their radar. An understanding of the housing patterns of very low-income households does, however, call into question whether neighborhood environment should be the driving force behind housing policy. Policies that presume that a change of neighborhood environment is enough to produce a change in the fortunes of very low-income families ignore the significant importance of informal support networks in the lives of the target households. Forced relocation out of communities and into opportunity neighborhoods is especially insensitive to the necessary social supports that low-income families construct and maintain. This insensitivity is especially true of programs in which displacement and relocation are typically the only intervention experienced by needy families, a fact that has been true of most public housing redevelopment efforts (Levy and Woolley, 2007).

Cityscape 167Skobba and Goetz

The introduction of more affluent families into mixed-income communities to achieve a diverse income mix provides little benefit for most very low-income households. This failure is especially true if introducing market-rate housing has the effect of reducing, rather than increasing, the amount of affordable housing immediately available to very low-income households, as has been demonstrated for so many public housing redevelopment efforts across the country (Goetz, 2013b).

Policies that focus on poverty deconcentration and mixed-income neighborhoods often set in motion secondary market effects that result in gentrification, which only exacerbates the housing problems of very low-income households. Redevelopment through mixed-income housing rarely includes a one-for-one replacement of low-cost housing; when it does, the replacement units are often in communities that lack access to public transportation and services on which low-income families rely, as Fraser, Oakley, and Bazuin (2011) pointed out. The experiences of families in this study point to a set of needs that are more proximate than a change in neighborhood environment.

Authors Kimberly Skobba is an assistant professor in the Department of Housing and Consumer Economics at the University of Georgia.

Edward G. Goetz is a professor of urban and regional planning in the Humphrey School of Public Affairs at the University of Minnesota.

References Anderson, Debra G., and Margaret A. Imle. 2001. “Families of Origin of Homeless and NeverHomeless Women,” Western Journal of Nursing Research 23 (4): 394–413.

Belli, Robert F. 1998. “The Structure of Autobiographical Memory and the Event History Calendar:

Potential Improvements in the Quality of Retrospective Reports in Surveys,” Memory 6 (4): 383–406.

Briggs, Xavier, Susan J. Popkin, and John Goering. 2010. Moving To Opportunity: The Story of an American Experiment To Fight Ghetto Poverty. New York: Oxford University Press.

Brown, Diane, and Lawrence E. Gary. 1987. “Stressful Life Events, Social Support Networks, and the Physical and Mental Health of Urban Black Adults,” Journal of Human Stress 13: 165–174.

Cisneros, Henry G., and Lora Engdahl, eds. 2009. From Despair to Hope: HOPE VI and the New Promise of Public Housing in America’s Cities. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.

Clampet-Lundquist, Susan. 2004. “Moving Over or Moving Up? Short-Term Gains and Losses for Relocated HOPE VI Families,” Journal of Policy Development and Research 7 (1): 57–80.

———. 2003. “Finding and Keeping Affordable Housing: Analyzing the Experiences of SingleMother Households in Philadelphia,” Journal of Sociology and Welfare 30 (4): 123–140.

Clark, Sherri Lawson. 2010. Housing Instability: Toward a Better Understanding of Frequent Residential Mobility Among America’s Urban Poor. Washington, DC: Center for Housing Policy. Also available at http://www.nhc.org/media/files/LawsonClark_analysis_for_child_mobility.pdf.

–  –  –

Clark, William A.V., Marinus C. Deurloo, and Frans M. Dieleman. 2003. “Housing Careers in the United States, 1968–93: Modelling the Sequencing of Housing States,” Urban Studies 40 (1): 143–160.

Connerly, Charles E. 1986. “The Impact of Neighborhood Social Relations on Prospective Mobility,” Social Science Quarterly 67 (1): 187–194.

Cook, Christine C., Susan R. Crull, C.N. Fletcher, T. Hinnant-Bernard, and J. Peterson. 2002.

“Meeting Family Housing Needs: Experiences of Rural Women in the Midst of Welfare Reform,” Journal of Family and Economic Issues 23 (3): 285–294.

Coulton, Claudia J., Brett Theodos, and Margery A. Turner. 2012. “Residential Mobility and Neighborhood Change: Real Neighborhoods Under the Microscope,” Cityscape 14 (3): 55–89.

Curley, Alexandra M. 2009. “Draining or Gaining? The Social Networks of Public Housing Movers in Boston,” Journal of Social and Personal Relationships 26 (2–3): 227–247.

Dawkins, Casey J. 2006. “Are Social Networks the Ties That Bind Families to Neighborhoods?” Housing Studies 21 (6): 867–882.

Dominguez, Silvia, and Celeste Watkins. 2003. “Creating Networks for Survival and Mobility:

Social Capital Among African-American and Latin-American Low-Income Mothers,” Social Problems 50 (1): 111–135.

Drake, St. Clair, and Horace Cayton. 1945. Black Metropolis: A Study of Negro Life in a Northern City.

Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Edin, Kathryn, and Laura Lein. 1997. Making Ends Meet: How Single Mothers Survive Welfare and Low-Wage Work. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

Ellen, Ingrid Gould, and Margery Austin Turner. 1997. “Does Neighborhood Matter? Assessing Recent Evidence,” Housing Policy Debate 8 (4): 833–866.

Fitchen, Janet M. 1992. “On the Edge of Homelessness: Rural Poverty and Housing Insecurity,” Rural Sociology 57 (2): 173–193.

Fraser, James, Deirdre Oakley, and Joshua Bazuin. 2011. “Public Ownership and Private Profit,” Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society: 1–16.

Freedman, Deborah, Arland Thornton, Donald Camburn, Duane Alwin, and Linda YoungDeMarco. 1988. “The Life History Calendar: A Technique for Collecting Retrospective Data,” Sociological Methodology 18: 37–68.

Furstenberg, Frank. 1993. “How Families Manage Risk and Opportunity in Dangerous Neighborhoods.” In Sociology and the Public Agenda, edited by W.J. Wilson. Newbury Park, CA: SAGE Publications: 231–258.

Goetz, Edward G. 2013a. “Too Good To Be True? The Variable and Contingent Benefits of Displacement and Relocation Among Low-Income Public Housing Residents,” Housing Studies 28 (2):


–  –  –

———. 2013b. New Deal Ruins: Race, Economic Justice, and Public Housing Policy. Ithaca NY: Cornell University Press.

Greenbaum, Susan, Wendy Hathaway, Cheryl Rodriguez, Ashley Spalding, and Beverly Ward.

2008. “Deconcentration and Social Capital: Contradictions of a Poverty Alleviation Policy,” Journal of Poverty 12 (2): 201–228.

Harknett, Kristen. 2006. “The Relationship Between Private Safety Nets and Economic Outcomes Among Single Mothers,” Journal of Marriage and Family 68: 172–191.

Jencks, Christopher, and Susan E. Mayer. 1990. “The Social Consequences of Growing Up in a Poor Neighborhood.” In Inner City Poverty in the United States, edited by Lawrence Lynn, Jr., and Michael McGeary. Washington, DC: National Academies Press: 111–186.

Kalil, Ariel, and Rebecca M. Ryan. 2010. “Mothers’ Economic Conditions and Sources of Support in Fragile Families,” The Future of Children 20 (2): 39–61.

Keene, Danya E., and Arline T. Geronimus. 2011. “Community-Based Support Among African American Public Housing Residents,” Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine 88 (1): 41–53.

Kendig, Hal. 1990. “A Life Course Perspective on Housing Attainment.” In Housing Demography:

Linking Demographic Structure and Housing Markets, edited by Dowell Myers. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press: 133–156.

Leopold, Josh. 2012. “The Housing Needs of Rental Assistance Applicants,” Cityscape 14 (2):


Levy, Diane K., and Mark Woolley. 2007. Relocation Is Not Enough: Employment Barriers Among HOPE VI Families. Urban Institute Policy Brief No. 6, June. Washington, DC: Urban Institute.

Liebow, Elliot. 1967. Talley’s Corner: A Study of Negro Streetcorner Men. Boston: Little, Brown and Co.

London, Rebecca A. 2000. “The Interaction Between Single Mothers’ Living Arrangements and Welfare Participation,” Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 19 (1): 93–117.

Long, Larry C., Jack Tucker, and William L. Urton. 1988. Migration and Residential Mobility in the United States. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

Manzo, Lynne C., Rachel Kleit, and Dawn Couch. 2008. “‘Moving Three Times Is Like Having Your House on Fire Once’: The Experience of Place and Impending Displacement Among Public Housing Residents,” Urban Studies 45 (9): 1855–1878.

Miller-Cribbs, Julie E., and Naomi B. Farber. 2008. “Kin Networks and Poverty Among African Americans: Past and Present,” Social Work 53 (1): 43–51.

Myers, Scott M. 2000. “The Impact of Religious Involvement on Migration,” Social Forces 79: 755–783.

Phinney, Robin, Sheldon Danziger, Harold A. Pollack, and Kristin Seefeldt. 2007. “Housing Instability Among Current and Former Welfare Recipients,” American Journal of Public Health 97 (5): 832–837.

–  –  –

Radey, Melissa, and Yolanda C. Padilla. 2009. “Kin Financial Support: Receipt and Provision Among Unmarried Mothers,” Journal of Social Service Research 35: 336–351.

Rainwater, Lee. 1970. Behind Ghetto Walls: Black Families in a Federal Slum. Chicago: Aldine.

Rollins, Joan H., Renee N. Saris, and Ingrid Johnston-Robledo. 2001. “Low-Income Women Speak Out About Housing: A High-Stakes Game of Musical Chairs,” Journal of Social Issues 57 (2): 277–298.

Roschelle, Anne R. 1997. No More Kin: Exploring Race, Class, and Gender in Family Networks. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.

Rossi, Alice, and Peter Rossi. 1990. Of Human Bonding: Parent-Child Relations Across the Life Course.

New York: Aldine de Gruyter.

Sigle-Rushton, Wendy, and Sara McLanahan. 2002. “The Living Arrangements of New Unmarried Mothers,” Demography 39 (3): 415–433.

Skobba, Kimberly. 2008. “The Influence of Section 8 Vouchers on the Housing Careers of Working Poor Families.” Dissertation, University of Minnesota.

Stack, Carol B. 1974. All Our Kin: Strategies for Survival in a Black Community. New York: Basic Books.

Teater, Barbra. 2009. “Factors Predicting Residential Mobility Among the Recipients of the Section 8 Housing Choice Voucher Program,” Journal of Sociology and Social Welfare 36 (3): 159–178.

Venkatesh, Sudhir. 2006. Off the Books: The Underground Economy of the Urban Poor. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Wellman, Barry, and Milena Gulia. 1999. “The Network Basis of Social Support: A Network Is More Than the Sum of Its Ties.” In Networks in the Global Village: Life in Contemporary Communities, edited by Barry Wellman. Boulder, CO: Westview Press: 83–118.

–  –  –

Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 34 | 35 || 37 | 38 |   ...   | 57 |

Similar works:

«UNESCO Dakar Annual Report UNESCO Dakar Annual Report 2013 Table of Contents Introduction: Chapter 1: Attaining quality education for all and lifelong learning Chapter 2: Mobilizing science knowledge and policy for sustainable development Chapter 3: Addressing emerging social challenges Chapter 4: Protecting heritage and fostering creativity Chapter 5: Building inclusive knowledge societies through information and communication Chapter 6: Cross Cutting Activities Annexes: 1. Financial Report 2....»

«Pleasurecraft Insurance Policy Product Disclosure Statement and Policy Document Table of contents Page Section A – About Club Marine Pleasurecraft Insurance 2 About Club Marine and Allianz 2 About Our Product Disclosure Statement 2 Significant features and benefits of the Club Marine Pleasurecraft Insurance Policy 3 Make sure You understand what is and is not covered 4 Excess 5 Applying for cover 5 Cooling off period 7 Section B – Your cover 8 Words with special meanings 9 Section 1 –...»

«Chapter 2 Perceptions of Policy Conceptualisations of policy vary across the field of education policy research, and sometimes even within a particular study (Ozga 1990). While understandings of policy have certainly developed and expanded over time, this is not to declare that there is a unified view on what policy ‘is’. Older ideas are not automatically supplanted by newer concepts as they emerge. Rather, a range of older and newer definitions are at work in contemporary education...»

«Knowledge and Skills for Policy Making: Stories from Local Public Managers in Florida Yahong Zhang Rutgers University at Newark Robert Lee and Kaifeng Yang Florida State University ABSTRACT Local public managers regularly participate in the legislative policy-making process and even play a leadership role in policy preparation and deliberation. This phenomenon challenges the dichotomy model of the politicsadministration relationship and raises some rarely studied questions: How do managers work...»

«Catherine Stagg-Macey and Craig Beattie Policy Administration Systems for General Insurers in Europe 2011 This authorised reprint contains material excerpted from a recent Celent report profiling and evaluating 40 different policy administration systems. The full report is 250 pages long. This report was not sponsored by RDT in any way. This reprint was prepared specifically for RDT, but the analysis presented has not been chagnes from that presented in the full report. For more information on...»

«10401's IDI L,lb. IDRC C11D 4C CANA DA THE IMPACT OF INFORMA T/ON ON POLICY FORMULA TION Latin America and the Caribbean Fay Durrant Senior Program Specialist International Development Research Centre Regional Office for Latin America and the Caribbean 1335 Plaza Cagancha, Montevideo, Uruguay Phone: 5982 922038-41 Fax : 5982 920223 Internet: fdurrant@idre.ca ( r ', THE IMPACT OF INFORMATION ON POLICY FORMULATION Latin America and the Caribbean ABSTRACT This presentation will discuss the...»

«UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH POLICY 11-02-02 CATEGORY: RESEARCH ADMINISTRATION SECTION: Technology Management SUBJECT: Copyrights EFFECTIVE DATE: September 5, 2006 Revised PAGE(S): 7 I. SCOPE In the course of teaching, research and other scholarly and administrative activities at the University, faculty, staff, postdoctoral associates, students and others may create works that are protected by copyright. Federal Copyright Law provides protection for original works of authorship automatically at the...»

«Principles for Ethical Equity Investing in Microfinance Institutions Submitted to: Deborah Drake, ACCION International PAE Advisor: Guy Stuart PAC Seminar Leader: Julie Wilson Prepared by: Ben Clark, Stephanie Lazicki and Suba Sivakumaran Master in Public Policy Candidates 2008 April 1st 2008 [Type text] HARVARD KENNEDY SCHOOL TABLE OF CONTENTS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND METHODOLOGY ANALYTICAL FINDINGS I. Self-Regulatory Models II. Stakeholder Engagement III. Disclosure and...»

«2016 HANDBOOK OF IMF FACILITIES FOR LOWINCOME COUNTRIES March 2016 IMF staff regularly produces papers proposing new IMF policies, exploring options for reform, or reviewing existing IMF policies and operations. The Report prepared by IMF staff and completed on February 22, 2016 has been released. The staff report was issued to the Executive Board for information. The report was prepared by IMF staff. The views expressed in this paper are those of the IMF staff and do not necessarily represent...»

«European Commission SOCIAL EXPERIMENTATION A methodological guide for policy makers Written by J-Pal Europe At the request of Directorate General for Employment, Social Affairs and Inclusion Version for the Ministerial conference “Innovative responses to the social impact of the crisis” organised by the Polish Presidency of the European Union – Wrocław, 26 September 2011 http://ec.europa.eu/social/innovationconference empl-innovation@ec.europa.eu The principle of social experimentation...»

«ANTAGONISMS, ALLIANCES AND FRIENDSHIPS: RELIGIOUS AND SEXUAL POLITICS IN THE POLISH PUBLIC SPHERE KASIA NARKOWICZ Thesis submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy Department of Geography University of Sheffield September 2014 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I want to thank the participants in Poland who entrusted me with their stories and made this thesis possible. I am grateful to my supervisors, Gill Valentine and Richard Phillips, whose commitment to my project, critical insights and high...»

«TOWARDS A REEVALUATION OF THE TONINÁ POLITY Eric TaladoirE Unité Mixte de Recherche, “Archéologie des Amériques”, Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne AbstrAct: Among the numerous polities of the Usumacinta region, Toniná stands as the worst defined. In spite of its reduced population, Toniná developed an aggressive policy, and won several victories upon close-by and distant cities as well. This article tries, from the available archaeological and epigraphic data, to draw a more...»

<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2016 www.theses.xlibx.info - Theses, dissertations, documentation

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.