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«A Journal of Policy Development and Research HoPe VI Volume 12, Number 1 • 2010 U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development Office of Policy ...»

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References Atkinson, Rowland, and Keith Kintrea. 2001. “Disentangling Area Effects: Evidence From Deprived and Non-Deprived Neighbourhoods,” Urban Studies 38 (12): 2277–2298.

Barrett, Edith J., Paul Geisel, and Jan Johnston. 2006. The Ramona Utti Report: Impacts of the Ripley Arnold Relocation Program: Year 3 (2004–5). Paper prepared for the city of Fort Worth, Texas.

Boston, Thomas D. 2005. “The Effects of Mixed-Income Revitalization and Residential Mobility on Public Housing Residents: A Case Study of the Atlanta Housing Authority,” Journal of the American Planning Association 71 (4): 1–19.

Brooks, Fred, Carole Zugazaga, James Wolk, and Mary Anne Adams. 2005. “Resident Perceptions of Housing, Neighborhood, and Economic Conditions After Relocation From Public Housing Undergoing HOPE VI Redevelopment,” Research on Social Work Practice 15 (6): 481–490.

Buron, Larry, Diane K. Levy, and Megan Gallagher. 2007. Housing Choice Vouchers: How HOPE VI Families Fared in the Private Market. Brief No. 3. Washington, DC: The Urban Institute, Metropolitan Housing and Communities Center.

Buron, Larry, Susan Popkin, Diane Levy, Laura Harris, and Jill Khadduri. 2002. The HOPE VI Resident Tracking Study. Washington, DC: The Urban Institute.

Carlson, Virginia, and Nic Theodore. 1997. “Employment Availability for Entry Level Workers: An Examination of the Spatial Mismatch Hypothesis in Chicago,” Urban Geography 18 (3): 228–242.

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Clampet-Lundquist, Susan. 2004. “Moving Over or Moving Up? Short-Term Gains and Losses for Relocated HOPE VI Families,” Journal of Policy Development and Research 7 (1): 57–80.

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Curley, Alexandra M. 2006. “HOPE and Housing: The Effects of Relocation on Movers’ Economic Stability, Social Networks, and Health.” Ph.D. diss., Boston University.

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Ellen, Ingrid Gould, and Margery Austin Turner. 1997. “Does Neighborhood Matter? Assessing Recent Evidence,” Housing Policy Debate 8 (4): 833–866.

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Fischer, Paul. 2003. Where Are the Public Housing Families Going? An Update. Available at http:// www.viewfromtheground.com/view.cfm/stories/sullivanreports.html.

Fraser, James, William Rohe, Shannon Van Zandt, and Chris Warren. 2004. Few Gardens HOPE VI Evaluation: Baseline Values for Economic Development and Neighborhood Revitalization. Report for the Durham Housing Authority. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, The Center for Urban and Regional Studies.

Gallagher, Megan, and Beata Bajaj. 2007. Moving On: Benefits and Challenges of HOPE VI for Children. June Brief No. 4. The Urban Institute, Metropolitan Housing and Communities Center.

Gibson, Karen J. 2007. “The Relocation of the Columbia Villa Community: Views From Residents.” Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Urban Affairs Association, April 26, Seattle, WA.

Goering, John, and Judith Feins. 2003. Choosing a Better Life? Evaluating the Moving To Opportunity Social Experiment. Washington, DC: Urban Institute Press.

Goetz, Edward G. 2003. Clearing the Way: Deconcentrating the Poor in Urban America. Washington, DC: Urban Institute Press.

———. 2002. “Forced Relocation vs. Voluntary Mobility: The Effects of Dispersal Programmes on Households,” Housing Studies 17 (1): 107–123.

Immergluck, Daniel. 1998. Neighborhood Jobs, Race, and Skills: Urban Unemployment and Commuting.

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Jacob, Brian. 2004. “Public Housing, Housing Vouchers, and Student Achievement: Evidence From Public Housing Demolitions in Chicago,” American Economic Review 94 (1): 233–258.

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Johnson-Hart, Lallen T. 2007. Residential Outcomes of HOPE VI Relocatees in Richmond, VA.

Unpublished master’s thesis, Virginia Commonwealth University.

Joseph, Mark, Robert Chaskin, and Henry Webber. 2007. “The Theoretical Basis for Addressing Poverty Through Mixed-Income Development,” Urban Affairs Review 42 (3): 369–409.

Kataria, Guarav, and Michael P. Johnson. 2004. Neighborhood Selection of Public Housing Residents in the Housing Choice Voucher Program: Quasi-Experimental Results From Chicago.

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28 HOPE VI Better Neighborhoods, Better Outcomes? Explaining Relocation Outcomes in HOPE VI Kaufman, Julie, and James Rosenbaum. 1992. “The Education and Employment of Low-Income Black Youth in White Suburbs,” Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis 14 (3): 229–240.

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Kingsley, G. Thomas, Jennifer Johnson, and Kathryn S. Pettit. 2003. “Patterns of Section 8 Relocation in the HOPE VI Program,” Journal of Urban Affairs 25 (4): 427–447.

Kleit, Rachel Garshick, and Lynne Manzo. 2006. “To Move or Not To Move: Relationships to Place and Relocation Choices in HOPE VI,” Housing Policy Debate 17 (2): 271–308.

Levy, Diane K., and Mark Woolley. 2007. Relocation Is Not Enough: Employment Barriers Among HOPE VI Families. June Brief No. 6. Washington, DC: The Urban Institute, Metropolitan Housing and Communities Center.

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Popkin, Susan J. 2006. “The HOPE VI Program: What Has Happened to the Residents?” In Where Are Poor People To Live? Transforming Public Housing Communities, edited by Larry Bennett, Janet L.

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Popkin, Susan J., and Elizabeth Cove. 2007. Safety Is the Most Important Thing: How HOPE VI Helped Families. Brief No. 2. Washington, DC: The Urban Institute, Metropolitan Housing and Communities Center.

Popkin, Susan J., Bruce Katz, Mary K. Cunningham, Karen Brown, Jeremy Gustafson, and Margery A. Turner. 2004. A Decade of Hope VI: Research Findings and Policy Challenges. Washington, DC: The Urban Institute.

Reed, Matthew Z. 2006. “Moving Out: Section 8 and Public Housing Relocation in Chicago.” Ph.D.

diss., Northwestern University, Department of Sociology.

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Trudeau, Daniel. 2006. “The Persistence of Segregation in Buffalo, New York: Comer vs. Cisneros and Geographies of Relocation Decisions Among Low-Income Black Households,” Urban Geography 27 (1): 20–44.

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Turney, Kristin, Susan Clampet-Lundquist, Kathryn Edin, Jeffrey R. Kling, and Greg J. Duncan.

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Does Moving Lead To Improvements in Housing and Neighborhood Conditions?” Housing Policy Debate 11 (1): 115–162.

Vigdor, Jacob L. 2007. “The Katrina Effect: Was There a Bright Side to the Evacuation of Greater New Orleans?” The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis and Policy 7 (1): 1–38.

Wexler, Harry J. 2001. “HOPE VI: Market Means/Public Ends—The Goals, Strategies, and Midterm Lessons of HUD’s Urban Revitalization Demonstration Program,” Journal of Affordable Housing 10 (3): 195–233.

Additional Reading Clampet-Lundquist, Susan. 2007. “No More ‘Bois Ball: The Effect of Relocation From Public Housing on Adolescents,” Journal of Adolescent Research 22 (3): 298–323.

Clark, Sherri. 2002. “Where the Poor Live: How Federal Housing Policy Shapes Residential Communities,” Urban Anthropology 31 (1): 69–92.

Cunningham, Mary K., Susan J. Popkin, and Martha R. Burt. 2005. Public Housing Transformation and the ‘Hard to House.’ Brief No. 9. Washington, DC: The Urban Institute, Metropolitan Housing and Communities Center.

Feins, Judith D., and Rhiannon Patterson. 2005. “Geographic Mobility in the Housing Choice Voucher Program: A Study of Families Entering the Program, 1995–2002,” Cityscape 8 (2): 21–47.

Kearns, Ade. 2002. “Response: From Residential Disadvantage to Opportunity? Reflections on British and European Policy and Research,” Housing Studies 17 (1): 145–150.

Kearns, Ade, and Phil Mason. 2007. “Mixed Tenure Communities and Neighbourhood Quality,” Housing Studies 22 (5): 661–691.

Newman, Sandra J., and Ann B. Schnare. 1997. “... And a Suitable Living Environment: The

Failure of Housing Programs To Deliver on Neighborhood Quality,” Housing Policy Debate 8 (4):


Popkin, Susan J., Larry F. Buron, Diane K. Levy, and Mary K. Cunningham. 2000. “The Gautreaux Legacy: What Might Mixed-Income and Dispersal Strategies Mean for the Poorest Public Housing Tenants?” Housing Policy Debate 11 (4): 911–942.

30 HOPE VI Better Neighborhoods, Better Outcomes? Explaining Relocation Outcomes in HOPE VI Popkin, Susan J., Laura E. Harris, and Mary K. Cunningham. 2001. Families in Transition: A Qualitative Analysis of the MTO Experience. Washington, DC: The Urban Institute.

Rosenbaum, James E. 1995. “Changing the Geography of Opportunity by Expanding Residential Choice: Lessons From the Gautreaux Program,” Housing Policy Debate 6 (1): 231–269.

Schwartz, Alex, and Kian Tajbakhsh. 1997. “Mixed-Income Housing: Unanswered Questions,” Cityscape: A Journal of Policy Development and Research 3 (2): 71–92.

Smith, Robin E. 2002. Housing Choice for HOPE VI Relocatees. Washington, DC: The Urban Institute.

Tunstall, Rebecca. 2003. “‘Mixed Tenure’ Policy in the UK: Privatization, Pluralism or Euphemism,” Housing, Theory and Society 20 (3): 153–159.

Turner, Margery Austin, Susan J. Popkin, and Mary Cunningham. 2000. Section 8 Mobility and Neighborhood Health: Emerging Issues and Policy Challenges. Washington, DC: The Urban Institute.

U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. 2003. Moving To Opportunity Interim Impacts Evaluation. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development.

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Abstract This study assessed the factors that shaped the development of shared trust, norms, reciprocity (TNR), and social ties—important foundations of social capital—for low-income HOPE VI (Housing Opportunities for People Everywhere) residents who relocated to new communities. A longitudinal mixed-methods approach revealed the distinct but understudied role that neighborhood institutions, facilities, and public spaces play in shaping observations, encounters, and interactions with other coresidents (as well as outsiders). Multivariate analyses of survey data indicate that neighborhood facilities and public spaces, such as parks, libraries, and recreation facilities, were very strong predictors of TNR among neighbors. Indepth interviews with relocated women revealed the ways in which neighborhood structure and public spaces can shape social encounters and relations in the neighborhood. This article presents a discussion of the ways in which these important but often overlooked neighborhood attributes can structure contact with neighbors and considers implications for policies aimed at improving low-income people’s access to social capital through relocation.

Introduction Although the concept of social capital is being used increasingly in policy discourse, our comprehension of how social capital is built, maintained, and accessed is far from complete. This article seeks to further our understanding by examining some of the potential mechanisms for developing Cityscape 33 Cityscape: A Journal of Policy Development and Research • Volume 12, Number 1 • 2010 U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development • Office of Policy Development and Research Curley social capital in the neighborhood and by considering how relocation might shape residents’ access to social capital. This study addresses a key question: What is the role of the neighborhood for the development of trust, interactions, and ties with coresidents and with outsiders? Specifically, the study explores how neighborhood attributes affected the development of these important precursors to social capital for low-income residents who were relocated to different types of communities through the HOPE VI Program.

Social capital describes a unique and important set of resources that can both depend on and enhance our economic and human capital (Bourdieu, 1986). As a resource that flows through social networks and relationships based on trust, norms, and reciprocity (TNR), social capital helps facilitate productive activity that can benefit individuals and groups (Coleman, 1988; Putnam, 2000). Much of the social capital literature has focused on social networks and how they can help us “get by” and “get ahead” in life by providing resources of support and social leverage (Briggs,

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