«A Journal of Policy Development and Research HoPe VI Volume 12, Number 1 • 2010 U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development Office of Policy ...»
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Additional Reading Clampet-Lundquist, Susan. 2007. “No More ‘Bois Ball: The Effect of Relocation From Public Housing on Adolescents,” Journal of Adolescent Research 22 (3): 298–323.
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Abstract This study assessed the factors that shaped the development of shared trust, norms, reciprocity (TNR), and social ties—important foundations of social capital—for low-income HOPE VI (Housing Opportunities for People Everywhere) residents who relocated to new communities. A longitudinal mixed-methods approach revealed the distinct but understudied role that neighborhood institutions, facilities, and public spaces play in shaping observations, encounters, and interactions with other coresidents (as well as outsiders). Multivariate analyses of survey data indicate that neighborhood facilities and public spaces, such as parks, libraries, and recreation facilities, were very strong predictors of TNR among neighbors. Indepth interviews with relocated women revealed the ways in which neighborhood structure and public spaces can shape social encounters and relations in the neighborhood. This article presents a discussion of the ways in which these important but often overlooked neighborhood attributes can structure contact with neighbors and considers implications for policies aimed at improving low-income people’s access to social capital through relocation.
Introduction Although the concept of social capital is being used increasingly in policy discourse, our comprehension of how social capital is built, maintained, and accessed is far from complete. This article seeks to further our understanding by examining some of the potential mechanisms for developing Cityscape 33 Cityscape: A Journal of Policy Development and Research • Volume 12, Number 1 • 2010 U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development • Office of Policy Development and Research Curley social capital in the neighborhood and by considering how relocation might shape residents’ access to social capital. This study addresses a key question: What is the role of the neighborhood for the development of trust, interactions, and ties with coresidents and with outsiders? Specifically, the study explores how neighborhood attributes affected the development of these important precursors to social capital for low-income residents who were relocated to different types of communities through the HOPE VI Program.
Social capital describes a unique and important set of resources that can both depend on and enhance our economic and human capital (Bourdieu, 1986). As a resource that flows through social networks and relationships based on trust, norms, and reciprocity (TNR), social capital helps facilitate productive activity that can benefit individuals and groups (Coleman, 1988; Putnam, 2000). Much of the social capital literature has focused on social networks and how they can help us “get by” and “get ahead” in life by providing resources of support and social leverage (Briggs,