WWW.THESES.XLIBX.INFO
FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Theses, dissertations, documentation
 
<< HOME
CONTACTS



Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 21 | 22 || 24 | 25 |   ...   | 38 |

«Contesting the streets Volume 18, number 1 • 2016 U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development | Office of Policy Development and Research ...»

-- [ Page 23 ] --

Health-code violations written by top ticket-writing officers were 2.35 percent more likely to default than administrative violations written by other officers. It may be that top ticket-writing officers are more likely to ticket clear health-code violations by vendors, who then end up going out of business or changing what they sell.

–  –  –

Conclusions and Implications for Future Research The results presented in the previous section suggest that both situational and violation-specific factor attributes influence the probability that a vendor will default in payment of a ticket. As expected, the odds of default in payment for more expensive fines compared with odds for lower fines were greater. Results presented here suggest more crystal-clear violation statutes, lower fine amounts, and attention to the time of day and even seasonality can all influence fine payment, the management of public enforcement costs, and thus the fining of “the hand that feeds you.” The implications of this research suggest that street-vending policy needs to take into account the interactions between both factor types when managing public costs of vending-regulation enforcement. Our findings also propose a few considerations of interest to city police departments, city planners, and policymakers interested in increasing compliance, and thus city revenues. From a policy perspective, the findings uncovered here suggest policymakers should aim to rewrite ambiguous vending statutes so that they are crystal clear in interpretation. First, stakeholders who are in a position to rewrite ambiguous statutes should consider doing so. Officers who are in charge of levying street-vending tickets should likewise be mindful of whether the cited violation is crystal clear to the vendor or open to interpretation. That vendors are more likely overall to pay fines for crystal-clear statute violations is information that could help increase the payment of future imposed fines, and it is important information for city planners as they work to manage public costs.

For vendors, it would be beneficial if all violations were crystal clear. Street vendors might be better able to avoid future tickets if they clearly understood how additional violations could be avoided, thus increasing their business revenue. Crystal-clear tickets could work as a learning tool for vendors working to be in compliance and wishing to reduce future fines. Muddy violations, however, are open to officers’ interpretation, and vendors may feel unsure about how to avoid such tickets in the future. If a goal of issuing tickets is to prevent future occurrences, statutes must be written in a way to effectively educate the vendor on why they were in violation in the first place (Kettles, 2014; Morales and Kettles, 2009).

More detailed analyses of the practices of the top ticket-writing cops could also yield important information for street-vending stakeholders. Our findings confirm those by earlier researchers that street vendors are more likely to pay fines that range from $25 to $100 compared with greater fine levels. Although a cost-benefit analysis of lower fine amounts is beyond the capabilities of this article, future research of such an analysis would be vital to cities looking to increase their violation revenue.

Expanding these initial questions is of importance. Our findings regarding compliance were from the perspective of the officer issuing the citation and with respect to situational factors. Such factors are a proxy for the issuing officer’s perception of the situation and the policing policy that officer is enacting. Thus, it is one side of the compliance problem and process. The social process of compliance must also include the perspective of the vendor responding to being ticketed and also the bureaucratic and organizational intricacies of this larger social process of compliance. Our research agenda must comprehend other components of this larger process and we offer a few thoughts in this regard.

Cityscape 103Carroll, Basinski, and Morales

Further, and importantly, to produce some comparison of the factors we analyzed, we are seeking new data from after the policy change. Note that the research presented here uses citation data from 2010; these data are from tickets that were issued before the 2013 vending policy change that lowered fine levels. Using the 2010 data enabled us to follow up on the earlier efforts and findings of Davis and Morales (2012). The 2010 citation data were also the most readily accessible citation data available, given the arduous task of obtaining and entering the fine information from paper tickets provided by the city.

Future efforts would use citation data from after the 2013 policy change, to compare whether results are similar to our current findings. It may be that an anchor effect occurs after the policy change in that, after fines are reduced, vendors are more likely to now default on moderately priced tickets than they were before the policy change. Additional research efforts could compare the likelihood of payment default before and after the policy change by building off of the prepolicy change findings presented here.

We examined and coded vending regulations in the data set from the perspective of whether the rule itself was legally ambiguous. Additional coding of vending statutes could consider how the vendors themselves would view these regulations and whether variation in interpretation occurs based on vendor characteristics. For example, vendors may consider certain violations to be justifiable and others simply a nuisance, regardless of whether the regulation is clearly interpreted. Further, characteristics such as the education level of the vendor may represent additional situational factors that may influence both regulation interpretation and the likelihood of default in payment.





Such questions could be answered via the collection of additional primary data examining how vendor-level demographics influence the interpretation of existing statute wording and how differences in interpretation influence the likelihood of violation default in payment. Coupling such primary data with existing secondary data on vending violations after the policy change could yield further insights for managing public costs of regulation.

In addition to analyzing such organizational and situational factors, we suggest further analysis regarding the aforementioned perspective of the vendor, which is not well understood and again provides a number of important questions for future research. Possibly the first of these is whether vendors would agree with the coding scheme we used here. Developing a clearer understanding of how vendors perceive the citation, and act on it, is essential to understanding the social process of compliance.

Although the city council reduced vending penalties by 50 percent in 2013, the city needs to take further steps to make the current structure of street-vending violations clear for the city’s vendors.

Policy statutes are often written from the legal enforcement perspective and, as such, can be challenging to navigate and interpret without adequate training. Revising current street-vending statutes so that regulations are not contradictory across city agencies would be beneficial for vendors and officers alike; such revisions could help reduce the public cost of enforcement by minimizing violations that vendors might think are unclear.

Large cities such as NYC should also be mindful that violations imposed during slower and financially stressed business times of the year may be more susceptible to lack of payment; we found the likelihood of default higher during the winter. The results uncovered here indicate that vendors

–  –  –

who are issued violations in Manhattan are more likely to default in payment than vendors who are issued tickets in other boroughs. Although these results may be attributed to the large number of vendors in Manhattan as a whole, it is still vital information for officers policing street vendors in NYC.

Acknowledgments The authors thank Gregg Kettles for providing invaluable legal expertise and assistance with data coding, Anna Alice Reznickova and Raphael Bostic for helpful comments, and John Davis and Molly Levine for excellent research assistance.

Authors Kathryn A. Carroll is a Ph.D. candidate in consumer behavior and household economics at the University of Wisconsin-Madison.

Sean Basinski is the Director of the Street Vendor Project at the Urban Justice Center.

Alfonso Morales is a professor of urban and regional planning at the University of WisconsinMadison.

References Austin, Regina. 1994. “‘An Honest Living’: Street Vendors, Municipal Regulation, and the Black Public Sphere,” Yale Law Journal 103 (1): 2119–2131.

Bluestone, Daniel M. 1991. “‘The Pushcart Evil’: Peddlers, Merchants, and New York City’s Streets, 1890–1940,” Journal of Urban History 18 (1): 68–92.

Braimoh, Ademola K., and Takashi Onishi. 2007. “Spatial Determinants of Urban Land Use Change in Lagos, Nigeria,” Land Use Policy 24 (2): 502–515.

Bromley, Ray. 2000. “Street Vending and Public Policy: A Global Review,” International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy 20 (1/2): 1–28.

Bryson, Alex, and John Forth. 2007. Are There Day of the Week Productivity Effects? Research Report.

London, United Kingdom: London School of Economics, Centre for Economic Performance.

City of New York. 2015. “Street Vending Fact Sheet.” http://www.nyc.gov/html/sbs/nycbiz/ downloads/pdf/educational/sector_guides/street_vending.pdf.

Davis, John, and Alfonso Morales. 2012. Fining the Hand That Feeds You: Street Vendor Fines and Increasing Revenues to New York City. Working Paper 12-01. Madison, WI: University of

Wisconsin-Madison, Department of Urban and Regional Planning. Available at SSRN 2122594:

http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2122594.

–  –  –

Devlin, Ryan Thomas. 2011. “‘An Area That Governs Itself’: Informality, Uncertainty and the Management of Street Vending in New York City,” Planning Theory 10 (1): 53–65.

Duneier, Mitchell. 1999. Sidewalk. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.

Elliott, Alan C., and Joan S. Reisch. 2006. “Implementing a Multiple Comparison Test for Proportions in a 2xC Crosstabulation in SAS®.” In Proceedings of the SAS User’s Group International 31 Conference, March 26–29, San Francisco, CA: Paper 204-31: 1–6.

Engel, Robin Shepard, and Jennifer M. Calnon. 2004. “Examining the Influence of Drivers’ Characteristics During Traffic Stops With Police: Results From a National Survey,” Justice Quarterly 21 (1):

49–90.

Horowitz, Joel L., and N.E. Savin. 2001. “Binary Response Models: Logits, Probits and Semiparametrics,” Journal of Economic Perspectives 15 (4): 43–56.

Hosmer, David W., Jr., Stanley Lemeshow, and Rodney X. Sturdivant. 2013. Applied Logistic Regression. Vol. 398. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.

Ingram, Jason R. 2007. “The Effect of Neighborhood Characteristics on Traffic Citation Practices of the Police.” Police Quarterly 10 (4): 371–393.

Kettles, Gregg. 2014. “Crystals, Mud, and Space: Street Vending Informality.” In The Informal American City: Beyond Taco Trucks and Day Labor, edited by Vinit Mukhija and Anastasia LoukaitouSideris. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press: 227–242.

Krizek, Kevin J., and Pamela Jo Johnson. 2006. “Proximity to Trails and Retail: Effects on Urban Cycling and Walking,” Journal of the American Planning Association 72 (1): 33–42.

Leggat, Margaret, Bonnie Kerker, Cathy Nonas, and Elliott Marcus. 2012. “Pushing Produce: The New York City Green Carts Initiative,” Journal of Urban Health 89 (6): 937–938.

Makowsky, Michael D., and Thomas Stratmann. 2009. “Political Economy at Any Speed: What Determines Traffic Citations?” The American Economic Review 99 (1): 509–527.

Marritz, I. 2015. “Stricter Rules Fail To Dent Black Market for Vendor Permits,” WNYC News, May 1,

2015. http://www.wnyc.org/story/stricter-rules-fail-dent-black-market-vendor-permits/.

Meehan, Albert J., and Michael C. Ponder. 2002. “Race and Place: The Ecology of Racial Profiling African American Motorists,” Justice Quarterly 19 (3): 399–430.

Morales, Alfonso, and Gregg Kettles. 2009. “Healthy Food Outside: Farmers’ Markets, Taco Trucks, and Sidewalk Fruit Vendors,” Journal of Contemporary Health Law and Policy 26 (1): 20–48.

Petrocelli, Matthew, Alex R. Piquero, and Michael R. Smith. 2003. “Conflict Theory and Racial Profiling: An Empirical Analysis of Police Traffic Stop Data,” Journal of Criminal Justice 31 (1): 1–11.

Phillips, J., E. Cripps, John W. Lau, and M.R. Hodkiewicz. 2015. “Classifying Machinery Condition Using Oil Samples and Binary Logistic Regression,” Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing 60–61 (August 2015): 316–325.

–  –  –

Schwefel, Brittany. 2011. An Exploratory Analysis of 2009–2010 Food Truck Violations in New York City. Working paper. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin-Madison, Department of Urban and Regional Planning.

Sluszka, Sara, and Sean Basinski. 2006. Peddling Uphill: A Report on the Conditions of Street Vendors in New York City. New York: Urban Justice Center, Street Vendor Project.

Stoller, Paul. 2002. Money Has No Smell: The Africanization of New York City. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Taylor, Denise S., Valerie K. Fishell, Jessica L. Derstine, Rebecca L. Hargrove, Natalie R. Patterson, Kristin W. Moriarty, Beverly A. Battista, Hope E. Ratcliffe, Amy E. Binkoski, and Penny M. KrisEtherton. 2000. “Street Foods in America: A True Melting Pot,” World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics 86 (1): 25–44.

Turetsky, Doug, Eddie Vega, and Bernard O’Brien. 2010. Sidewalk Standoff: Street Vendor Regulations Are Costly, Confusing, and Leave Many Disgruntled. New York: New York City Independent Budget Office.

White, David, and Simon Washington. 2001. “Safety-Restraint Use Rate as Function of Law Enforcement and Other Factors: Preliminary Analysis,” Transportation Research Record 1779: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, Paper No. 01-2866: 109–115.

–  –  –



Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 21 | 22 || 24 | 25 |   ...   | 38 |


Similar works:

«THE BROOKINGS INSTITUTION CENTER FOR EAST ASIA POLICY STUDIES WHITHER NORTHEAST ASIA? MANAGING TENSIONS AND AVOIDING CONFLICT IN A TROUBLED REGION Evans J.R. Revere Nonresident Senior Fellow Center for East Asia Policy Studies The Brookings Institution December 2013 THE BROOKINGS INSTITUTION 1775 Massachusetts Avenue, NW Washington D.C. 20036-2188 Tel: (202)797-6000 Fax: (202)797-2485 http://www.brookings.edu Summary Tensions are rising in Northeast Asia, threatening more than a generation of...»

«13 Pence, Amponsah, Chalamanda, Habtom, Kameka, & Nankunda ECD Policy Development and Implementation in Africa Alan R. Pence University of Victoria Margaret Amponsah Ministry of Education, Youth, and Sports, Ghana Francis Chalamanda Ministry of Gender, Child Welfare, and Community Services, Malawi Abeba Habtom Ministry of Education, Eritrea George Kameka Ministry of Labour, Youth Development, and Sports, Tanzania Hilda Nankunda Makarere Institute of Social Research, Uganda Abstract: ECD...»

«Research Policy Brief 26 Managing Capital Flows in Asia: Policy Issues and Challenges Masahiro Kawai and Mario B. Lamberte June 2008 The Asian Development Bank Institute’s (ADBI) research policy briefs are short, nontechnical pieces that summarize the key messages from ADBI research projects. They are available online via http://www.adbi.org/publications/ and in hardcopy. Asian Development Bank Institute Kasumigaseki Building 8F 3-2-5 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku Tokyo 100-6008, Japan Tel:...»

«444 North Capitol Street, N.W., Suite 315 Washington, DC 20001 tel: (202) 624-5828 fax: (202) 624-7875 www.astswmo.org ASTSWMO Product Stewardship Framework Policy Document Prepared by the Product Stewardship Task Force of the ASTSWMO Sustainability Subcommittee Introduction The following product stewardship policy document outlines many of the components and issues that States are grappling with as they consider how to effectively implement product stewardship for a wide variety of products...»

«SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION: RECENT POLICY DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTH AFRICA The development of science, technology and innovation policy in South Africa has generally followed a similar path to that of most OECD countries in terms of a “National System of Innovation” (NSI) approach. However it must be noted that South Africa’s first democratic government only came into power in the mid-1990’s and the policy development phase ran through much of the 1996, 1997 years. The years...»

«UNESCO Dakar Annual Report UNESCO Dakar Annual Report 2013 Table of Contents Introduction: Chapter 1: Attaining quality education for all and lifelong learning Chapter 2: Mobilizing science knowledge and policy for sustainable development Chapter 3: Addressing emerging social challenges Chapter 4: Protecting heritage and fostering creativity Chapter 5: Building inclusive knowledge societies through information and communication Chapter 6: Cross Cutting Activities Annexes: 1. Financial Report 2....»

«UNIVERSIDAD COMPLUTENSE DE MADRID Facultad de Ciencias Políticas y Sociología Departamento de Derecho Internacional Público y Relaciones Internacionales (Estudios Internacionales) SEGURIDAD Y RELACIONES INTERNACIONALES 2º CUATRIMESTRE Curso 2012-2013 Catedrático: Antonio Marquina 1.Definición conceptual: Seguridad, Seguridad Nacional, Defensa Nacional, Seguridad Cooperativa, Seguridad Colectiva. Asociación de Seguridad. Defensa Nacional y Estudios Estratégicos 2.Tipología de los...»

«Hamilton College Administrative Information Systems Security Policy and Procedures Approved by the IT Committee (December 2004) Table of Contents Summary Overview Definition of Administrative Information Employee Information Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA) Student “Directory Information”, as defined by FERPA Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act (GLBA) Security Administration Passwords Student Employees Web Access to Information Department Security Manager Responsibilities Anti-Virus...»

«Contesting media frames and policy change The influence of media frames of immigration policy-related incidents contesting dominant policy frames on changes in Dutch immigration policies Rianne Dekker & Peter Scholten Department of Public Administration Erasmus University Rotterdam P.O. Box 1738 3000 DR Rotterdam r.dekker@fsw.eur.nl Abstract Incidents related to government policies often spur media attention that puts current policies into question. Contesting issue frames in media coverage may...»

«OCTOBER TERM, 2012 1 (Slip Opinion) Syllabus NOTE: Where it is feasible, a syllabus (headnote) will be released, as is being done in connection with this case, at the time the opinion is issued. The syllabus constitutes no part of the opinion of the Court but has been prepared by the Reporter of Decisions for the convenience of the reader. See United States v. Detroit Timber & Lumber Co., 200 U. S. 321, 337.SUPREME COURT OF THE UNITED STATES Syllabus HILLMAN v. MARETTA CERTIORARI TO THE SUPREME...»

«Land Tenure Working Paper 14 LAND POLICY DEVELOPMENT IN AN AFRICAN CONTEXT LESSONS LEARNED FROM SELECTED EXPERIENCES Paul De Wit Christopher Tanner Simon Norfolk with the supervision of Paul Mathieu and Paolo Groppo Land Tenure and Management Unit (NRLA) October 2009 FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS LAND POLICY DEVELOPMENT IN AN AFRICAN CONTEXT LESSONS LEARNED FROM SELECTED EXPERIENCES Paul De Wit Christopher Tanner Simon Norfolk with the supervision of Paul Mathieu and...»

«Works Procurement Policy Office of the Chief Procurement Officer health.wa.gov.au Works Procurement Policy MP 0013/16 Office Of the Chief Procurement Officer Effective: 1 July 2016 Title: Works Procurement Policy Contents Works Procurement Policy 3 1 Background 3 2 In-house Procurement of Works 3 3 BMW Managed Works 4 4 In-House Value Limit 5 5 Evaluating Risk and Complexity 5 6 Register of Works 8 7 Roles and responsibilities 8 8 Compliance 8 9 Evaluation 8 10 Policy Owner 8 APPENDIX 1 –...»





 
<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2016 www.theses.xlibx.info - Theses, dissertations, documentation

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.