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«COMPILATION OF THE RESPONSES TO THE UNCTAD QUESTIONNAIRE Part I: Public Monopolies, Concessions and Competition Law and Policies COMPILATION OF THE ...»

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En general, a pesar de que Panamá cuenta con un mercado pequeño en comparación al de otros países de la región, las telecomunicaciones representan una actividad de constante crecimiento, que se ha beneficiado con el incremento en el número de prestadores que ofrecen una diversificación de productos y servicios de mayor calidad y mejores precios.

SECTOR DE RADIO Y TELEVISIÓN

Considerando los servicios de Radio y Televisión Abierta, se puede decir que el amparo de las concesiones bajo la Ley No. 24 han traído beneficio a los consumidores considerando que las empresas han mejorado la calidad del servicio mediante la adquisición y renovación de equipos, incrementándose la competencia comercial para la captación de un mayor público.

Por otro lado, en cuanto a servicios de Televisión Pagada, ha habido un incremento de concesiones para brindar este servicio, lo cual beneficiará al consumidor con mayores alternativas en el mercado y mejores precios, sobre todo en sistemas que ofrecen paquetes de servicios (Televisión, Internet y Telefonía).

Perú

1. ¿Cuántas concesiones, y de qué tipo, se han otorgado en el país? ¿Cuál es la duración habitual o media de una concesión?

Sin respuesta

2. ¿Cuáles fueron las modalidades empleadas para otorgar concesiones (oferta, licitación pública, decreto, etc.)? ¿Hay en el país alguna ley que rija el otorgamiento y la rescisión de concesiones? ¿En los acuerdos de concesión se incluyen disposiciones que permitan la rescisión por parte del Gobierno?

Sin respuesta

3. ¿Se han tomado en cuenta las consideraciones relativas a la competencia en el otorgamiento de concesiones? ¿Qué nuevas consideraciones o cuestiones se han planteado como consecuencia de las concesiones otorgadas en el país?

¿Se ha dado a los concesionarios protección especial con respecto al abuso de posición de dominio, la entrada o el control de los precios al otorgárseles una concesión?

Sobre los temas de competencia que se han presentado en las concesiones en el Perú, corresponde destacar que se ha tramitado ante la comisión de Defensa de la Libre Competencia (en adelante, CLC) y la Sala de Defensa de la Competencia del Tribunal del INDECOPI (en adelante, SDC) un procedimiento contra el operador de una concesión de transporte ferroviario de carga y pasajeros.

El caso fue iniciado de oficio y por denuncia de Ferrocarril Santuario Inca Machupicchu S.A.C. contra Ferrocarril Transadino S.S. (en adelante, Fetrans), concesionario de la infraestructura del Ferrocarril Sur Oriente, tramo Cusco Machupicchu - Hidroeléctrica, por un abuso de posición de dominio consistente en la negativa injustificada de alquiler del material tractivo y rodante que le fue entregado con la concesión otorgada por el Estado Peruano.

Conforme al contrato de concesión, el concesionario tenía a su disposición la totalidad del material tractivo y rodante que el Estado le otorgó sin contraprestación. Fetrans arrendó el referido material en su integridad a Perurail S.A., su operador vinculado para la prestación del servicio de transporte de carga y pasajeros, y argumentó la existencia de esta relación contractual como justificación para negar el alquiles a otros potenciales entrantes.

Mediante Resolución 1122-2007/TDC-INDECOPI del 2 de julio de 2007 expedida por la SDC, se declaró fundada la denuncia por considerar que el operador ostentaba posición dominante y que el Contrato de concesión suscrito con el Estado Peruano no amparaba la posibilidad de rechazar las solicitudes de operadores no vinculados reacceder al material y, por el contrario, le imponía un deber de no discriminación, por lo que la negativa de trato resultaba injustificada.

Por otro lado, se debe señalar que en el Perú, la Ley 26876 - Ley Antimonopolio y Antioligopolio del Sector Eléctrico regula las operaciones de concentración empresarial que involucren a las empresas que participen en las actividades de generación, transmisión y distribución eléctrica conforme a los umbrales que se establecen en la citada norma para concentraciones verticales u horizontales. En la experiencia del Indecopi, se han presentado solicitudes de autorización previa para operaciones de concentración en el sector eléctrico que involucran a empresas concesionarias de las actividades de transmisión o distribución eléctrica.

4. ¿Qué sectores de la economía están exentos de la aplicación del derecho sobre la competencia? ¿Qué sectores o qué tipo de concesiones son objeto de una reglamentación específica? ¿Las concesiones están sujetas al derecho nacional sobre la competencia?

En el Perú no existen sectores exentos de la ley de competencia, por lo que el Decreto Legislativo 1034- Ley de Represión de conductas Anticompetitivas se aplica a todos los sectores de la economía.

Sin embargo, existen actividades que se encuentran bajo regulación específica en las que la ley de competencia se aplica supletoriamente (aquellos sectores vinculados a la existencia de monopolios naturales o facilidades esenciales). Así existe regulación específica para los mercados de energía, telecomunicaciones, agua y saneamiento, e infraestructura de transporte de uso público (aeropuertos, vías férreas, entre otros).

Finalmente, corresponde señalar que las concesiones también están sujetas a la ley de competencia salvo en aquello que esté sometido a la regulación sectorial específica.





5. ¿Hay pruebas de que las concesiones hayan aportado beneficios a los consumidores del país en términos de infraestructura, diversificación, calidad, precios o bienestar general del consumidor?

Sin respuesta.

PNG

1. How many and what type of concessions have been granted in your country?

What is the typical/average duration of a concession?

TELECOMMUNICATIONS

The current ICT Policy of the Government of PNG (GoPNG) allows for only one licensed General Carrier in the Telecommunication industry. Telikom (PNG) Limited, the domicile incumbent is the only General Carrier licensee. The licence was issued in 2002 for duration of 10 years with a 7 year renewal option although current government policy prevents further issuance of a General Carrier Licence? Until such policy is changed, the Competition Authority cannot issue a licence. There are two public mobile licensed operators competing in the mobile telecommunications market. A third operator is soon to commence.

ELECTRICITY

A concession currently exists for the current government owned electricity monopoly to be the only retailer of electricity services. The Concession is for the duration of the monopoly’s electricity retail licence which is 10 years with a 7 year renewal. The licence was issued in 2002.

2. What were the modalities for creating a concession (Public offering/tender, decree, etc.)? Is there a law in your country for the granting/termination of concessions? Are there provisions in concession agreements which allow the government to terminate the concession?

Concessions are usually time-limited and are generally created by the Government of PNG through the issuance of a Government Policy. Government Policy that formalises the concession/s are required to be consistent with the provisions of that particular industry specific legislation and the regulatory contract signed between the Regulator (“the PNG ICCC”) and the utility service provider. The current monopolies in the PNG context are granted by Government Policy and the Government of PNG.

Amendments to and or termination of existing policies can be undertaken by the Government of PNG, on consideration such as the need to introduce competition into a specific sector or segment of that market.

3. Were competition concerns taken into account at the time of granting a concession? What are the competition concerns or issues that have arose from concessions in your country? Was special protection in regard to dominance, entry or price control granted to concessionaires at the time of granting a concession?

Although competition concerns were present, the decision to grant concessions were largely driven by the Government’s intention then to rehabilitate the utility service providers up to a stage where they can be attractive for public private partnerships in the ownership and operation of these government utilities.

The major concerns arising from continued concessions are the unreliability of services and the high charges applied. Competition in the mobile telecommunications which was introduced in 2007 has resulted in very significant benefits to the country.

The Government of PNG announced in its 2008 budget documents that mobile competition alone has resulted in a 0.7% growth in GDP.

Special protection was related to entry of competition. In doing so, price regulation was also introduced to ensure these utilities do not price for inefficiencies. Dominance of public monopolies is subject to the competition law of PNG, the Independent Consumer and Competition Act 2002 (ICCC Act).

4. Which sectors from your economy are exempted from competition law? Which sectors or what type of concessions are under a specific regulatory oversight?

Are concessions subject to the national competition law?

All sectors of the economy are subject to the competition. There is a range of exceptions contained in the Act (to sections 65 and 66) which remove particular types of conduct or arrangements from the application of Part VI of the ICCC Act.

Included in these exceptions are, for example, an exception for acts or things specifically authorised by other legislation; intellectual property agreements; and employment agreements. The sorts of things exempted in the ICCC Act, of which these are only examples, are typical of the exemptions in other competition laws around the world.

There are some sectors that are under specific regulatory oversight, mainly declared goods and services such as the telecommunications, third party motor vehicle insurance, electricity, water and sewerage, postal services and harbours.

Concessions given for industries may be subjected to the national competition law unless exempted or an exception is granted, in which case it may not be subject to the national competition law.

5. Is there evidence in your country that concessions have brought about benefits for consumers in terms of greater infrastructure, diversification, higher quality, better prices; overall consumer welfare?

The evidence to date has been that concessions have not resulted in the desired public benefits through affordable prices and quality of service. For example, the entry of competition in the mobile telecommunications industry has resulted in the growth of telecommunications from less than 2% in 2006 to about 20% currently. The government of PNG acknowledged the contribution of such competition in its budgetary documentary about the impact of competition on the GDP which indicates the potential benefits of open market competition.

Poland

Concessions (licences) shall be granted in the case of activities which are of particular importance due to the security of state or citizens or other public interest. The concession is a manifestation of the regulation of economic activities carried out by the state. Concession is the act of consent by the public authority to undertake and conduct particular business by particular enterprise. The types of activities which need to be licensed are listed exhaustively in the Act on Freedom of Business Activity.

These are:

- searching, discernment of depositions of minerals

- manufacturing and trading of explosives, firearms and ammunition

- manufacturing, processing, storage, transmission, distribution and trading of fuels and energy

- safeguarding of persons and property

- dissemination of television and radio programmes

- air carriage All the licensed activities are specifically regulated by the relevant laws. The concession is granted for a specific period, but not less than 5 years and not more than 50 years. The Act on Freedom of Business Activity says that the competent Minister grants, modifies and withdraws the concessions. However, there are numerous exemptions from this rule, giving these powers to other entities (e.g. the President of the Energy Regulatory Office).

When the number of concessions is lower than the number of applicants, after the announcement in “Monitor Polski” a tender is carried out.

The Office of Competition and Consumer Protection (OCCP) is not responsible for granting concessions or licenses. Nevertheless, the Office takes the appropriate measures (i.e. detecting and combating anticompetitive practices) aiming at creating competitive environment, if possible, in regulated sectors. For instance, in 2004, the President of the Office acknowledged that the PKP Cargo company abused its dominant market position in the scope of rail transport of goods and ordered discontinuation of that practice. A fine in the amount of PLN 20 million was imposed on the company.

There are three sector regulators: the Office for Electronic Communication (UKE), the Office for Energy Regulation (URE), and the Office for Rail Transport (UTK).

The sector regulators possess regulatory powers, which are aimed at contributing to the process of market liberalization, as well as at helping in the creation of competitive markets. The regulators are also responsible for supplementing the market mechanisms with their regulatory powers, whenever the need for such support arises due to the natural discrepancies of the markets within their sectors. The competences of each institution are separate and complementary.

República Dominicana

1. ¿Cuántas y qué tipo de concesiones han sido otorgadas en su país? ¿Cuál es la duración típica/promedio de una concesión?

–  –  –

2. ¿Cuáles fueron las modalidades empleadas para otorgar concesiones (oferta, licitación pública, decreto, etc.)? ¿Hay en el país alguna ley que rija el otorgamiento y la rescisión de concesiones? ¿En los acuerdos de concesión se incluyen disposiciones que permitan la rescisión por parte del Gobierno?

Se han usado varias modalidades: concurso por invitación, licitación pública con requerimiento de Joint Venture y decretos del Ejecutivo.



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