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«COMPILATION OF THE RESPONSES TO THE UNCTAD QUESTIONNAIRE Part I: Public Monopolies, Concessions and Competition Law and Policies COMPILATION OF THE ...»

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5. Prière de citer des exemples dans lesquels les concessions dans votre pays ont apporté des bénéfices aux consommateurs tels que l'accès élargi à une infrastructure, la diversification de la production, l'amélioration de la qualité des produits, la diminution des prix et, en général, le bien-être des consommateurs Depuis la prise en main de la destinée du Terminal à Conteneurs du Port de Toamasina, TAC, par Madagascar International Container Terminal Service Ltd., MICTSL, des grands changements tant sur l’aspect administratif qu’opérationnel ont été palpables au niveau de la manutention de conteneurs. Cette entreprise d’origine philippine a su vite maîtriser la situation après une phase d’adaptation au système malgache. De nombreux hommes d’affaires, à savoir importateurs-exportateurs et professionnels de transit, ont souligné que depuis sa mise en concession, une célérité de l’opération est acquise au niveau du TAC.

Malawi

1. How many and what type of concessions have been granted in your country?

What is the typical/average duration of a concession?

Since inception, the Privatization Commission (PC) has given out 10 concessions to date. Out of the 10 concessions, 9 are operational and 1 has been terminated. The duration for the concessions ranges from 15 to 30 years. Some of the concessions that

PC has facilitated to the Private sector:

–  –  –

2. What were the modalities for creating a concession (Public offering/tender, decree, etc.)? Is there a law in your country for the granting/termination of concessions? Are there provisions in concession agreements which allow the government to terminate the concession?

The PC creates concessions through a tendering process whereby PC advertises for expression of interest in the local and sometimes international press and PC website.

PC then prepares request for proposal and evaluates the submitted proposal. The criteria for evaluating proposals are made available to bidders.

The granting of concessions is governed by the Public Enterprises (Privatisation) Act of 1996. The Concession agreement contains termination clauses which provide for compensation to the aggrieved party. The laws provide for termination of concession where there are serious breaches in the agreement and where issues cannot be reviewed. There is a process however, that is laid out before termination i.e. (i) sit and talk (ii) mediation/arbitration.

Currently, a new Public Private Partnership Bill has been prepared in order to strengthen private sector participation and minimize disputes.

3. Were competition concerns taken into account at the time of granting a concession? What are the competition concerns or issues that have arose from concessions in your country? Was special protection in regard to dominance, entry or price control granted to concessionaires at the time of granting a concession?

Competition concerns were not taken into account during the initial process of privatisation. However, not much competition concerns arose from the concession agreements because the Public Enterprises (Privatisation) Act to some extent took into account issues of competition i.e. the concession agreements were constructed in such a way that government could bring in new players. The PC is obliged by law to ensure that privatization is undertaken in a manner that promotes competition and reduces monopoly and currently PC often consults the Competition and Fair Trading Commission when competition issues arise in privatisation. Where there are natural monopolies, the Commission promotes the establishment of an independent regulator to regulate private sector operators against market abuse.

No special protection is granted at the time of granting concessions. However, in granting concessions in the transport sector, the concessionaire was given a subsidy to cater for uneconomical routes.

4. Which sectors from your economy are exempted from competition law? Which sectors or what type of concessions are under a specific regulatory oversight?

Are concessions subject to the national competition law?

There is no sector that is exempted from competition law. Natural monopolies exist in energy, water and telecommunication sectors and they are regulated by sector regulators especially established to provide technical and economic regulations. The Competition and Fair Trading Commission in some cases liaise with these sector regulators when competition concerns arise.

The competition Act, however, mentions the following as non-application to the Act:

–  –  –

5. Is there evidence in your country that concessions have brought about benefits for consumers in terms of greater infrastructure, diversification, higher quality, better prices; overall consumer welfare?

The concessions of tourist facilities are for all intents and purpose insignificant. There is evidence that infrastructure in these facilities has been improved. However concessions in the rail and lake services have been negatively affected by poor regulations in the transport sector. The concession agreement appears not to have been tight enough. These agreements are being renegotiated (rail) and in the case of lake services another operator is being sought.





Findings of the Impact Assessment Study conducted in 2006 showed the positive results with regard to the privatisation process which has resulted into consumer welfare in overall. Specifically, most of the privatised enterprises are doing better in that the companies have improved their operating and financial performance, increased range of products; and some have become significant foreign exchange earners. Secondly, through privatisation, Government subsidies to public enterprises have been eliminated which has led in turn to "opportunity gains" in the form of savings. Other notable gains include the fact that privatised entities are paying higher income and PAYE taxes. There are also proceeds that continue to accrue to the Government of Malawi through annual fees paid by concessionaires.

Mauritius

1. How many and what type of concessions have been granted in your country?

What is the typical/average duration of a concession?

There is no provision in the Competition Act 2007 for special protection from competition law being granted to specific concessions.

2. What were the modalities for creating a concession (Public offering/tender, decree, etc.)? Is there a law in your country for the granting/termination of concessions? Are there provisions in concession agreements which allow the government to terminate the concession?

There is no provision in the Competition Act 2007 for special protection from competition law being granted to specific concessions. As discussed below, the Minister of Business, Enterprise and Co-operatives can exempt products and entire industries from the Act, but not a specific enterprise. Consequently, special protection from competition law will not normally be possible (the Act will only shortly come into force, so there is no specific experience to draw on in this case).

3. Were competition concerns taken into account at the time of granting a concession? What are the competition concerns or issues that have arose from concessions in your country? Was special protection in regard to dominance, entry or price control granted to concessionaires at the time of granting a concession?

See answer 4.

4. Which sectors from your economy are exempted from competition law? Which sectors or what type of concessions are under a specific regulatory oversight?

Are concessions subject to the national competition law?

Petroleum products and LPG are exempted from Competition Act 2007, which defines the competition regime in Mauritius. Other products and industries can be added to the schedule of exemptions by Ministerial regulations. Several sectors are subject to special regulatory oversight, including financial services, banking, telecoms and media (and a regulator is currently being established), but the existence of sectorspecific regulations does not exempt these sectors from normal competition law applied by the Competition Commission of Mauritius (the CCM). The 2007 Act requires the CCM to sign Memorandum of Understanding (MOUs) with sector regulators, to ensure that information is exchanged and that the separate roles of the CCM and the sector regulators do not create unnecessary complexity or uncertainty.

These MOUs will be drafted shortly (the 2007 Act has yet to come fully into effect).

5. Is there evidence in your country that concessions have brought about benefits for consumers in terms of greater infrastructure, diversification, higher quality, better prices; overall consumer welfare?

Not applicable México

1. ¿Cuántas concesiones, y de qué tipo, se han otorgado en el país? ¿Cuál es la duración habitual o media de una concesión?

La Comisión Federal de Competencia (CFC o Comisión) tiene conocimiento de que en el sector portuario el gobierno federal ha entregado 24 concesiones portuarias a igual número de empresas estatales. Del total de concesiones, solo una ha sido privatizada.

En el sector aeroportuario, se han otorgado 34 concesiones aeroportuarias a tres grupos aeroportuarios.

En el sector ferroviario se han otorgado 6 concesiones, tres corresponden a los ferrocarriles denominados regionales y tres de rutas cortas.

De acuerdo a la ley del sector correspondiente, las concesiones portuarias, aeroportuarias y ferroviarias, se otorgaron por un período de 50 años, con posibilidad de prórroga hasta por un período igual.

2. ¿Cuáles fueron las modalidades empleadas para otorgar concesiones (oferta, licitación pública, decreto, etc.)? ¿Hay en el país alguna ley que rija el otorgamiento y la rescisión de concesiones? ¿En los acuerdos de concesión se incluyen disposiciones que permitan la rescisión por parte del Gobierno?

Licitación publica en el caso de aeropuertos y ferrocarriles, así como de la única administración portuaria privada. Existen diversas leyes sectoriales, por ejemplo, Ley de Puertos, Ley de Aeropuerto, Ley Reglamentaria del Servicio Ferroviario, en las cuales se establecen las normas para el otorgamiento de concesiones, así como la rescisión de los mismos.

Del mismo modo, y en cada caso en específico, las bases, contratos y demás documentos relativos a las licitaciones, contienen condiciones y cláusulas particulares para la rescisión de la concesión por parte del Gobierno Federal.

3. ¿Se han tomado en cuenta las consideraciones relativas a la competencia en el otorgamiento de concesiones? ¿Qué nuevas consideraciones o cuestiones se han planteado como consecuencia de las concesiones otorgadas en el país?

¿Se ha dado a los concesionarios protección especial con respecto al abuso de posición de dominio, la entrada o el control de los precios al otorgárseles una concesión?

La Ley Federal de Competencia Económica (LFCE o la Ley) establece procedimientos para la intervención de la Comisión Federal de Competencia en los procesos de licitación pública en aquellos sectores en que su legislación lo establece.

Esta intervención consiste en la revisión de los documentos del proceso de licitación y en la opinión respecto a los participantes en la licitación.

En relación con los documentos de la licitación, la Comisión ha recomendado que las bases del concurso no establezcan medidas tendientes a limitar la participación de las empresas en la licitación, como por ejemplo requisitos no vinculados al objeto de la licitación, condicionar la utilización de ciertos servicios a ciertos agentes económicos y una clara información para elegir al ganador de una licitación.

Por otro lado, la Comisión a través de las opiniones a los participantes pretende impedir la participación de empresas que, de resultar ganadores de una licitación, no pudieran favorecer a la competencia, cuando ésta sea posible.

En casos en que, por las características específicas de la licitación, sea notorio que no se puede promover la competencia, las diversas leyes sectoriales (puertos, ferrocarriles y aeropuertos) prevén una regulación de precios y obligación de prestar los servicios.

4. ¿Qué sectores de la economía están exentos de la aplicación del derecho sobre la competencia? ¿Qué sectores o qué tipo de concesiones son objeto de una reglamentación específica? ¿Las concesiones están sujetas al derecho nacional sobre la competencia?

La LFCE establece en su artículo 1, que la misma “es de observancia general en toda la República y aplicable a todas las áreas de la actividad económica.” Así que, en principio, la ley es aplicable a la totalidad de los sectores productivos de país, con excepción de las actividades estratégicas que realiza el Estado en materia de hidrocarburos y energéticos.

En concordancia con la LFCE, muchas leyes sectoriales se han ajustado para considerar aspectos específicos en materia de competencia y particularmente, la

intervención de la CFC. Los sectores que son objeto de una regulación especifica son:

portuario, ferroviario y aeroportuario.

5. ¿Hay pruebas de que las concesiones hayan aportado beneficios a los consumidores del país en términos de infraestructura, diversificación, calidad, precios o bienestar general del consumidor?

En general se puede afirmar que las concesiones que se han otorgado por medio de licitaciones públicas, han contribuido al incremento de la infraestructura del país, así como incidir sobre la calidad y precio. Sin embargo, no se tiene estudios sobre la materia.

Morocco I – Introduction Le Maroc a depuis les années 80 engagé un certain nombre de réformes économiques pour construire les bases d’une économie de marché. C’est ainsi qu’il a entrepris un ajustement structurel, une politique de libéralisation de son commerce extérieur, un vaste programme de privatisation et de concession, une politique de libéralisation des prix en vue de s’intégrer avec un certain degré de succès dans l’économie mondiale.

Le Maroc a adhéré au GATT en 1987 comme il en a abrité l’acte final en Avril 1994 à Marrakech qui a vu la naissance de l’OMC dont il est membre depuis 1995.



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