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«Nicholas Carnes Sanford School of Public Policy Duke University nicholas.carnes Noam Lupu Department of Political Science University of ...»

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Fiske, Susan T., Juan Xu, Amy C. Cuddy, and Peter Glick. 1999. “(Dis)respecting versus (Dis)liking: Status and Interdependence Predict Ambivalent Stereotypes of Competence and Warmth.” Journal of Social Issues 55(3): 473-489.

Franck, Raphaël, and Ilia Rainer. 2012. “Does the Leader’s Ethnicity Matter? Ethnic Favoritism, Education, and Health in Sub-Saharan Africa.” American Political Science Review 106 (2): 294-325.

Fulton, Sarah A. 2014. “When Gender Matters: Macro-dynamics and Micro-mechanisms.” Political Behavior 36(3): 605-30.

Gerring, John. 2007. Case Study Research: Principles and Practice. Cambridge: Cambridge

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Gilens, Martin. 2012. Affluence and Influence: Economic Inequality and Political Power in America. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Griffin, John D., and Claudia Anewalt-Remsburg. 2013. “Legislator Wealth and the Effort to Repeal the Estate Tax.” American Politics Research.

Grose, Christian. 2013. “Risk and Roll Calls: How Legislators’ Personal Finances Shape Congressional Decisions.” SSRN Working Paper 2220524.

Hacker, Jacob S., and Paul Pierson. 2011. Winner-Take-All Politics: How Washington Made the Rich Richer—And Turned Its Back on the Middle Class. New York: Simon and Schuster.

Hainmueller, Jens, Daniel J. Hopkins, and Teppei Yamamoto. 2014. “Causal Inference in Conjoint Analysis: Understanding Multidimensional Choices via Stated Preference Experiments.” Political Analysis 22 (1): 1-30.

Hainmueller, Jens, Dominik Hangartner, and Teppei Yamamoto. 2015. “Validating vignette and conjoint survey experiments against real-world behavior.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Science 112(8): 2395-2400.

Hamilton, Alexander. 1982 [1788]. Federalist 35. In The Federalist Papers, ed. Garry Wills.

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Henry, William A., III. 1995. In Defense of Elitism. New York: Doubleday.

Horowitz, Donald. 1985. Ethnic Groups in Conflict. Berkeley, CA: University of California

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Horwitz, Suzanne R., and John F. Dovidio. Forthcoming. “The Rich—Love Them or Hate Them? Divergent Implicit and Explicit Attitudes Toward the Wealthy.” Group Processes and Intergroup Relations.

Hout, Michael, Jeff Manza, and Clem Brooks. 1995. “The Democratic Class Struggle in the United States, 1948–1992.” American Sociological Review 60: 805–828.

Inglehart Ronald and Pippa Norris. 2003. Rising Tide: Gender Equality and Cultural Change Around the World. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Iversen, Torbin, and David Soskice. 2015. “Information, Inequality, and Mass Polarization:

Ideology in Advanced Democracies.” Comparative Political Studies 48(13): 1781-1813.

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Katz, Richard S. 2001. ‘The Problem of Candidate Selection and Models of Party Democracy,” Party Politics 7(3): 277–96.

Lawless, Jennifer L. 2015. “Female Candidates and Legislators.” Annual Review of Political

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Lawless, Jennifer L., and Richard L. Fox. 2005. It Takes a Candidate: Why Women Don’t Run for Office. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

Lawless, Jennifer L., and Richard L. Fox. 2012. It Still Takes a Candidate: Why Women Don’t Run for Office (Rev. Ed.). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

Lupu, Noam. 2014. “Brand Dilution and the Breakdown of Political Parties in Latin America.” World Politics 66 (4): 561-602.

Lupu, Noam. 2016. Party Brands in Crisis: Partisanship, Brand Dilution, and the Breakdown of Political Parties in Latin America. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Lynch, Timothy R. and Kathleen Dolan. 2014. “Voter Attitudes, Behaviors, and Women Candidates.” In Women and Elective Office: Past, Present, and Future, eds. Sue Thomas and Clyde Wilcox. Third edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Manin, Bernard. 1997. The Principles of Representative Government. Cambridge: Cambridge

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Matthews, Donald R. 1985. “Legislative Recruitment and Legislative Careers.” In Handbook of Legislative Research, eds. Gerhard Loewenberg, Samuel C. Patterson, and Malcolm E.

Jewell. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

McCarty, Nolan, Keith T. Poole, and Howard Rosenthal. 2006. Polarized America: The Dance of Ideology and Unequal Riches. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

McDermott, Monika L. 2005. “Candidate Occupations and Voter Information Shortcuts.” Journal of Politics 67(1): 201-19.

McElory, Gail, and Michael Marsh. 2010. “Candidate Gender and Voter Choice: Analysis from

a Multimember Preferential Voting System.” Political Research Quarterly 63(4): 822Morgan, Jana, and Melissa Buice. 2013. “Latin American Attitudes toward Women in Politics:

The Influence of Elite Cues, Female Advancement, and Individual Characteristics.” American Political Science Review 107(4): 644-662.

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Norris, Pippa. 1997. Passages to Power: Legislative Recruitment in Advanced Democracies.





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Philpot, Tasha S., and Hanes Walton, Jr. 2007. “One of Our Own: Black Female Candidates and the Voters Who Support Them.” American Journal of Political Science 51(1): 49-62.

Pimlott, Jamie Pamelia. 2010. Women and the Democratic Party: The Evolution of EMILY’s List. Amherst, NY: Cambria Press.

Sadin, Meredith. 2011. “Campaigning with Class: The Effect of Candidate Social Class on Voter Evaluations.” Unpublished manuscript.

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Sanbonmatsu, Kira. 2002. Democrats, Republicans, and the Politics of Women's Place. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.

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Sanbonmatsu, Kira. 2006. Where Women Run: Gender and Party in the American States. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.

Schwindt-Bayer, Leslie A., Michael Malecki, and Brian F. Crisp. 2010. “Candidate Gender and Electoral Success in Single Transferable Vote Systems.” British Journal of Political

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Slater, Dan, and Daniel Ziblatt. 2013. “The Enduring Indispensability of the Controlled Comparison.” Comparative Political Studies 46(10): 1301-27.

Smith, Eric R. A. N. and Richard L. Fox. 2001. “The Electoral Fortunes of Women Candidates for Congress.” Political Research Quarterly 54: 205-21.

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Welch, Susan and Donley T. Studlar. 1988. “The Effects of Candidate Gender on Voting for Local Office in England.” British Journal of Political Science 18(2): 273-281.

Wright, Erik Olin. 1997. “Rethinking, Once Again, the Concept of Class Structure.” In Reworking Class, ed. John Hall. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

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Sources: Carnes 2013; Carnes and Lupu 2015; Cracknell and McGuinness 2010; Database of Political Institutions; International Labour Organization; Office of National Statistics 2012;

OECD; Polity IV; United Nations Development Programme.

Notes: Years of democracy is measured as the total number of years with a Polity score greater than 5. Some of the figures for Britain refer to the entire United Kingdom.

† Since 2009, Argentina has held mandatory primary elections. Primary candidates for executive offices appear individually, but legislative primaries are contested by competing lists drawn up by party officials.

Figure 1: Candidate Characteristics and Voting in Britain, the US, and Argentina

Sources: 2015 British Election Study, 2015 Cooperative Congressional Election Study, 2015 Argentina Panel Election Study.

Notes: Values represent the difference in respondents’ propensity for supporting a hypothetical candidate based on the candidate’s occupation, gender, education, party, race (US only), and experience (Argentina only). Lines represent the 95% confidence interval estimated using clustered standard errors clustered by unique election. Estimates are based on ordinary least squares regression models reported in Table A1 in the online appendix. N = 7,558 (Britain), 1,356 (US), and 2,000 (Argentina).

Figure 2: Do Voters View Candidates Differently Based on their Backgrounds?

Source: 2015 British Election Study, 2015 Cooperative Congressional Election Study, 2015 Argentina Panel Election Study.

Notes: In each panel, values represent the difference in respondents’ perception of a hypothetical candidate based on the candidate’s occupation, gender, education, party, race (US only), and experience (Argentina only). Lines represent the 95% confidence interval estimated using clustered standard errors clustered by unique election. Estimates are based on ordinary least squares regression models reported in Table A2 in the online appendix. Panel 1: N = 5,438 (Britain), 1,022 (US), and 1,916 (Argentina). Panel 2: N = 6,208 (Britain), 1,152 (US), and 1,968 (Argentina). Panel 3: N = 5,814 (Britain), 940 (US), and 1,476 (Argentina).

Figure 3: Candidate Characteristics and Voting, by Respondent Partisanship Sources: 2015 British Election Study, 2015 Cooperative Congressional Election Study, 2015 Argentina Panel Election Study.

Notes: Values represent the difference in respondents’ propensity for supporting a hypothetical candidate based on the candidate’s occupation, gender, education, party, race (US only), and experience (Argentina only). Lines represent the 95% confidence interval estimated using clustered standard errors clustered by unique election. Estimates are based on ordinary least squares regression models reported in Table A3 in the online appendix. Panel 1: N = 2,390 (Britain), 578 (US), and 694 (Argentina). Panel 2: N = 2,326 (Britain), 300 (US), and 60 (Argentina).

Appendix: Experiment Wording Great Britain vignettes Suppose you were asked to choose between two candidates for a local political office.

[John / Jane] Simmons is a [business owner / factory worker] who has lived in your town for 20 years. [He / She] [graduated from university / completed secondary school] and is a member of the [Labour Party / Conservative Party]. Simmons was appointed to a position in the local government three years ago, and has been endorsed by several local political organizations and newspapers. [His / Her] campaign has focused on the problems facing local schools, in particular a shortage of qualified teachers.

[Nigel / Emma] Allen is a [business owner / factory worker] who grew up in your town.

[He / She] [graduated from university / completed secondary school] and is a member of the [Labour Party / Conservative Party]. Allen has worked in local government for the last five years, and is widely respected in the community for [his / her] volunteer work for several prominent local charities. [His / Her] campaign has stressed the importance of improving local waste management services, like sewers and garbage pickup.

US vignettes Suppose you were asked to choose between two candidates for [city council / mayor / state legislature / governor].

[John / Jane] Simmons is a [black / white] [business owner / factory worker] who has lived in your town for 20 years. [He / She] [graduated from college / started working after high school] and is a member of the [Democratic Party / Republican Party]. Simmons was appointed to a position in the local government three years ago, and has been endorsed by several local political organizations and newspapers. [His / Her] campaign has focused on the problems facing local schools, in particular a shortage of qualified

–  –  –

[Tom / Tammy] Allen is a [black / white] [business owner / factory worker] who grew up in your town. [He / She] [graduated from college / started working after high school] and is a member of the [Democratic Party / Republican Party]. Allen has worked in local government for the last five years, and is widely respected in the community for [his / her] volunteer work for several prominent local charities. [His / Her] campaign has stressed the importance of improving local infrastructure, like roads and highways.

Argentina vignettes Imagine that you are voting in an election for mayor with two candidates.

[Juan / María] Alberti is a [business owner / factory worker] who has lived in your neighborhood for twenty years. [He / She] [finished high school / did not finish high school] and considers [himself / herself] a [Peronist / Radical]. Alberti [has no prior political experience / was appointed to a position in the municipality three years ago] and is close to local political organizations. [His / Her] campaign has focused on the problems facing schools in the neighborhood, particularly the shortage of teachers.

[José / Valeria] Jiménez is a [business owner / factory worker] who has lived in your neighborhood for twenty years. [He / She] [finished high school / did not finish high school] and considers [himself / herself] a [Peronist / Radical]. Jiménez [has not been involved in politics up until now / has been working in the municipality for five years] and is highly respected in the neighborhood for [his / her] volunteer work with several organizations. [His / her] campaign has focused on the importance of improving local sewers and garbage pickup.



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