WWW.THESES.XLIBX.INFO
FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Theses, dissertations, documentation
 
<< HOME
CONTACTS



Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 37 | 38 || 40 | 41 |   ...   | 66 |

«of the AM’s Brand, Corporate Identity and Reputation SIG INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE SESSIONS Sessions chairs The main function of a session chair is to ...»

-- [ Page 39 ] --

The findings suggest that mall branding is essentially experiential branding. That is, customer satisfaction is the key driver of customer mall brand-attitudes, with satisfaction an indicator of the mall experience. Appropriately, mall atmosphere (ambience) is the underlying dominating statistical influence on customer mall satisfaction.

Theoretical implications Experiential branding occurs through the trail from mall atmosphere through to mall customer satisfaction and in turn through to mall brand-attitudes. Interestingly, there is a strong literature on mall excitement (Wakefield & Baker, 1998), mall atmosphere (Massicotte, Michon, Chebat, Sirgy & Borges, 2011) and enjoyment of the mall shopping experience (Hart, Farrell, Stachow, Reed & Cadogan, 2007). Notwithstanding, this cognate literature did not previously connect to explaining customer mall brand-attitudes, so the paper makes a major contribution in this way. Similarly, related mall image studies (Chebat, Sirgy & Grzeskowiak, 2010) have likewise fallen short of explaining customer mall brandattitudes.

Merchandise assortment (tenant mix) is recognized in the literature as a contributor to mall image, but such studies have not connected merchandise to the mall brand. Thus, the current study advances our knowledge in this respect, by demonstrating that merchandise is the number two influence on consumer mall brand-attitudes.

Practical implications The findings offer guidance to mall managers in suggesting priorities in shaping the mall brand. An emphasis on mall atmosphere might provide a rationale for so many malls spending millions of dollars on a major refit or makeover. Our study reaffirms the logic of future mall rebranding efforts emphasising mall atmosphere.

The tenant mix is an important secondary consideration for both ongoing mall management and any potential future mall rebranding. Previous studies (Roberts, Merrilees, Herington and Miller, 2010) have indicated a possible role for better tenant-mall management relationships and better tenant mix as internal branding contributors. The current study endorses these internal branding measures with evidence from external branding influences from customers.

Limitations and future research The main limitation is that the study is conducted in one mall in one country. Although the large sample size is comforting, additional confidence in the results would come from extending to other malls and especially in other countries.

Originality/value The paper presents original research, which contributes to the sparse branding and shopping mall literature. First, the paper estimates a structural model with two key dependent variables, namely customer mall satisfaction and customer mall brand-attitudes. Second, the paper makes an original contribution by being the first to identify two critical consumer mall brandassociations: mall atmosphere and mall merchandise. An experiential mall branding interpretation is given to the findings. The paper also contributes to practitioner guidance because future mall makeovers can use these findings to improve the effectiveness of their mall rebranding.

Keywords : Corporate brand, shopping centre, mall, customer, branding, retail

References

Balmer, J.M.T. 2010. Commentary: Explicating corporate brands and their management:

Reflections and directions from 1995. Journal of Brand Management 18 (3), 180-196.

Bruwer, J.de W. 1997. Solving the ideal tenant mix puzzle for a proposed shopping centre: a practical research methodology. Property Management 15 (3), 160-172.

Chebat, J.-C., Sirgy, J.M. & Grzeskowiak, S. 2010. How can shopping mall management best capture mall image? Journal of Business Research 63,735-740.

Dennis, C., Murphy, J., Marsland, D., Cockett, T. & Patel, T. 2002. Measuring image:

Shopping centre case studies. The International Review of Retail, Distribution and Consumer Research 12 (4), 355-373.

Finn, A. & Louviere, J. 1996. Shopping center image, consideration, and choice: Anchor store contribution. Journal of Business Research 35, 241-251.

Hart, C. Farrell, A., Stachow, G., Reed, G. & Cadogan, J. 2007. Enjoyment of the shopping experience: Impact on customers’ repatronage intentions and gender influence. The Service Industries Journal 27 (5), 583-604.

Hui, E.C.M., Zhang, P-H. & Zheng, X. 2013. Facilities management service and customer satisfaction in shopping mall sector. Facilities 31 (5/6), 194-207.

Ibrahim, M.F. & Galven, T.W.R. 2007. New age retail tenants: a new phenomenon. Journal of Retail and Leisure Property 6, 239-262.

Kirkup, M. & Rafiq, M. 1999. Marketing shopping centres: Challenges in the UK context.

Journal of Marketing Practice: Applied Marketing Science 5 (5), 119-133.

Kursunluoglu, E. 2014. Shopping centre customer service: Creating customer satisfaction and loyalty. Marketing Intelligence & Planning 32 (4), 528-548.

Massicotte, M.-C., Michon, R., Chebat, J.-C., Sirgy, M.J. & Borges, A. 2011. Effects of mall atmosphere on mall evaluation: Teenage versus adult shoppers. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services 18, 74-80.

Miller, D. 2008. Retail marketing: a branding and innovation approach. Prahran, Victoria:

Tilde University Press.

Miller, D., Merrilees, B., & Yakimova, R. 2014. Corporate Rebranding: An integrative review of major enablers and barriers to the rebranding process. International Journal of Management Reviews 16 (3), 265-289.





Myers, H., Gore, J. & Liu, K. 2008. European shopping centre developments: an industry review. Journal of Place Management and Development 1 (1), 109-114.

North, E.J. & Kortzé, T. 2004. Customers perceptions of the attractiveness of shopping centres in Pretoria. Southern African Business Review 8 (1), 30-38.

Parsons, A.G. & Ballantine, P.W. 2004. Market dominance, promotions, and shopping mall group performance. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management 31 (2), 74-79.

Prendergast, G., Marr, N. & Jarratt, B. 1996. An exploratory study of tenant-manager relationships in New Zealand’s managed shopping centres. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management 24 (9), 19-26.

Rabbanee, F.K., Ramaseshan, B., Wu, C. & Vinden, A. 2012. Effects of store loyalty on shopping mall loyalty. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services 19, 271-278.

Roberts, G.H. 2013. I love theatre! Branding Russia’s ‘Mega Mall’. The Marketing Review 13 (3), 255-269.

Roberts, J. & Merrilees, B. 2007. Multiple brands in business-to-business services. Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing 22 (6), 410-417.

Roberts, J., Merrilees, B., Herington, C. & Miller, D. 2010. Building retail tenant trust:

Neighbourhood versus regional shopping centres. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management 38 (8), 597-412.

Sit, J., Merrilees, B. & Birch, D. 2003. Entertainment shopping centre patrons: the missing segments. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management 31 (2), 80-84.

Turley, L.W. & Milliman, R.E. 2000. Atmospheric effects on shopping behaviour: a review of the experimental evidence. Journal of Business Research 49, 193-211.

Wakefield, K. & Baker, J. 1998. Excitement at the mall: Determinants and effects on shopping response. Journal of Retailing 74 (4), 515-539.

Measuring brand image: Personification versus non-personification Mete, Melisa Davies, Gary Whelan, Susan Purpose Our main purpose is to test whether there is a difference between using personification approach or non-personification approach in the measurement of brand imagery.

Corporate brand imagery can be measured in various ways (Keller, 1998). One approach is to ask respondents direct questions such as, “Do you trust this brand?” Alternatively, researchers can use personification approach to measure both product image (e.g.Aaker 1997; Bosnjak and Hufschmidt 2007; Geuens et al. 2009; Plummer 1985) and corporate brand/reputation (Davies et al. 2001; Slaughter et al. 2004; Whelan et al. 2010). The personification approach typically asks respondents to imagine that the company/product has come to life as a human being, then they are asked to rate the company/product in question, for instance, ‘If Brand X came to life as a human being would you trust him/her?’ Using personification metaphor could be considered as unscientific and potentially misleading (Davies et al., 2001). Conversely, some researchers claim that metaphors guide our perceptions and interpretations of reality (Ashton et al, 2004). Furthermore respondents might be willing to reveal attitudes that they are reluctant to admit to under direct questioning (Boddy 2005).

Methodology We hypothesised that the personification approach could lead respondents to answer questions less reluctantly. Moreover, personification approach would be superior at explaining useful outcomes in terms of reputation, satisfaction, and purchase, since it is often justified as capable of providing richer information than that from direct questioning (Davies et al. 2001).

Hence:

Hypothesis 1 (H1): The Personification approach provides a better explanation than nonpersonification approach for the dependent variables such as reputation, satisfaction and purchase.

Secondly, we might expect personification to be superior to direct questioning when a brand has more obvious humanistic associations due to the nature of the product or service that they provide. The imagery of corporate brands (for instance service brands where consumer contact with them is via other human beings), rather than product brands, should be more easily accessible using personification.

Hence:

Hypothesis 2 (H2): The Personification approach provides a better explanation of dependent variables such as reputation, satisfaction and purchase for corporate brands than for product brands.

For the preliminary study, in order to test these hypotheses, we used an online survey and a 2(a corporate brand vs. a product brand) x 2(personification method vs. non-personification method) factorial, between-subjects design. Half of the sample assessed brand imagery by responding to direct questioning (non-personification method), half to personified questions (personification method); half would assess a product brand, half a corporate brand.

We wanted respondents to assess easily the brands that they were asked to rate and so we opted for widely known brands. The corporate brand example was the retailer Marks and Spencer, which is one of the leading retailers in the British market where we undertook our research. The product brand was chosen as Pantene (Procter and Gamble’s shampoo brand which is the number one in its category in the UK).

Our preliminary study aimed to test whether there is a difference in predictive ability between using personification or non-personification methods in asking similar questions about brand image. Specifically we wanted to know whether “direct questioning” (e.g. Hsieh 2002) is adequate enough, so that personification approach does not necessarily give different results.

We used a consumer panel and a convenience sample of 400 people randomly assigned to each of the four groups (100 for each). Two filter questions were included to ensure that respondents were responsible for their own shopping.

Then three satisfaction questions were asked taken from Davies et al., 2001: whether they would recommend the company/brand, whether they would be pleased to be associated with the company/brand, and whether they would feel an affinity with the company/brand.

Consequently, involvement questions (whether they choose carefully where they shop, what brand to buy; whether they are interested in shopping; whether they are told they are good at shopping; whether they are asked to help for shopping) adapted from the literature (Laurent and Kapferer 1985; Krugman 1977; Zaichkowsky 1985; Hupfer and Gardner 1971), were asked to control for any effects on response.

Then we included two questions to measure the respondent’s expertise (Mitchell and Dacin, 1996; Alba and Hutchinson 1987). All questions used the same response scale from 1 to 7 with points 1, 3 and 7 labelled strongly disagree, neither agree nor disagree and strongly agree.

For the assessment of image, we selected items for each of three dimensions (warmth, competence and status) from published measures that we felt would be equally valid in both questioning formats, direct and via personification, which reflect dimensions in a number of published scales and which have theoretical support from stereotype content (e.g. Fiske et al.

2002; Caprariello et al 2009; Cuddy, Fiske and Glick 2008) and signalling theories (e.g. Han et al. 2010; Nelissen and Meijers 2011).

A five point Likert type scale was used to assess each item in this part of the survey with each point labelled from strongly agree to strongly disagree to reduce any Common methods variance (CMV) issues.



Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 37 | 38 || 40 | 41 |   ...   | 66 |


Similar works:

«2 Contents 1 Executive summary 3 2 Introduction and scope 4 3 Legislation 5 3.1 IMO MARPOL Annex VI regulation 5 3.2 European Union regulation 8 3.3 USA, California and North America regulation 8 4 Fuel manufacturing, supply, demand and energy considerations 9 4.1 Fuel manufacturing 9 4.2 Refinery Options 9 4.3 Supply and Demand 10 4.4 Energy density and fuel consumption 10 5 Ship systems 12 5.1 Engine operation on low sulphur distillate: general 12 5.1.1 Four-stroke medium speed engines 14...»

«Natural pseudo-distances between closed curves Pietro Donatini∗1 and Patrizio Frosini∗∗1,2 Dipartimento di Matematica, Universit` di Bologna, Piazza di Porta San Donato, 5 a I-40126 Bologna, ITALY Advanced Research Centre for Electronic Systems “Ercole De Castro”, Universit` di Bologna, via Toffano, 2/2 a I-40135 Bologna, ITALY Key words Natural pseudo-distance, measuring function 2000 Mathematics Subject Classification Primary 58E35, 58D99, 53C99; Secondary 58C05, 58C25, 53A04 Let...»

«UNIVERSIDADE DE SANTA CRUZ DO SUL PROGRAMA DE PÓS-GRADUAÇÃO EM PROMOÇÃO DA SAÚDE MESTRADO EM PROMOÇÃO DA SAÚDE ÁREA DE CONCENTRAÇÃO EM PROMOÇÃO DA SAÚDE Miriam Viviane Baron ESTRATÉGIA DE INTERVENÇÃO EDUCATIVA SOBRE ÚLCERA POR PRESSÃO: Estudo com equipes de enfermagem de Unidades de Tratamento Intensivo de hospitais dos Vales do Rio Pardo e Jacuí/RS. Santa Cruz do Sul Miriam Viviane Baron ESTRATÉGIA DE INTERVENÇÃO EDUCATIVA SOBRE ÚLCERA POR PRESSÃO: Estudo com equipes...»

«ADVISER’S HANDBOOK November, 2015 This handbook serves as a summary of the policies and procedures of the Graduate Council and the Office of Graduate Studies. Any discrepancies will be resolved in favor of the official policies of these two agencies. ADVISER’S HANDBOOK | GS-202 | Rev. 11/2015 This version supersedes any earlier revisions. 1 Table of Contents Administration The Office of Graduate Studies The Graduate Program Faculty Membership The Chair The Graduate Adviser The Admissions...»

«VIA EMAIL November 26, 2013 Honourable Steve Thomson Minister of Forests, Lands and Natural Resources Operations Province of British Columbia Dear Minister Thomson, Re: Private Docks at Cape Roger Curtis, Bowen Island [ILMB Files: 2410700, 2410701, 2410702, 2410703, 2410880, 2410881] On July 22, 2013, Stop The Docks campaign group wrote to you expressing the public’s concern about the four approved docks and two pending dock applications at Cape Roger Curtis on Bowen Island. A copy of that...»

«A PCG: A Family of Simple Fast Space-Efficient Statistically Good Algorithms for Random Number Generation MELISSA E. O’NEILL, Harvey Mudd College This paper presents a new uniform pseudorandom number generation scheme that is both extremely practical and statistically good (easily passing L’Ecuyer and Simard’s TestU01 suite). It has a number of important properties, including solid mathematical foundations, good time and space performance, small code size, multiple random streams, and...»

«Denver Public Schools Enterprise Management Food and Nutrition Services 2320 West 4th Avenue Denver, CO 80223 Date: September 6, 2013 Subject: Invitation to Bid, #BD1610, Spices Enclosures: (1) Invitation For Bid Cover Sheet (2) General Terms and Conditions (3) Special Terms and Conditions. (4) Specification and Pricing Form To: All prospective bidders: Thank you for obtaining this Invitation for Bid on-line. Please note: Denver Public Schools Purchasing Department is posting bids in two...»

«The i300 Professional Ironing System INSTRUCTION MANUAL GUIDE D’UTILISATION MANUAL DE INSTRUCCIONES ENGLISH 01 FRANÇAIS 09 ESPAÑOL 18 THE i300 PROFESSIONAL IRONING SySTEM INSTRUCTION MANUAL ENGLISH CONGRATULATIONS We would like to thank you and congratulate you for purchasing the Reliable i300 professional ironing station from Reliable Corporation. With it’s stainless steel construction, and professional iron; the i300 will allow you to obtain the benefits of professional pressing in a...»

«Collaboratively Assessing Information Quality on the Web Research-in-Progress Hongwei Zhu Old Dominion University Yinghua Ma Shanghai Jiaotong University Guiyang Su Shanghai Jiaotong University sigIQ pre-ICIS workshop 2011 0 Collaborative Assessing Information Quality on the Web Collaboratively Assessing Information Quality on the Web Research-in-Progress Introduction As the amount of information on the Web continues to grow, it is critical that we know the quality of the information in order...»

«The Florida State Fire College BUREAU OF FIRE STANDARDS AND TRAINING Welcome Package February 2014 Florida State Fire College Origin of the Florida State Fire College The first Florida State Fire College Training session was held in Daytona Beach on May 7-9, 1930. In 1949, the Fire College became a State institution with permanent headquarters in Ocala on six acres. In 1969, under the State reorganization plan, the Florida State Fire College was placed under the Department of Community Affairs...»

«Offering Circular dated 13 October 2009 Olam International Limited (Incorporated in the Republic of Singapore) Company Registration Number 199504676H U.S.$400,000,000 6 per cent. Convertible Bonds due 2016 (Subject to an upsize option in respect of U.S.$100,000,000 in principal amount of 6 per cent. Convertible Bonds due 2016 granted to the Joint Lead Managers, as described below) Issue price: 100 per cent. The U.S.$400,000,000 6 per cent. Convertible Bonds due 2016 (the “Bonds”) will be...»

«Distanced Data: Transcribing Other People’s Research Tapes Susan A. Tilley Kelly D. Powick In this article, we report on our qualitative study involving eight individuals hired to transcribe research tapes in university contexts. We consider issues of data analysis and data trustworthiness and the implications for both when transcription is assigned to someone other than the researcher. We explore the challenges transcribers faced completing their work, transcription decisions they made in...»





 
<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2016 www.theses.xlibx.info - Theses, dissertations, documentation

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.