WWW.THESES.XLIBX.INFO
FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Theses, dissertations, documentation
 
<< HOME
CONTACTS



Pages:     | 1 || 3 | 4 |

«English language students’ productive and receptive knowledge of collocations Mirna Begagić University of Zenica Abstract The importance of ...»

-- [ Page 2 ] --

The data-gathering part of the study consisted of two parts: three gap-filling productive tests and an appropriateness of judgment receptive test. The three gapfilling tests were designed to measure the participants' productive collocational proficiency. The tests included 60 target collocations that examined three types of lexical collocations: 20 verb + noun collocations, 20 adjective + noun collocations and 20 verb + adverb collocations. The three tests were used in restrictive structures, and only one correct answer was allowed. The initial letters of the target collocations were provided as a clue. This was done to prevent guessing, and to ensure that the participants selected only the target word.4 The appropriate judgment test was designed to measure the participants' receptive competence in identifying the correct English collocations. The test consisted of 72 items – the 60 target collocations used in the three gap-filling-tests were included, along with 12 mismatched collocations that acted as distractors. The participants were asked to judge whether the underlined part of a sentence was accepta                                                              See Appendix I.

–  –  –

    Mirna Begagić: English language students’ productive and receptive knowledge of collocations ble or not by circling a number corresponding to the inappropriate part of the sentence.5 The purpose of the study is to assess the performance of the BCS native speakers, students of English language and literature, on tests evaluating their use of English collocational knowledge. The results reported below show differences between all participants’ scores in all test sections (productive verb + noun, productive adjective + noun, productive verb + adverb, and receptive collocations) and provide answers to the research questions.

3.1. The Results and the interpretations of findings 3.1.1. Collocational knowledge of first and fourth year students

–  –  –

The results suggest that there is a significant difference in the collocational knowledge between first and fourth year students, which becomes obvious when data from the table is converted into percentages, and presented in Chart 1 and Chart 2.

                                                            

See Appendix II. 

–  –  –

              

Figures 1–2. Fourth and first year students’ collocational competence.

The fact that fourth year students showed more advanced collocational competence than first year students suggests that educational environment plays an important role during the process of learning collocations. Senior students have been more exposed to collocations – through lectures (most lectures are held in English) and exercises on the one hand, and through literature they had to read for the classes on the other hand.

Overall, the results of the collocational competence for both first and fourth year students are unsatisfactory, and indicate poor students’ collocational knowledge in general.

3.1.2. The productive and receptive knowledge of collocations

The issue of the difference between the participants’ productive and receptive knowledge of collocations is the second aspect of this study. The results indicate that collocational mismatches were frequent in participants’ answers, both productively and receptively, and that there is a significant difference between the participants' productive and receptive knowledge of collocations. The participants’ productive knowledge of collocations lagged behind and did not develop as their receptive knowledge, as can be seen in Table 1. It is important to mention that senior students performed better on both, productive and receptive tests.

Senior students managed to correctly produce 21% of the examined collocations, while first year students produced only 7.75%. Participants performed much better on the appropriate judgment test, which measured the participants’ receptive competence. First year students managed to identify 69.5% of the correct collocations, while senior students did a lot better, and managed to identify 88.25%.

–  –  –

    Mirna Begagić: English language students’ productive and receptive knowledge of collocations Overall results of productive and receptive tests for both groups of students, are presented in Chart 3 (for productive knowledge of collocations) and in Chart 4 (for receptive knowledge of collocations).

–  –  –

These results are not surprising due to the fact that teaching collocations is often neglected. Teachers are more focused on giving students synonyms rather than providing them with the appropriate collocations to be used in certain contexts.

This is the reason why students are often unable to use the words in the correct contexts, which can lead to misunderstanding. It is not surprising that participants’ receptive knowledge is much better than their productive knowledge, because evidence suggests that receptive typically precedes productive knowledge.





3.1.3. Collocation types

This study also explores the differences between participants’ productive scores on three categories of collocations: verb + noun, adjective + noun and verb + adverb.

The purpose was to identify which type of the above mentioned collocations is the most difficult to acquire, and to see whether the results would be the same for first and fourth year students. Detailed scores are presented in Table 2 (for first year students), and in Table 3 (for fourth year students).

–  –  –

Table 3 indicates that senior students performed best on verb + noun collocation test as well, producing more correct verb + noun collocations (11.75% more than adjective + noun collocations, and 22.75% more than verb + adverb collocations). This suggests that verb + adverb type of collocation is the most difficult to acquire for both first and fourth year students, and that verb + noun type of collocations is the easiest type to acquire. Therefore, there is no difference between first and fourth year students concerning difficulties in acquiring certain type of collocations.

The overall results regarding the production of the three types of tested collocation are presented in Charts 5, 6, and 7 for verb + noun, adjective + noun and verb + adverb collocations respectively. The Charts demonstrate very poor productive performance on adjective + noun and verb + adverb collocation tests, and somewhat better productive performance on verb + noun collocation test.

–  –  –

Figure 5. Verb + noun collocations; Figure 6.

Adjective + noun collocations; Figure

7. Adverb + noun collocations.

The most probable reason why students find the production of verb + adverb collocations most difficult could be the influence of their mother tongue on the production of L2 (adverbs in the BCS language differ significantly from adverbs in the English language). Another reason could be that, generally, in classrooms, the emphasis is put on verbs rather than on adjectives or adverbs.

–  –  –

    Mirna Begagić: English language students’ productive and receptive knowledge of collocations

4. Conclusion The present study examines the productive and receptive knowledge of lexical collocations but also emphasizes the importance of the proper use of collocations for the English language students. The results suggest that English language students at the Department for English language and literature at the University of Zenica have difficulties producing collocations due to several reasons: the fact that they are mostly taught grammar rules, negative transfer of L1 (collocates of a certain word in one language - language A, may not be used for the same translation equivalent in the other language - language B), the fact that teaching collocations is often neglected, but also because of their unawareness of the importance of collocations in the process of language learning.

Although the results indicate poor students’ collocational knowledge in general, both first and fourth year students demonstrated greater knowledge of receptive than of productive collocations. Moreover, the results reveal that fourth year students show more advanced collocational competence than first year students, and that verb + adverb collocation type is the most difficult to acquire for both groups of students.

According to all aforementioned suggestions, it can be stated that more effort should be made towards developing learners’ collocational competence, taking  into consideration their importance in the process of language acquisition. Since collocations represent a relatively new concept in linguistics, more awareness should be raised regarding this matter and there should be a stronger emphasis on collocations in the process of curriculum development.

References

Aghbar, Ali-Asghar (1990). Fixed expressions in written texts: Implication for assessing writing sophistication. Paper presented at a meeting of the English Association of Pennsylvania State System Universities, October 1990.

Bäcklund, Ulf (1973). The Collocations of Adverbs of Degree in English. Studia Anglistica Upsaliensia 13. Uppsala: University of Uppsala Bäcklund, Ulf (1976). Frozen adjective-noun collocations in English. Cahiers de Lexicologie 28.1: 74–88.

Bahns, Jens, & Moira Eldaw (1993). Should we teach EFL students collocations? System 21(1): 101–114.

Begagić, Mirna, & Vildana, Dubravac (2014). Foreign language learners’ collocational competence. Paper presented at the 5th International Conference, Cultural Identity in Digital Era, Faculty of Philosophy, University of Zenica, Zenica Benson, Morton, Evelyn Benson, & Robert Ilson (1986). The BBI Combinatory Dictionary of English. Johns Benjamins Publishing Company: Amsterdam Cowie, Anthony P. (1994). Phraseology. Asher, Ronald, eds. The Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics. Oxford: Pergamon, 3168–3171.

–  –  –

    Mirna Begagić: English language students’ productive and receptive knowledge of collocations Cowie, Anthony, & Peter, Howarth (1996). Phraseological competence and written proficiency. Blue, George, ed. Language and Education. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters, 80–93.

Cruse, Alan (1986). Lexical Semantics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Crystal, David (1985). A dictionary of Linguistics and Phonetics. Oxford: Basil Blackwell Ltd.

Fayez-Husein, Riyad (1990). Collocations: The missing link in vocabulary acquisition

amongst EFL learners. Fisiak, Jacek, eds. Papers and Studies in Contrastive Linguistics:

The Polish Linguistics Contrastive Project, 26. Poznan: Adam Mickiewicz University, 123–136.

Firth, John (1957). Papers in Linguistics 1934–1951. London: Oxford University Press Halliday, Michael, Angus McIntosh, & Peter Strevens (1964). The Linguistic Sciences and Language Teaching. London: Longman.

Hill, Jimmie (1999). Collocational competence. English Teaching Professional 11: 3-6.

Hunston, Susan, & Francis Gill (2000). Pattern Grammar: A Corpus-Driven Approach to the Lexical Grammar of English. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Islam, Carlos (2006). Lexical approach: What does the lexical approach look like? Retrieved February 18, 2014 www.teachingenglish.org.uk/think/methodology/lexical_ approach1.shtml.

Kjellmer, Göran (1991). A mint of phrases. In Aijmer, Karin, Bengt Altenberg (eds.), English

Corpus Linguistics. Studies in Honour of Jan Svartvik (pp. 111–127). London, New York:

Longman.

Nasselhauf, Nadja (2005). Collocations in a Learner Corpus. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

Ozaki, Shigeru (2011). Teaching collocations effectively with the aid of L1. The Language Teacher 35.3: 37–40.

Ridout, Ronald, & David Waldo-Clarke (1970). A reference Book of English. London: Macmillan.

Riđanović, Midhat (2007). Praktična engleska gramatika : uz poređenja s našim jezikom, 2. dopunjeno izd. Sarajevo: Šahinpašić

Seaton, Brian (1982). A Handbook of English Language Teaching Terms and Practice. London:

The Macmillan Press.

Sinclair, John (1991). Corpus, Concordance, Collocation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Stubbs, Michael (2002). Words and Phrases: Corpus Studies of Lexical Semantics. OxfordMalden, MA: Blackwell.

Wray, Alison (2002). Formulaic Language and the Lexicon. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Zhang, Xiong (1993). English Collocations and Their Effect on the Writing of Native and Nonnative College Freshmen. Unpublished PhD thesis, Indiana: University of Pennsylvania.

Received March 23, 2014 Accepted for publication September 18, 2014

–  –  –

    Mirna Begagić: English language students’ productive and receptive knowledge of collocations

Author’s address:

Mirna Begagić University of Zenica Faculty of Philosophy Zmaja od Bosne 56 72 000 Zenica, Bosnia and Herzegovina mjasavic@yahoo.de

–  –  –

You have 25 minutes to complete this test. Please respond to the following:

Part1:

Put the verb which best completes the sentence in the blank. Spelling and grammar are not counted, only your choice of words. Use the first letter as a clue.

1. The manager d___________ ability to produce effective results in diverse and challenging environments.

2. Nation looks back on 50 years of Civil rights history with President Obama and others d_____________ speeches to commemorate the historic 1963 march on Washington.

3. Cats d____________ affection differently and in a more subtle way than dogs.

4. What a___________ the interest of students was the fact that lectures were held outdoors.

5. Nurses and phlebotomists d__________ blood to perform a variety of medical tests.

6. The jogger stopped to c__________ her breath and regain her strength.



Pages:     | 1 || 3 | 4 |


Similar works:

«Strategic Demarketing Jeanine Mikl´s-Thal ∗ † o, Juanjuan Zhang March 16, 2011 Abstract This paper shows that a seller can benefit from “strategic demarketing,” a practice that purposely suppresses marketing efforts to discourage demand even if such efforts are costless. By modestly marketing a product, the seller reduces sales ex ante but improves its quality image ex post, as buyers attribute any lackluster sales to insufficient marketing rather than low quality. The findings...»

«BANCO CENTRAL DE RESERVA DEL PERÚ Empalme de series históricas anuales y trimestrales del PBI por el lado del gasto y de los sectores económicos, base 2007 Javier Gutierrez* Martín Martínez* Ricardo Quineche* César Virreira* * Banco Central de Reserva del Perú DT. N° 2014-019 Serie de Documentos de Trabajo Working Paper series Diciembre 2014 Los puntos de vista expresados en este documento de trabajo corresponden a los autores y no reflejan necesariamente la posición del Banco Central...»

«1 LA CONCEPCION MARXISTA DEL CAMBIO TECNOLOGICO CLAUDIO KATZ. RESUMEN: El artículo actualiza la concepción marxista del cambio tecnológico en contraposición a los enfoques neoclásicos, keynesianos, evolucionistas y schumpeterianos de la innovación. Precisa porqué el planteamiento de Marx se ajusta más adecuadamente al estudio de la tecnología como fenómeno social. Destaca en qué medida la ley del valortrabajo y la plusvalía constituyen nociones indispensables para una teoría de la...»

«Teenage Relationship Abuse Campaign Brief Introduction This campaign brief has been written to provide you with information on the new Teenage Relationship Abuse campaign: ‘Disrespect NoBody’. The ‘Disrespect NoBody’ campaign is being jointly funded by the Government Equalities Office and the Home Office. The campaign is aimed at 12 to 18 year old boys and girls with the aim of preventing them from becoming perpetrators and victims of abusive relationships by encouraging young people to...»

«Multilingual Early Language Transmission (MELT) Summary of relevant literature on early multilingual learning, related to European smaller state and regional & minority language communities I. Bangma MSc Dr. A.M.J. Riemersma The contents of this publication may be reproduced in print, except for commercial purposes, provided that the extract is proceeded by a complete reference to the Mercator European Research Centre on Multilingualism and Language Learning. Published in September 2011 Project...»

«CITY CLERK Consolidated Clause in North York Community Council Report 6, which was considered by City Council on July 25, 26 and 27, 2006. Status Report Site Plan Approval Application NNY 23 SA Walker Nott Dragicevic Associates Limited Richard Wengle Architect Inc. Churchill Avenue and 2, 4 & 6 Basswood Avenue and Report on Decision of Ontario Municipal Board (Ward 23 Willowdale) The following Parts (2) and (3) of the recommendations of the North York Community Council were ruled out of order...»

«1 2221 Theory & Practice 1: Lecture 9 MATERNAL-FOETAL DISTRESS SYNDROME FRANK LAKE (1914-1982) © Dr Ian R. Ridgway A Personal Introduction Frank Lake’s Foundations 1. The Freudian Heritage 2. Otto Rank’s Contribution 3. Lake’s further development of Rank Changes in Lake’s Methodology Maternal-Foetal Distress Syndrome (MFDS) 1. The social-environmental implications of pregnancy 2. The four reaction patterns Lake’s Incarnational Theology Other biblical-theological themes A Personal...»

«The influence of brand preference on brand image transfer: A research on brand event congruity in sponsorships Charlene R. Chedi University of Twente, the Netherlands ABSTRACT Despite the growing attention for sponsorships, few studies have focussed on brand image issues. This article reports findings of an experimental research in which participants assessed the degree to which an event’s image associations were transferred to a brand through event sponsorships. Results indicated that...»

«Conjunct and Absolute Verb Inflexions in Scots and Northern English: Synchronic and Diachronic Perspectives1 ANTHONY F. BUCCINI AMY DAHLSTROM University of Chicago [Paper read at GLAC 6, Milwaukee, 30 April 2000] In this paper we examine a little-known and, from a Germanic perspective, highly peculiar feature of Middle Scots and northern Middle English morphosyntax, namely the employment of two distinct patterns of person and number marking on verbs in the present indicative with the...»

«Volunteering Statistics Collated Statistics and Quotes Collated By Evelyn O’Loughlin, CEO, Volunteering SA&NT, May 2011 Volunteering Statistics – Reference 11 The Latest Picture of Volunteering in Australia, Volunteering Australia – “We've gathered some important basic facts about volunteering in Australia from the latest ABS Voluntary Work, Australia Survey (2006). These figures were released in July 2007. Who volunteers? 34% of the adult population (5.4 million people), volunteer. •...»

«la crónica la crónica La Crónica del Quindío Wikipedia, the free La Crónica del Quindío (English: The Chronicle of the Quindío) is a regional daily newspaper based in Armenia, Colombia, and founded in 1991. [1] La Crónica de Guadalajara La Crónica, periódico de Guadalajara. Este website utiliza cookies propias y de terceros. Alguna de estas cookies sirven para realizar analíticas de Crónica | El gran diario de la gente Minutos de tensión y muy decisivos, con miles de cosas que le...»

«GUIDELINES FOR SELECTING LAND CONSULTANT February 9, 2009 GUIDELINES FOR SELECTING LAND CONSULTANT 1 INTRODUCTION The purpose of this document is to provide guidance to all Michigan airport sponsors (hereinafter referred to as Sponsor) in selecting a land consultant to manage a land acquisition project which is funded through Federal Aviation Administration (hereinafter referred to as FAA) or State Contract grants. The Sponsor will be responsible for obtaining a land consultant to accomplish...»





 
<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2016 www.theses.xlibx.info - Theses, dissertations, documentation

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.