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«Criminology of Europe: Inspiration by Diversity BOOK OF ABSTRACTS Prague, Czech Republic, 10−13 September 2014 The abstracts are published as ...»

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We have determined that guards believe that the institutional status of patients is higher than it should be. They are protected by the physician as “the white bears”, “knowing their rights”, including the possibility to complain about the conduct of the guards. Our respondents have noticed a patient’s material deprivation, and the mechanisms by which they overcoming this problem. Our interviewee are of a similar believe about the patient’s family status. So, without exception they remarked that family leave their ill member upon their arrival to the Special Prison Hospital or shortly afterwards. When it comes to feelings, our respondents have manifested two basic ones: compassion and empathy, both for patients, and their family members. In this respect there is no difference between the guards of different sex, but divergence can be observed between older and younger guards (the latter are reluctant to talk about this subject).

Finally, for our interviewees particularly important topic were the problems they encounter in their work with patients. They identified the following problems: verbal and physical assaults by patients, tiring work schedule, lack of staff. All together it generally affects the mental and physical exhaustion, which was described in more detail by women. They also say that “they had enough”, “it is difficult to get up in the morning, especially to go to work”. We concluded that this study unfolds a number of research questions and finally, invite the science to tackle “the world of staff” in special prison hospitals.

Keywords: special patients, guards, institutional status, family status, narrative analysis PO-22 Beyond the Muslim prisoner: Life course study of religious identity amongst Muslim male offenders on probation license in England and Wales lamia Irfan (London School of Economics and Political Science, UK) The poster outlines current ongoing research into the meaning and significance of religious identity amongst Muslim male offenders under probation supervision in England and Wales. The research adopts an oral life story approach to understanding the importance and meaning of religion in the lives of participants. The poster provides an overview of the research context, research questions and methods used for the research.

10–13 September 2014, Prague, Czech Republic The research focuses on religious identity amongst Muslim male offenders under probation supervision as Islam is the fastest growing religion in prisons in the UK (HMIP 2010). Along with this recent media attention has focused on the problems posed by Muslim prisoners due to concerns of prison radicalisation and concerns that the Muslim faith is being used as a cover for criminal gang activity. Furthermore media stories also highlight the increasingly levels of mistrust and resentment against Muslim prisoners as they are seen as having more advantages inside prison. Phillips (2012) and Liebling et al (2011) have outlined the complex uses of faith in the multi-cultural prison context. These research studies also suggests that religious identity has re-emerged as an important factor which impacts on the interactions and experiences of individuals inside prison (Phillips 2012; Liebling et al 2011). This research highlights the need for a more detailed study of the practise and meaning of Islam in the lives of offenders throughout their life course including: prior to conviction; whilst in prison; and during their resettlement phase once they have been released in the community.

This is necessary so that issues highlighted by previous research and the media can be examined in more detail. So far there has been no research into the on-licence and resettlement experiences of Muslim offenders even though the concerns surrounding faith in prison are echoed in the community. This study will fill a gap which to date has focused exclusively on the Muslim prisoner.

Keywords: faith, prisons, identity, cohesion, multiculturalism PO-23 Changing Patterns of Crime in Prague Metropolitan Area 1994-2013 Jana Jíchová (Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Science, Czech Republic), Martin Šimon (Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Science & Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Institute of Sociology, Czech Republic), Daniel Čermák (Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Institute of Sociology, Czech Republic) The article deals with geography of crime in Prague metropolitan area. In general it attempts to relate key processes changing spatial patterns of post-socialist city to changing spatial patterns of crime. The rapid urban transformation led to re-arrangement of urban socio-spatial structures. Commercialisation of city centre, gentrification of inner city areas and suburbanisation of urban hinterland changed social structure of particular localities and created different spaces of crime opportunities and spaces of crime activities.

This article utilizes data from official police statistics between 1994 and 2013 and socio-demographic data describing changing urban context which are analysed in GIS mapping tools. A detailed attention is devoted to specific types of crime, e.g. violent crimes, burglaries, thefts, etc. and their conditionality by spatial and social context in localities. For example, the suburban areas were typical with a high level of burglaries around the turn of the century. After that the crime rate decreased, mainly due to the reduction of break-ins to the weekend houses. On the other hand the intensity of burglaries to the single-family houses significantly increased, that is associated with the suburbanisation process in Prague’s hinterland. In conclusion the article discuss the differences between crime rates in localities as measured by statistical data and stereotypes related to particular territories describing them as either safe or dangerous.





Keywords: crime, urban transformation, Prague metropolitan area

–  –  –

PO-24 Death House Desiderata: A Hunger for Justice, Unsated Robert Johnson (American University, USA), Alexa Marie Kelly (American University, USA), Sarah Bousquet (American University, USA), Susan Nagelsen (New England College, USA), Carla Mavaddat (McGill University, Canada) The death penalty lives on in many parts of the world, notably in America, with some 1350 prisoners put to death since 1976, when the modern American death penalty was reborn. Most American prisoners get a last meal of their choice, though that choice is constrained by cost and, often, the stock in the prison kitchen. Last meals can be thought of as brief moments of autonomy in a relentlessly dehumanizing execution process. They also entail a distinctive cruelty. At bottom, prisoners seek comfort food but are never comforted. This meal is no entré to a relationship, but instead a recipe for abandonment. Dignity is nowhere to be found on the death house menu. Yet hope lingers, even here; human beings, it seems, cannot live or die without hope. Justice, the most profound human hunger, goes unsated by design. A series of vignettes and poems inspired by research on the execution process will be used to illustrate these themes.

Textual material will be supplemented by photographs. Here, as in the general case, photographs can complement poems because both mediums work with concise expressions, whether in word or image, to capture the scene at hand. The presentation will feature a reading of selected vignettes and poems, along with a discussion of accompanying photographs.

Keywords: Death Penalty, Last Meals, Last Words, Executions, Prisons PO-25 Victims of Femicide in Latin America: Legal and Criminal Justice Responses Janice Joseph (Richard Stockton College of New Jersey, USA) Femicide is the murder of a female because she is a female. It indicates the killing of a woman because of her gender. Feminists advocate for the term femicide because it removes the gender-neutral nature of homicide. It is the most serious and lethal form of violence against women. It occurs in every sphere of life and can be viewed as a form of sexist terrorism or hate crime against women. There are several types of femicides which include intimate femicide, intra-familial femicide, multicidal femicide, and systematic femicide. Countries with high rates of homicide in the male population also typically experience high rates of femicides and most Latin American countries have very high rates of femicide. In an attempt to address the high rate of femicide, some Latin American countries have passed anti-femicide legislation and established femicide units, national protocol as a guide for officials when they investigate femicides, special prosecutor units and tribunals which seek to avoid revictimization, and a Criminal Court for Crimes of Femicide and Violence Against Women. This presentation will critically examine the legal and criminal justice reforms undertaken by governments in Latin America to combat the crime of femicide. Recommendations will also be presented.

Keywords: murder, violence against women, Latin America PO-26 The Horse-Meat-Scandal: Innocent Offenders – Guilty Consumers?

Pamela Kerschke-Risch (University of Hamburg, Germany) The horsemeat scandal which became known in 2013 was one of the biggest frauds that happened in the food industry during the past few decades in Europe. Traces of horse meat were found in a lot of ready meal products (like frozen hamburgers or lasagne), declared as 100% beef.

10–13 September 2014, Prague, Czech Republic The aim of the presentation is to show first, how criminal acts are trivialized in the food sector and secondly how a reversal of the debt takes place. With particular reference to victimization processes in the white-collar crime sector, it will be shown how offenders are defined to victims and victims into perpetrators.

On the one hand, the actual perpetrators are referred to as victims of economic constraints, while the rationale on the other side is blaming the victims because of their demand for food prices that are as cheap as possible.

Even though residues of the veterinary drug phenylbutazone were detected in the horse meat and the consumption of horse meat in general is a taboo for certain groups of people, the advantages of high quality, low cholesterol and healthy meat were highlighted in the media.

It is shown that the victims are viewed not only as perpetrators but also condemn themselves as such.

Thus, the real perpetrators are innocent in the perception of consumers and the public. The initial victims only have themselves left to blame – and therefore believe to be the guilty ones.

Keywords: horse-meat-scandal, fodd-scandals, victimization, white-collar crime, food and crime PO-27 The sentencing practice of the ICTR – a highlighting analysis Maximilian Kock (University of Hamburg, Germany), Lea Babucke (University of Hamburg, Germany) As a part of the completion strategy the Residual Mechanism for International Criminal Tribunals is about to resume and continue the mandates of the ICTR. Presumably by 2015 the ICTR will be closed.

Regarding this upcoming end of an era and in the light of the 20 years that passed since the massacres in Rwanda the work of the ICTR was reflected.

Especially the sentencing practice at the ICTR is of prominent interest. Not only for its allied successor the ICC but for the evaluation of the ICTR itself.

Analyzing all sentences of the ICTR it will be shown, that it has disregarded the nemo tenetur principle in at least 9 cases. Through this it violated Art. 20 IV g ICTR-Statute.

Furthermore the ICTR breached its statute sentencing 12 accused to prison sentences over 30 Years. This practice is not in accordance with the rwandan penal law, which the ICTR is obliged to consider under Art.

23 I ICTR-Statute.

Resuming these breaches of law, fundamental questions regarding the international criminal law and its sentencing legitimacy arise.

Keywords: ICTR, Sentencing, Courts and Law PO-28 Punitive attitudes of ex-prisoners (juvenile/young), judges and prosecutors: Convergences and divergences Pinelopi Kollia (Panteion University of Social and Political Sciences, Greece), Christina Zarafonitou (Panteion University of Social and Political Sciences, Greece) The phenomenon of social pathology of juvenile delinquency is directly linked to the ever-changing society. The confrontation of this phenomenon has gone through various stages, including stages of intense punitiveness. Nowadays, the interest of the juvenile is the primary concern of the approach of justice, according to the welfare model. This approach enriched by incorporating institutional rules of justice model which are deemed the child more as a subject of rights, rather than the object of treatment.

14th Annual Conference of European Society of Criminology However in recent decades, the juvenile justice across Europe, shows heterogeneity. Others, inspired by policies that serve their needs, but also offer social protection, and others apply models that emphasize to restitution and punitiveness.

The aim of this research is to investigate the purpose of punishment (as for its punitive dimension) imposed on juvenile offenders by practitioners of criminal justice and the “response” to it, by juvenile ex prisoners. Finally, an attempt is made to researched the possible convergences and the divergences of judges/prosecutors and juvenile ex-prisoners.

The present study consists of two parts. The first part is the observation of criminal cases at one-member juvenile court of Athens and the second one includes interviews with judicial functionaries (Areopagites [prosecutors of supreme court], First Instance Judges, Appeal Judges, Judges Prosecutors and Interrogators, who served as Judges/Prosecutors/Interrogators of Juvenile) and juvenile ex-prisoners. The sample of judicial functionaries was collected from the Court of First Instance of Athens and from the Court of Appeals of Athens. The sample of juveniles includes people of both sexes from various nationalities (Greek, Greek Roma, Georgians) with age range (committed offenses) 14–19 years.

Some of the conclusions:

 There is no punitive attitude of Justice.

 The positions of juvenile offenders on punitiveness and criminal treatment are summarized as follows: The nationality of the offender should not be playing a role, the purpose of sentencing should be the reformation, a significant percentage believes that the purpose of the sentencing is only the punishment but also a large percentage believes in the educational nature of the sentencing.

 Problems: the lack of system structures, the lack of human resources and the incomplete scientific relevance of them.

 It is necessary the education of judicial functionaries in cases relating to juveniles.

Keywords: purposes of punishment, punitiveness, correctional systems, justice standards PO-29 Urban Crime Prevention (discourses, strategies and practices) in a Comparative Historical Perspective (1930-2014) Pieter Leloup (Free University of Brussels, Belgium) During the last few decades, the notions of security and crime prevention gained much societal and international academic attention. In Belgium however, little is known on how thinking about security in general and crime prevention in particular in urban settings developed and changed throughout the 20 th century.

The innovating aspect of this international comparative criminological research, is its interdisciplinary approach. From a historical-criminological perspective, we tend to analyse and compare discourses, strategies and practices of urban crime prevention in Europe from the interwar period until the present day.

Two cities will be selected as cases, notably one Belgian and one other European city. In comparing both cities, we will study how (inter)national, societal and urban transformations shaped our thinking of crime control and crime prevention, and its further implications at a policy level.

Different research questions need to be answered, such as: How have security and crime prevention been defined within an urban context since the interwar period? What is the nature of the assumed historical change in crime prevention discourses, strategies and practices? How are these developments to be understood? What are the differences and/or similarities between our two selected cities with regard to security and crime prevention?

10–13 September 2014, Prague, Czech Republic Data will be collected by means of an exhaustive archival research of policy documents and reports in both cities, in combination with a literature study on European trends in crime prevention and interviews with policy makers and practitioners, the latter providing information on late modern crime prevention policies.

This research project consists of 4 work packages spread over a 4-year period:

 Literature review (Jan-Sep 2014);

 Preparation of the empirical analyses of archival records (Oct-Dec 2014);

 Empirical research – in-depth archival research and interviews in both cities (Jan 2015-Jul 2016);

 Final report – Doctoral thesis (PhD) (Aug 2016-Dec 2017).

Keywords: Crime prevention, Comparative Criminological research, Historical perspective, Urban setting PO-30 Capital Exchanges, ‘User Pays’ Policing, and Security Networks Randy Lippert (University of Windsor, Canada), Kevin Walby (University of Winnipeg, Canada) This poster presentation explores the link between public police and private users within a ‘user pays’ form of public policing in Ontario, Canada and the implications of these programs for security governance and ‘user pays’ policing literatures and for policy internationally. Drawing on an intensive exploratory study using quantitative and qualitative methods we show that user types vary in strength and by city/region and that this particular nodal linkage between police and users can be understood not so much as unidirectional ‘responsibilization’ as a two-way exchange of forms of capital. The nature of the temporary capital exchanges are discovered to primarily involve economic and symbolic capital. Finally, we show how recent increased regulation of this nodal link that has been occurring in several Ontario cities targets particular kinds of capital present within it. Thus, the regulation of user pays policing is indexed to the type(s) of capital exchanged between public police and users. We argue future research in North America and Europe should pay closer attention to ‘user pays’ policing and the capital exchanges occurring within these arrangements as well as to the strength and nature of these links among public police and private users that help form local security networks.

Keywords: public policing, users pay policing, security networks, capital, regulation PO-31 Neighborhood characteristics and police reported crime: A spatial epidemiology analysis Miriam Marco (Universitat de Valèn ia, S ain), Enrique Gracia (Universitat de Valèn ia, S ain), Silvia Lladosa (Bayestats, Spain), Antonio López-Quílez (Universitat de Valèn ia, S ain), Marisol Lila (Universitat de Valèn ia, S ain), José Serrano (Local Police Department, Spain) Public disorder and crime is rarely investigated using epidemiological methods. However, patters of disorder and crime, as other public health problems, have a spatial dimension, and are may be affected by neighborhood characteristics that are also spatially patterned. In this study, methods from spatial epidemiology are used to analyze neighborhood-level factors influencing crime rates in the city of Valencia, Spain. To this end, we used as neighborhood units the 552 census block groups in which the city is divided.

Police officers with extensive knowledge of their territory scored each census block group according to the

number of police interventions in their police district. Census block groups were divided in two groups:

census block groups with high crime rates and low crime rates ones. Socioeconomic data for each census block group were obtained from the Statistics Office of Valencia City. A Generalized Linear Model was conducted to examine the influence of neighborhood characteristics on crime rates. Results indicate that neighborhoods with high rates of immigrant concentration, high residential stability, high number of sinth Annual Conference of European Society of Criminology gle-female headed families, and a low education level, were those with higher crime rates. Residuals in the final model showed a non-random spatial distribution, which indicates a significant underlying spatial process. Results illustrate the importance of a spatial and contextual approach to understanding neighborhood crime rates.

Keywords: Neighborhood characteristics, Spatial Epidemiology, Crime rates PO-33 Mass enemying: criminological perspectives on the surveillance of online social networks Manuel Maroto (University of Castilla-La Mancha, Spain) Criminological research on online social networks has usually focused on how these platforms encourages certain behaviors, and the definition and analysis of new “cyber crimes”. However, recent leaks regarding the massive online surveillance programs run by different governments have stressed the importance of these practices as a core feature of social control in postindustrial societies. Through some concrete examples, we will address some criminological ideologies sustaining the emergence of omnipresent, everyday surveillance, some implications of the political economy of personal data, and some of the potentials and limitations of the Internet as a space both for an unprecedented level of exclusionary social control and new forms of political resistance.

We will first provide a description of some already common state practices regarding the use of online social networks as sources of evidence and intelligence information for crime control purposes. Firstly justified in the context of antiterrorist policies, then expanded to daily dealing with common crime, these practices pose some unavoidable constitutional and political problems from the point of view of privacy and the right to the secrecy of communications that will be here highlighted.

A differentiated set of practices would be those which aim at predicting future behavior through the extensive use of data mining procedures. This includes the use of artificial intelligence to analyze, structure and catalog the significance of user generated online content, such a Facebook’s “Deep Learning” initiative. When oriented to the prediction of crime, this new surveillance apparatus brings to new life old criminological ideas about the possibility to predict future criminal behavior and react in advance to such an assessment of risk. It also points at what seems to be a potential major feature of so-called “pre-crime societies” (Zedner, 2007) in the context of the new culture of control (Garland 2001, Wacquant 2009) associated to post-fordist economies.

In understanding the development of this "pre-crime" criminology, it seems indeed essential to remark the current economic importante of personal data. In February 2014 and for the first time, Google passed Exxon as the second most valuable company by market capitalization, while another information technology corporation, Apple, tops the list. In the field of surveillance, the convergence of interests between business and state actors, both equally “hungry for data”, deserves further criminological attention.

Keywords: Mass surveillance, Online social networks, Pre-Crime, Political economy of personal data PO-34 Proposal of regulation on gender violence in Spain María Martín (Autonomous University of Madrid, Spain), Ana Belén Pinilla (UAM, Spain), Isabel Cabrero (UAM, Spain), Carmen Jorda (UAM, Spain) This study analyses the legal situation of gender violence in Spain. The analysis, which takes the form of an exploratory essay, is based on the Spanish legislation related to gender. The qualitative analysis is based on Law 1/2004 of 28 December on comprehensive protection measures against gender-based violence. Its 10–13 September 2014, Prague, Czech Republic aim is to identify highlights changes in society to be protected, linked to public institutions in this field, especially focusing on judges and police.

Spain has been one of the first countries in Europe in defining and fighting against gender violence with a comprehensive law: 1/2004, and it defines the male author and the female victim, “who were or are spouses or who are or have been linked to them by similar affective relations”, limitation which indicates that a relationship “analogous to marriage” must have existed at some point.

We must consider all forms affecting women (UN, 2011), what indicates the need for revisions and updates of the laws, due to the social changes. Nowadays it seems necessary to redefine the concept, and it must involve more types of unions or relationships, like friendship and family; and it is justified by the way we stablish emotional ties currently in Spain, not based on traditional criteria. Considering these types of relationship involves a broader concept of gender violence, consequences for police and courts are analysed: two relevant results are listed. The first, the needing of specialised teams in policy and judges, what has opened the possibility of offering a closer protection for the victim, is kept in the large concept. Furthermore, decentralization of both institutions requires specialized teams to provide a direct service, and it is given, for instance, because they don’t need scientific police to identify the author. This decentralization remains in the prosecution of the new large concept, because of the fact of being friends or family implies that author and victim are people that knew each other. Also the immediacy of the performance of public services is demanded with the same force.

So that, preliminary results of the analysis indicates that police and judicial tools don't need to change at all.

Keywords: gender violence, police, judicial, concept PO-35 Medation in domestic violence cases Ilona Michailovič (Vilnius University, Law Institute of Lithuania, Lithuania), Judita Venckevičienė (Law Institute of Lithuania, Lithuania) At present, one of the pressing issues of the criminal justice system in Lithuania is how to implement mediation into the criminal procedure. In the framework of the research project “Restorative Justice Perspectives in Lithuania” administrated by the Research Council of Lithuania the interdisciplinary team of researchers from the Law Institute of Lithuania creates a comprehensive scientific basis and preconditions for implementation of mediation in Lithuania.

One of the objectives of the project is to identify and investigate the problematic fields of victim-offender mediation, focusing on the some specific categories of mediation. One of these categories is mediation in domestic violence cases. This problematic area of mediation will be presented in the presentation. During the study interviews concerning mediation necessity in criminal justice were conducted. Interviews confirmed the great need for mediation services. Conflicted families often tend to reconcile and victims suffered from domestic violence would like their perpetrators to be punished but are not willing to terminate relationship with them. In such cases mediation helps to resolve the conflict and prevent from happening again.

Keywords: victim-offender mediation, domestic violence

–  –  –

PO-36 Findings of the prisoners’ research Marcela Moulisova (Poli ejní akademie ČR, Cze h Re bli ) A research involving 311 male and 70 female prisoners was carried out. The research was targeted to the prisoners´ value, to the techniques of neutralization, and to the prisoners´ approach to the acceptance of the punishment. The values were investigated with the method of pair comparisons. In addition, the subjects have estimated in two simulated situations concerning noncriminal motivation and criminal opportunity their potential criminal reaction to the obstacles preventing realization of a criminal act and to the probability of disclosure.

The value “need not to work” came distinctively as the last position on the value-list selected by both male and female prisoners. The prisoners for whom the value was relatively important were statistically significantly more frequently single, unemployed, drug addict, and more often with a broken family background.

Ten per cent of the prisoners used no the neutralization techniques and only a few of them used all five techniques. The technique of “Denial of responsibility” was used the most frequently, while the techniques of “Denial of the victim” and “Appeal to higher loyalties” were used least frequently. There were no statistical differences in the use of the techniques between men and women. Men older, with higher levels of education, never convicted before, and in prison for the first time, as well as those with very long prison sentences had the tendency to justify less their illegitimate action.

Prisoners who had accepted their punishment outright were more often younger men under 30 years, who emphasized more the value of money and who used less frequently the neutralization technique of “Condemnation of the condemners”. Those who had accepted the punishment with exception were more often men between 30-40 years, who put more emphasis on the values of freedom and children, and more often used the technique of “Denial of injury”. Those who have not accepted the punishment were more often older men, 40 years and above, who put more emphasis on the value of partnership and used more frequently the neutralization technique of “Condemnation of the condemners”, and who used the neutralization techniques of “Denial of injury” and of “Denial of responsibility” less often.

As for the reaction to both elements of situational prevention, it was found that the great probability of disclosure had greater deterrent effect than the obstacles. Women were deterred by the probability of disclosure less than men in both simulated situations.

Keywords: prisoners´ research, value, neutralization techniques, situational prevention PO-37 Cardsharing: a new form of illicit access to pay-per-view TV María del Mar Moya Fuentes (Universidad de Alicante, Spain) Among the new illicit techniques to access pay-per-view TV services, cardsharing is the most prolific one;

consisting in multiple users' simultaneous access to a pay TV channel by means of a single valid subscription card. This technique is usually common between family or friends – also known as “private cardsharing networks”, although “public cardsharing networks” – networks where the server redistributes passwords to other users in exchange for a lower payment than the official server tariff -have emerged and gradually become mor important of late. Public cardsharing networks work as it follows: the client's decoder is configured remotely by the server, thus controlling the number of users whom have hired their services and programming their access. In this way, the Spanish Police has clamped down and dismantled several international fraud networks offering digital television services across all platforms in Europe. As a result, 27 people have been arrested while another 77 have been found suspect, although Europol investigations have not been closed. Moreover, it is also common for a single user to use this technique as to broadcast the signal to other units within the same home or a second home, which is known as homeshar13 September 2014, Prague, Czech Republic ing. The following paper analyses this fraudulent practice, valuing if it can be punished in accordance with article 286 Spanish Criminal Code, which punishes, precisely, the illicit access to broadcasting, radio or television, conditional access services, or in accordance with the frauds of electricity and analogues (article

255.3 Spanish Criminal Code).

Keywords: Cardsharing, Pìracy pay tv, Smart card, Decoder, Conditional access services PO-38 Overview of the International Self-Report Delinquency Study (ISRD) Katharina Neissl (Northeastern University, USA) The International Self-Report Delinquency Study is a large international collaborative survey study of 7 th, 8th and 9th graders, focusing on delinquency, victimization, and substance use in more than thirty countries. There have been two previous ISRD waves (ISRD1 1992-94 and ISRD2 2006-2008); the third wave (ISRD3) started in 2012 and will conclude its fieldwork in 2015. The ISRD3 study tests social control theory, self-control theory, institutional anomie theory, procedural justice theory and Situational Action theory, among others. The primary purpose of this poster is to provide an overview of the basic research protocol (sampling and survey design) of the ISRD3, as well as to document the progress of the fieldwork in the participating countries. Presentation of the poster presents an opportunity to discuss the progress of the study, to exchange ideas about methodological and practical issues encountered during the fieldwork, and to answer questions. The poster will present the opportunity for those not familiar with the ISRD3 project to familiarize themselves with the project and to explore joining the ISRD3 international research team.

Keywords: juvenile delinquency, theories, crime rates& methodology PO-39 IPV: Profile of the aggressors. A criminological and medico-legal study Natalia Pérez Rivas (University of Santiago de Compostela, Spain), Mercedes Domínguez Fernández (University of Santiago de Compostela, Spain), María Castro Corredoira (University of Santiago de Compostela, Spain), Rebeca Diéguez Méndez (University of Santiago de Compostela, Spain), Gumersindo Guinarte Cabada (University of Santiago de Compostela, Spain), José Ignacio Muñoz Barús (University of Santiago de Compostela, Spain), María Sol Rodríguez Calvo (University of Santiago de Compostela, Spain), Fernando Vázquez-Portomeñe Seijas (University of Santiago de Compostela, Spain) Although the ecologic model of IPV considers that a suitable approach to the phenomena should focus, among others, on individual (victim and perpetrator) and family/relationship levels, investigations about men who abused their partner are relatively scant comparing with those of victims. The aim of the present poster is to contribute to a better understanding of the figure of the aggressor in cases of non-fatal IPV against women in Spain, from a criminological and medico-legal perspective. As part of this task we examine different risk factors such as the socioeconomic level of the perpetrator, substance abuse or psychiatric disorders. Moreover, this presentation describes the characteristics of the relationship between aggressors and victims and the circumstances of the abuse. Identification of all these factors and characteristics will allow appropriate tailoring and targeting of services for prevention and treatment of the problem as well as assessing current support measures. In our study it has been found that prior criminal records increase the likelihood for future abuses. According to literature, most accused aggressors had a history of prior arrest for domestic violence and/or some other violent behaviour. Furthermore, it has been documented that if the abuser has one previous arrest for any crime (not just domestic violence), he is more likely to reabuse than if he has no prior arrest and that the length of prior record as well general recidivism are predictive of future offenses. Our study consists in a retrospective analysis of cases classified as IPV from the prosecutor office of Santiago de Compostela (Galicia, NW Spain). The period under study exth Annual Conference of European Society of Criminology tended from January 2005 to December 2012. A total of 582 files with final judicial decision were included in the investigation. A descriptive statistical analysis was carried out with the statistical package SPSS.

Keywords: Violence against women, Aggressor´s profile PO-40 Rebuilding the educational system in post-conflict context in Kosovo - Survival of the Unmik’s provisions to support the living together through primary education Alexia Pierre (University of Liège, Belgi m) In the aftermaths of the Cold War, the International Community adopts the objective of Education for All.

Soon after, the war is identified as the major obstacle in the fulfilment of this objective. The international stakeholders take their stand in favor of the continuation of the schooling during protracted crisis and wars. An objective of peace building and conflict prevention is since added to education. In the early 1990, the Kosovo Albanians were submitted to a segregationist policy headed by the nationalist Government of Milosevic, the Republika Srpska. The freedom of being educated in their mother tongue is denied to the Kosovo Albanians, who react by setting up a parallel education system. This parallel educational system collapsed due to the war situation in Kosovo, that lead to a military air campaign headed by the Nato. This military intervention is immediately followed by a civil administration mission, the Unmik. When arriving in Kosovo, Unmik faces two systems of education. Unmik’s first objective is to rebuild a unified education system in Kosovo, along with objectives of democratization and modernization. My work aims to explore the reconstruction process of the education system in Kosovo and the operationalization of the provisions that turn education as a tool of peace and conflict prevention. The research question is on the present survival and effectiveness of these provisions in the primaries schools of Prishtina. Standardized questionnaires has been completed by teachers in History and Civic Education, and by Directors of the primaries school of Prishtina. Interviews with Kosovo people who were involved in the rebuilding process of the education system were carried out. The results highlights that International Community massively imposed this new model of education, what is visible through the identical profiles of all the schools that participated to the research. It appears that such an intervention is limited by the specificities and the reality of the Kosovo, which were not taken into consideration enough to make this new education system fit well to the very specific aspects of Kosovo. The question of the adaptability of such a model, created out of the Kosovo and without sufficient rely on the local population, is raised through this study. Indeed, the actual education system in Prishtina faces huge challenges in terms of equipment, funding and space. The potential in peace building and conflict prevention of the present education system in Kosovo can not be fully developed, what contains risks of resurgence of conflicts.

Keywords: peace building education, internal armed conflict prevention, international post-conflict intervention, Kosovo PO-42 An Actutarial Assessment of Intimate Partner Homicide Lee Ross (University of Central Florida, USA) The purpose of this study is to consider whether actuarial assessment has the potential to better identify potential intimate homicide cases. Campbell’s (2009) revised Danger Assessment was applied to a sample of 25 cases involving intimate partner homicide. A secondary data analysis found: (1) of the 20 risk factors, five emerged as significant correlates of intimate partner homicide, (2) in 80% of the cases, victims were at an increased risk for homicide, and (3) there was little evidence to suggest that risk assessments—of any sort—were use in this jurisdiction. The implications of these findings are discussed in terms of revising risk 10–13 September 2014, Prague, Czech Republic assessments and directing future research on the utilization of risk assessments among criminal justice practitioners.

Keywords: risk assessment, intimate partner homicide, fatality review, risk factors, utilization PO-43 Effectivness of Interrogation Techniques: Perceptions of Highly Experienced Interrogators, Analysts and Interpreters Melissa Russano (Roger Williams University, USA), Fadia Narchet (University of New Haven, USA), Steven Kleinman (Operational Sciences International, USA), Christian Meissner (Iowa State University, USA) Interrogation can be objectively divided into three fundamental processes: communicating, relationshipbuilding, and sensemaking. While the interrogator plays a central role in each of these three processes, they are oftentimes materially assisted by two other members of the interrogation team: the interpreter— who assists with facilitating communicating and the connections that build relationships—and the analyst—who directly supports the interrogator in making sense of the information elicited from a subject.

Although a body of research has developed regarding the interrogator role, little to no research has been conducted on the role or perceptions of interpeters and analysts with respect to supporting interrogations.

The task force that led to the creation of the High-Value Detainee Interrogation Group (HIG) recommended that the HIG fund a program of research aimed at establishing scientifically-supported interrogative best practices. One of the ways to identify “best practices” is to rely on the knowledge of subjectmatter experts (SMEs). In a series of three studies, we studied the perceptions of three SME groups that are often fundamental to a interrogation team: interrogators, analysts and interpreters.

In our first study, we conducted structured interviews of 42 highly experienced military and human intelligence interrogators. In our second study, we conducted similar interviews with 12 highly experienced intelligence analysts. Finally, in our third study, we surveyed 27 FBI interpreters with experience supporting interrogations.

The focus on the current presentation will be the perceived effectiveness of various interrogation approaches/techniques from the perspective of interrogators, analysts and interpreters. The results indicate that all groups believe that relationship and rapport-building techniques are most effective at eliciting reliable information, whereas techniques that are driven by confrontation and competition are least effective at eliciting reliable information from a target.

It is our hope that the results of this study will stimulate research and ultimately influence training models and best practices.

Keywords: interrogation, rapport-building, investigative interviewing PO-46 Recidivism among young offenders in Germany Katharina Stelzel (University of Tübingen, Germany), Bernadette Schaffer (University of Tübingen, Germany) The poster highlights the quantitative results of a research project on recidivism in the federal state of Hessen compared to the national recidivism rates for young offenders in Germany.

The research project analyses the reappearance in the judicial system of young male offenders after their release from juvenile prison institutions in the federal state of Hessen, following a three-folded definition of recidivism: 1) any new entry in the central register counts as a case of recidivism; 2) just those records in 14th Annual Conference of European Society of Criminology the central register with a conditional or unconditional prison sentence count as recidivism; 3) just those records with an unconditional prison sentence count as recidivism.

Additionally, changes were analyzed in the severity of the offences in the recidivism record compared to the time period before the offender had been primarily imprisoned and therefore became part of the study.

Methodology of the research project: The central registry documents of the young offenders are drawn 3 years after their release from the juvenile prisons Rockenberg and Wiesbaden; the recidivism period is calculated individually. Pieces of information from prison files are added to those from the central registry.

The methodology of the research project is highly comparable with those from the national recidivism survey in terms of the definition of recidivism, the time of the data collection and the recidivism period.

Keywords: recidivism, juvenile offenders, Germany PO-47 Scandinavian research Council for criminology Anette Storgaard (Scandinavian research Council for criminology, Denmark) The Scandinavian research Council for Criminology is a 50 year old Council which is founded by the ministries of justice in the Scandinavian countries.

The tasks of the Council is to support and inspire Scandinavian criminology and to provides the ministries with knowledge on criminological research.

The Council arranges seminars for researchers and organise small expert working groups on specific subjects such as for instance economical crime, prisons, drugs and environmental polution. the Council has an ambition of bringing together practitioners and researchers in order to exchange experiences. Recent subjects for such contact seminars have been sex offenders, restaurative justice and release from prison.

on the webpage www.nsfk.org reports from all seminars are published.

Every month the council publishes a newsletter with criminological and Crime policies from the Scandinavian countries. The newsletter can be downloaded for free from the webpage The Scandinavian journal for criminology and Crime prevention is published twice a year in a collaboration between the Scandinavian research Council for criminology and the Crime prevention councils in the member countries.

Keywords: Criminology, Crime prievention, Crime policy PO-48 Knowledge representation and risk identification Peter Szmodics (Corvinus University of Budapest, Hungary) The need for understanding the value of knowledge has increased in the recent years. The purpose is to give an overview about the knowledge representation’s main perspectives and its interrelation with the business process management showing a relevant connection with risk assessment, as part of prevention in criminology. First the knowledge-based value is defined, then the related concepts are introduced, and at last some approaches towards controls in business environment are shown.

Mapping the knowledge gives the answer on the ratio covered of the business needs. For representing the value addition of the knowledge it is necessary to know in which depth the knowledge is used. This requires another dimension. Having the knowledge structure above the problem level with a reasonable 10–13 September 2014, Prague, Czech Republic realized value normally shows the sign of a flexible, innovative or creative environment. But what if the knowledge is present, but no business value is created or just very low level.

In one hand there might be some logical reasons with common interpretation what might justified with healthy motivation. In the other hand, if the financial benefit is the main value driver for the knowledge bearer and the environment could give an alternative opportunity for them to take higher benefit and still they stay at their position then there might be another explanation. Having slack resources, like knowledge and idle time, in an organization might be the ground of unexpected behaviors. Amongst the other processes and procedures it is worthy to try to use the knowledge mapping as one step of the internal risk assessment procedures in order to get a broader view about the possible risk set, at least.

The stakeholders face a lot of challenges, the intellectual property management takes a lot of corporate resources and the usage of these resources has to be justified. In order to make the stakeholders able to represent the value of the knowledge they need a holistic management aspect. They have to keep in mind that the current BPMs cannot deliver the best answers for every question. Taking into consideration the knowledge mapping, the knowledge intensity and the critical event-driven process chain elements, might be a well-defined input set for the successful assessment. In order to provide a coherent risk management for the stakeholders, the risk assessment has to incorporate at least the philosophy of knowledge mapping in order to implement the proper control mechanisms.

Keywords: knowledge, business process management, risk identification PO-49 System satisfaction, contact experience and trust in the police: A comparative study of four European countries Gunnar Thomassen (Norwegian Police University College, Norway), Juha Kääriäinen (Police University College of Finland, Finland) A central question from a policy perspective is to what extent trust in the police is influenced by everyday encounters between police and the public. The sizeable research in this field suggests that the police can and do shape peoples’ attitudes through everyday encounters. Furthermore, the relationship seems to hold up even after controlling for a range of relevant factors such as social background and neighborhood context.

There is however one potentially important factor that has been largely left out of these studies, namely citizens’ attitudes toward the state and society in general. It might be that those who are less satisfied with the way society works are more prone to interpret their encounter with the police in a negative way.

This opens up the possibility that the relationship between contact experience and trust in the police is fully or partially spurious.

Utilizing data from the Europeans social survey we pose three research questions. 1) To what extent is trust in the police associated with system satisfaction? 2) To what extent is the relationship between contact experience and trust in the police spurious and influenced by system satisfaction? And 3) does the relationship between system satisfaction, contact experience and trust in the police vary across different European countries?

Keywords: Police encounters, System satisfaction, Trust

–  –  –

PO-50 Disability 'Hate Crime' as ordinary crime Loretta Trickett (Nottingham Trent University, UK) In the UK Disability Hate Crime is not a crime that anybody can be charged with directly. It is only considered as a motivating factor in other forms of crime. There is the possibility of an uplift tariff and therefore a longer sentence if hostility towards disability can be demonstrated. The researcher has undertaken research on the prosecution of crimes against disabled people in the East Midlands region of England. It was found that prosecution of such crimes was rare and when they were prosecuted they were sentenced as ordinary crimes and the uplift tariff was hardly ever used. With this in mind the researcher examines findings from the recent publication of the Law Commission Report in England and Wales - 'Hate Crime: Should current offences be extended?" The Commission has rejected arguments for the extension of the current hate crime categories to include 'incitement to hatred' on the grounds of disability. The researcher argues that based on her own work and that of other researchers on the victimisation of disabled people as well as information provided by voluntary agencies working with disabled people in the UK, the publication of the Law Commission Report is arguably a missed opportunity. Currently legislation in England and Wales for dealing with crimes against disabled people is inadequate and change is long overdue. The researcher makes recommendations on what form this change might take in order to improve the way in which crimes against disabled victims are dealt with.

Keywords: Disability, Hate, Categories, Law, Commission PO-51 Attitudes Toward Intervention and Motivation to Change Scale: Development and initial validation of a professional assessment tool for batterer intervention programs Viviana Vargas (Universitat de Valèn ia, S ain), Miriam Marco (University of Valencia, Spain), Alba Catalá-Miñana (Universitat de Valèn ia, S ain), Marisol Lila (Universitat de Valèn ia, S ain), Enrique Gracia (Universitat de Valèn ia, S ain) The lack of motivation to change and treatment adherence is a key issue of psychosocial interventions for perpetrators of intimate partner violence. Numerous researchers suggest developing strategies focused on motivation to change and attitude of the participants toward intervention. Instruments to assess these issues are needed. The aim of this study is to present a psychometrically sound instrument to assess attitudes towards intervention in intimate partner violence offenders. The scale was administrated to practitioners in the area after interviewing 185 adult male intimate partner violence offenders court-mandated to a community-based intervention program. A two factor structure (attitude towards intervention and motivation to change) was supported using exploratory factor analysis. Reliability of the scales in this study was estimated using Cronbach’s alpha, demonstrating to have high internal consistency. The Attitudes Toward Intervention and Motivation to Change Scale was related to variables linked to intimate partner violence: risk assessment, anxiety, psychopathological symptoms, anger, self-esteem, sexism, perceived severity of violence, responsibility attribution, and social support. It is discussed the relevance of the instrument for practitioners in the intervention with male perpetrators arena.

Keywords: Batterer intervention programs, Motivation, Validation 10–13 September 2014, Prague, Czech Republic PO-53 Punitive Criminology VS Positive Criminology - Violations and warnings during Electronic Monitoring Shirley Yehosha-Stern (Ashkelon Academic College, Israel), Efrat Shoham (Ashkelon Academic College, Israel), Rotem Efodi (Prisoners Rehabilitation Authority, Israel) The Electronic Monitoring (EM) program for early release prisoners in Israel is operated by the ‘Prisoners’ Rehabilitation Authority` which supervises those prisoners with EM, as part of a rehabilitation program that consists of employment, consultations, and meetings with therapists. Within this framework each case is treated individually. For example, infractions of the release terms may result in expropriation of the participant's license or end up with warning only. The aim of the present study was to examine the nature of the formal and informal decisions made by the supervisors regarding infractions during the EM program. The violations of and the warnings given to the participants were recorded and analyzed. The sample of 155 participants were all prisoners on license (who have been granted conditional early release) who took part in the EM Program from mid-2007 until mid-2009. Data analysis uncovered a relatively low involvement on the part of the release prisoners in recidivism during monitoring period. Our findings further showed that therapeutic and rehabilitative approaches, as well as good relationships with the therapists, may lower the rates of recidivism.

These findings are consistent with the conception of positive criminology which highlights and enhances the “positive components” of rehabilitation program such as acceptance, compassion, encouragement, faith, forgiveness, and positive modeling. Those components essential for prevention, rehabilitation and recovery programs.

Keywords: Electronic, Monitoring, Israel, Rehabilitation PO-54 The CSI Effect in Turkey: Reflections from the criminal justice professionals Neylan Ziyalar (Institute of Forensic Sciences, Istanbul University, Turkey), Aylin Yakupoglu (Institute of Forensic Sciences, Istanbul University, Turkey), Can Calici (Institute of Forensic Sciences, Istanbul University, Turkey) Crime Fiction has long been transferred from literary to film and television industry. Furthermore it has been modernized in parallel with the developments in molecular biology and genetics and focused on forensic sciences. During the last decade like all over the world Turkish television channels are broadcasting crime series and shows too. CSI (Crime Scene Investigation) Effect is defined as; “the phenomenon in which jurors hold unrealistic expectations of forensic evidence and investigation techniques, and have an increased interest in the discipline of forensic science” (Robbers, 2008).

This research is aimed to analyze the impact of CSI Effect on criminal justice professionals. In order to achieve this, a survey has been conducted to 266 participants, who are working as crime scene investigation specialists, criminal courts judges, public prosecutors, lawyers, law inforcement personnel and forensic specialists, to reveal their perceptions. Survey material has adapted to Turkish which originally used by Veronica Stinson and her colleagues (Stinson et al.,2007).

Some results of the research are reflecting that; nine tenths of the participants are following crime dramas and one third of these are watching minimum once in a week. Regarding their professions, while forensic specialists has the highest; public prosecutors has the lowest rate among all crime drama watchers. One third of the participants expressed that CSI dramas have a positive effect on entire criminal justice process, however three forths of forensic specialist agreed that this kind of tv dramas are effecting criminal behaviour and creating trained perpetrators.

14th Annual Conference of European Society of Criminology

References:

Robbers, Monica L. P. (2008). Blinded by Science: The Social Construction of Reality in Forensic Television Shows and it’s Effect on Criminal Jury Trials. Criminal Justice Policy Review, 19 (1): 84- 102.

Stinson, V., Patry, M. W., & Smith, S. M. (2007). The CSI effect: Reflections from police and forensic investigators. The Canadian Journal of Police and Security Services, 5(3), 1-9.

Keywords: CSI Effect, Criminal Justice Professionals, Cultural Criminology, Turkey PO-55 Research of perpetrators of the crime of neglect of compulsory maintenance Ivana Zoubkova (Policejni akademie Praha, Czech Republic), Josef Sklenicka (Policejni akademie Praha, Czech Republic) The paper is based on the solution of a partial institutional research task for the Police Academy in Prague 2010 – 2015. The research focuses on obtaining deeper knowledge of the motives, attitudes and value range of the offenders serving their sentence in prisons.

The article focuses on the specific aspect of the research, which monitors the subjective characteristics of persons imprisoned for the crime of neglect of compulsory maintenance in a broader context.

The sample of respondents consisted of 300 men and 70 women, who at the time of data collecting (October – December 2011) were serving prison sentences. Criminal activities of these offenders were divided by type. In the case of concurrence of different types of crime, the principle of summary sentencing was used. The facts of the offences were divided into five basic groups, with the prevailing property crime, violent crime, drug crime, crime of neglect of compulsory maintenance, and obstructing justice.

In the monitored sample every tenth was convicted of crime of neglect of compulsory maintenance, usually in concurrence with the crime of obstructing justice. The perpetrators were sentenced to short term imprisonment of a few months (average duration was 22 months), usually repeatedly (78%).

The empirical data obtained in prisons correspond with the official data of the judiciary. Courts in the Czech Republic finally convict of crime of neglect of compulsory maintenance for non-support to unconditional sentence around 1000 persons every year, which is roughly 10 percent of all perpetrators who start serving their sentence.

Testing of the sample of imprisoned defaulters showed that they do not agree with the punishment and their value system is not based on a priori work avoidance.

The research confirmed heavy overloading of prison system by the offenders convicted of crime of neglect of compulsory maintenance. The new Criminal Code (40/2009 Coll.) has tightened the legal regulation which resulted in further increase of imprisoned offenders.

The research gave a qualified incentive to change the criminal policy regarding the approach to maintenance default.

Keywords: prisoners, non-support, crime of neglect of compulsory maintenance, criminal recidivism, penological recidivism 10–13 September 2014, Prague, Czech Republic PO-58 (P11-6-3) Researching Female Sexual Offending in Australia Peta Kennedy (University of New South Wales, Australia) While there has been increased acknowledgment of sexual assault since the 1970’s and a corresponding body of research, these advances are underpinned by a gender-biased assumption that sexual offending is typically committed by males and women are neither motivated or physically equipped to commit them (Ford 2010). Consequently, there has been little consideration of female perpetrated sexual offending.

This research examines cases where women have been legally identified as sexual offending against children and young people. This examination is in terms of the role women play in sexual offending, the nature of their offending behaviour, and the criminogenic factors associated with their offending behaviour.

Importantly, the findings of the research are juxtaposed against the the unequivocal disparity of gender power relations and the influence of coercive and controlling relationships. It is arguable that any attempt to present a uniform discussion of women who sexually offend against children and young people is likely to be problematic and open to a variety of interpretations depending on assumptions about women and crime. In addition, such research is hindered by the difficulties associated with researching small and hidden populations. The findings of the research provide valuable insight and understanding into this small but significant population within Australia’s Criminal Justice System.

Keywords: Sexual offending, Researching hidden populations

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