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«Criminology of Europe: Inspiration by Diversity BOOK OF ABSTRACTS Prague, Czech Republic, 10−13 September 2014 The abstracts are published as ...»

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Newspaper articles were analyzed as a specific source of information about crime for the public, we used a combination of quantitative and qualitative content analysis. The study describes which of the newly introduced legislative changes were presented in print media, how the press informed about the implementation of these changes, which topics were presented most often and in what context, which legislative changes the media presented in a positive light and which were deemed problematic, what kind of events and information were attractive for reporting crime news. A print media analysis can help us understand 10–13 September 2014, Prague, Czech Republic what can form people´s attitudes and public opinion with regard to punishment, sentencing and criminal policy.

Keywords: penal code, legislative changes, media image, print media analysis PO-16 The Stochastics of Crime: Power Laws and Police Crime Statistics Quentin Hanley (Nottingham Trent University, UK), Rachel-May Dyer (Nottingham Trent University, UK), Suniya Khatun (Nottingham Trent University, UK), Amal Yosef (Nottingham Trent University, UK) Crime statistics from Police Forces are controversial. For example, the UK Statistics Authority removed National Statistics designation from police recorded crime statistics due to evidence of unreliability. Incentives to meet targets and demonstrate reduced crime within a jurisdiction combined with variable classification strategies in different Forces led to perceived unreliability in the statistics.

Fluctuation scaling methods applied to the relationship between the mean and variance in police reported crimes show aggregation of different types of crime and variable reporting between Forces. Similar methodologies have been used to understand urban automobile traffic, measles cases, and insects in biological communities. Taylor’s Law is an approach to mean-variance relationships applied in biology which indicates independent random events (Poisson distributed data) when the exponent of the power law is 1.

Taylor’s Law exponents can give information about synchronization, species interaction in biological communities, clustering, and randomness.

Crime within communities fluctuates. By applying Taylor’s Law, we show that these fluctuations scale characteristically for specific categories of crime. For example, in data provided by the UK Home Office, violence followed a Poisson distribution (exponent = 1) on local scales indicative of nearly independent random events, “other” crimes (including such crimes as forgery, fraud, perjury, etc.) was closer to a gamma distribution (exponent = 2), and categories such as burglary and antisocial behavior in between.

The pre-exponential factors in Taylor’s law relationships varied significantly between police forces for burglary and anti-social behavior. These pre-exponential factors report on the stochastic processes defining the distribution and the gain applied to the observed events. In the cases of burglary and anti-social behavior, the variation in gain between Constabularies suggests relative under/over-reporting of events between jurisdictions.

Fluctuation scaling reports on all processes affecting the variance in recorded data (e.g.: the events, their classification, how they are reported, etc.) which gives insight beyond the numbers alone. This approach to viewing Police Statistics can show signs of management and reporting strategies (targets and thresholds) while being invariant to multiplication and division. We will present results obtained from 12 months of data provided by the UK Home Office on scales beginning with local policing neighborhoods up to country scale.

Keywords: Police Reports, Violence, Burglary PO-17 Sex offender treatment in the community setting Takayuki Harada (Mejiro University, Japan), Kazutaka Nomura (Waseda University, Japan), Masayuki Ohishi (Ohishi Clinic, Japan) Sex offender treatment is one of the most challenging issues in the field of criminal justice. In Japan, the prison-based sex offender rehabilitation program was implemented in 2006 and approximately 500 sex offenders have been treated annually in prison (Ministry of Justice, Japan, 2006). However, after release,

14th Annual Conference of European Society of Criminology

no such a program has been provided to them in community settings. Moreover, sex offenders under probation have no opportunities to access treatment.

We have developed a cognitive-behavioral treatment program targeting these populations and implemented in a private mental health clinic. The program is consisted of 24 sessions and is implemented once a week in a group format. The program is based on the relapse prevention model and the topics cover the identification of triggers, coping skills training, emotional management, stress management and so on. The participants were 73 male sex offenders and those who have compulsive sexual problems. Among the participants, 50 (mean age=35.4±5.1) received the treatment and 23 (35.0±5.9) joined to the self-help meeting.

None of the participants was arrested nor reported re-offending during the period. The mean attendance rate of the treatment group were significantly higher than the control (t(71=5.53, p.01). The psychological variables were measured at the pre and post treatment periods and the two-way repeated measures ANOVA (group x time) was performed. The results showed that there was no difference in self-efficacy.





However, in terms of coping skills, the significant main effect of time (F(1,49)= 34.06, p.01) and the significant interaction (F(1,49)=10.37, p.01) were found. Thus, coping skills of the treatment group were significantly improved after treatment.

These findings suggest the effectiveness of the treatment program because both treatment attendance and coping skills are considered to be the powerful predictors of long term treatment success (Marlatt & Witkiewitz, 2005). The findings of this study are important in two points. First, the relapse prevention (RP)

- based treatment has been rarely conducted outside of the Western culture. However, the demonstrated effectiveness of the program suggested that the RP-based treatment is also effective in other cultural settings. Second, although sex offender treatment is predominantly conducted in the prison setting, treatment conducted in the community setting is also effective and the majority of participants stay in treatment long enough.

References:

Marlatt, G.A & Witliewitz, K. (2005). Relapse prevention for alcohol and drug problems. In Marlatt, G.A. & Donovan, D.M.(Eds.) Relapse Prevention: Maintenance strategies in the treatment of addictive behaviors.

2nd edition. New York, NY: Guilford Press.

Ministry of Justice Japan (2006). Report of the Sex Offender Treatment Research Team. Tokyo: Ministry of Justice.

Keywords: sex offender, relapse prevention, cognitive-behavioral therapy, community-based treatment PO-18 ‘Crime or Not?’ – Police Officers’ Perceptions of Disciplinary Violence, Its Criminalisation and Investigation Anna Heinonen (Police University College of Finland/University of Turku, Finland), Noora Ellonen (Police University College of Finland, Finland) Despite of its ban by law 30 years ago, parental disciplinary violence against children is still prevalent in Finland. Even though public support for physical punishment of children has clearly declined and at the same time the identification of children at risk has increased, there still are problems related to the attitudes towards disciplinary violence and authority procedures in these suspicions of violence. Previous research has shown that authorities often find it difficult to identify cases of disciplinary violence and intervene in them. Moreover, the police culture and police officers’ interpretations of policing influence police officers’ attitudes and actions. In this paper, I present the findings of a study that examined what police officers specialised in investigating crimes against children think about the criminalisation of disciplinary violence, how they perceive disciplinary violence and whether, in their opinion, cases of disciplinary violence require a crime process. I also examine how these police officers perceive the investigation of sus13 September 2014, Prague, Czech Republic pected cases of disciplinary violence. The study was conducted by semi-structured focus interviews face to face with 12 police officers in Finland. It was found that disciplinary violence and its criminalisation provoked different opinions among the police officers. Despite their own opinions, however, the police officers knew that it was their role to investigate these cases. It was also found that, at least to some extent, police officers’ perceptions of disciplinary violence are related to their actions in practice.

Keywords: disciplinary violence, police, police culture PO-19 Overview of the Understanding and Preventing Youth Crime Study (UPYC): A Comparative Study in France, Germany, the Netherlands, the UK and the US.

Lauren Herlitz (University of London, UK), Diego Farren (University of Hamburg, Germany), Ilka Kammigan (University of Hamburg, Germany), Katharina Neissl (Northeastern University, USA), Guillaume Roux (PACTE, France), Renske Van der Gaag (Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, The Netherlands) UPYC is a theory-testing cross-national survey of 7th, 8th and 9th grade schoolchildren’s experiences of crime, victimization and substance use, covering France, Germany, the Netherlands, the UK and the United States of America. The UPYC study forms part of the larger International Self-Report Delinquency Study (ISRD), which consists of a large network of international collaborators from about 35 countries who follow a shared research protocol, share national data and prepare joint publications.

The study’s overall aims are to chart variations in self-reported offending and experience of crime as victims, to test the relative value of different theoretical perspectives for explaining these variations, and to draw out the implications for youth justice policy in the five countries.

The school-based surveys of 12-15 year old teenagers is collected simultaneously in selected cities in all five countries (and in parallel with other ISRD countries), using self-completion questionnaires, resulting in an estimated sample of 16,200 teenagers. Results will be analysed for each individual country, for the UPYC countries (US, UK, France, Germany, the Netherlands) together, and for the wider ISRD group.

The five UPYC countries will assemble comprehensive information on the organisation of youth justice at the country-level in order to provide a comparative analysis of youth justice policies and structures, to set against the findings from the UPYC survey. The study will contribute to the development of an integrated theory of youth offending, and will trace the implications of this for youth justice policy.

The primary purpose of this poster is to provide an overview of the basic research protocol (sampling and survey design) of the UPYC study. Presentation of the poster presents an opportunity to discuss the progress of the study, to exchange ideas about methodological and practical issues encountered during the fieldwork, and to answer questions.

Keywords: juvenile delinquency, crime rates & methodology PO-20 Victimization, fear of crime and attitudes to prevention – is the relationship among them?

Jakub Holas (Institute of Criminology and Social Prevention, Czech Republic) The paper is based on public opinion poll "Perceptions of undesirable social phenomena and crime threats", conducted in the Czech Republic by the Institute of Criminology and Social Prevention. Representative survey (3080 respondents) was focused on citizens' views on a wide range of issues - the degree of responsibility of the State for security in various spheres of social life, the readiness of citizens to engage in crime prevention, the work of the police, public confidence in specific types of prevention activities, fear of crime and personal experience of victimization. This presentation is specifically focused on the personal 14th Annual Conference of European Society of Criminology experiences of respondent with crime and their fear of it. Affects these experiences supporting specific prevention programs? Is here more support for social prevention or situational prevention? What other impacts has the recent victimization experience – an impact on people's behavior, their confidence in the police and justice? Plays here role some other variables, such as age, gender or hometown size?

Keywords: fear of crime, prevention programs, victimization PO-21 Empathy or rejection? Guards attitudes towards special – forensic patients Đorđe Ignjatović (University in Belgrade, Serbia), Milana Ljubičić (University in Belgrade, Serbia) In this paper we examined the guards attitudes towards institutional and family status of so-called special patients – people who committed crime in a state of mental incompetence. Furthermore, conversations with the guards revealed another topic: the problems they are facing in their daily work. The sample consisted of 14 “commanders” 10 male and 4 female, who are employed at the A and B sections of the Special Prison Hospital in Belgrade. Interviews were conducted in the form of semi-structured, and then subjected to narrative analysis. Because “the world of staff” is generally neglected as a data source, in this paper we could not rely on hypotheses drawn from similar studies since – in Serbian scientific literature – it is missing. So, instead of hypothesis, our analysis have been guided by research questions, namely: 1. How do guards describe the institutional position of their protégées? 2. What is the role of patient’s families in their current life circumstances? 3. What personal feelings our respondents do share towards their protégées institutional and family status? 4. What our respondents find difficult in dealing with residents of Special Hospital?



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