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«Criminology of Europe: Inspiration by Diversity BOOK OF ABSTRACTS Prague, Czech Republic, 10−13 September 2014 The abstracts are published as ...»

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Keywords: cooperation, police and Armed Forces 10–13 September 2014, Prague, Czech Republic PO-05 Mapping criminology domains with data mining and visualization technologies Bilel Benbouzid (Universit Paris-Est LATTS-LISIS, France) This poster presents the main result of a research using data analysis and visualization technologies to measure the field of “criminology”. Mapping of criminology domain is facilitated by the increase in processing power and the availability of large amounts of publication and other data increasingly available in electronic form. With a body of 55000 articles extracted from the Web of Science (WOS) database, I describe the field of criminology using currently existing science-mapping techniques (natural language processing, algorithms of proximity, network analysis, design tools). Visualizations will be proposed to show the structure of criminology, the vitality and changes over time and networks of collaborations. To do that, many entities are mapped: names, terms, disciplinary, countries, references citations etc. I believe that these maps can be successfully utilized by researchers, governmental institutions and also teachers interested to have a panoptic representation of the field.

Keywords: science mapping, criminology domain PO-06 Hate crimes in Puebla: an evaluation of the Penal Code Iliana Galilea Cariño Cepeda (Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Spain), Raquel Bartolomé Gutiérrez (Centro de Investiga ión en Criminología, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Spain) According to the Mexico City Human Rights Commission, Mexico occupies second place in the commission of hate crimes in Latin America. The pressure exerted and complaints pursued by civil organizations and the victims’ families have forced the state Congresses to categorize the crime of discrimination and include hate as a motive in some types of crimes.

This is the case in the state of Puebla, Mexico, which passed these reforms in 2012: “hate exists when it is committed by the agent based on ethnic origin, nationality, race, gender, age, disability, social or economic conditions, health conditions, sexual preferences, physical appearance, marital status, religious beliefs, political ideology, or expressed opinions, or whichever other threat to human dignity, freedom or equality” (article 330 Bis, Penal Code of the Free and Sovereign State of Puebla).

However, legislative changes are not always accompanied by actions that permit their implementation.

Also, the lack of an evaluative culture does not elucidate by what degree legislative changes influence the crime rate. In this regard, this study attempts to evaluate in the medium term the impact of these additions and presents the advances made in this research, which sought the following: a) Identify the principal characteristics of these crimes depending on the motivational factors and in line with the penal provisions;

B) Identify and analyze the governmental actions, of all types, directed at preventing and reducing these crimes; and, c) Identify which criteria are used to define and frame those crimes motivated by hate or discrimination.

Keywords: hate crimes, discrimination, evaluation, Human Rights PO-07 Women in prison in Spain: their criminological and social invisibility Anabel Cerezo (University of Malaga, Spain) This paper aims to take a close look at the reality of female crime in Spain. On the one hand, we analyze the singularities of this type of crime, which has, as with other neighbouring countries, experienced a significant increase in recent years. However, the low rates of female crime compared to those of men has 14th Annual Conference of European Society of Criminology made this phenomenon all but invisible, with the consequence that research into clarifying the criminological and social profile of these women is scarce. The search for the causes of female crime inexorably leads to the phenomenon of female impoverishment: most women commit crimes for social reasons.

On the other hand, we will focus on describing the current situation of women incarcerated in our prisons, an especially vulnerable group given their peculiarities and necessities. Women in Spanish prisons represent just 8% of the total prison population, although over the past 30 years there has been a considerable increase in the female prison population. As such, Spain occupies the first place in Europe in the rate of incarcerated women. However, over the past 3 years, a slow decline in this figure has been witnessed due to certain prison policies aimed at reducing, not specifically the ratio of female prisoners within the system, but the general prison population overall.

Prisons reproduce and even exacerbate inequalities between men and women. Although the standard policy is that of equal treatment, in Spanish prisons incarcerated women has always occupied a secondary position due to their inferior numbers and low rate of conflict. This has led to the historical perpetuation of a series of discriminatory factors: precarious spaces, worse living conditions, the remoteness from their home environment, mixed profiling of inmates etc. Imprisoned women experience the accumulated disadvantages of class, gender and often ethnicity or nationality.

Finally the paper establishes whether the current Spanish prison legislation echoes all or some of the United Nations Rules for the Treatment of Women Prisoners and Non-custodial Measures of Freedom for Women Offenders (Bangkok Rules, 2010). Although Spain has high standard prison regulations and modern facilities which place it among Western countries with better infrastructures and prison conditions, female prisoners in Spanish jails are subject to discrimination. It is from such a perspective that this study proposes that the necessary changes and appropriate social and penitentiary policies to meet the specific needs of female inmates are established.

Keywords: prison, women PO-08 International Master's Program in International Justice, Governance and Police Science Eva Dinchel (Ruhr-Universität Bo h m, Germany) Considering the reality of an on-going unstable world and growing concerns within the international community on finance, economy, energy and security one might assume that the need for practices in the field of criminology, criminal justice, governance and police science will only increase. This Master’s program is labor market oriented, it provides a balance between theory and practice supported by on-the-job experienced lecturers. The international Master’s program in “Criminal Justice, Governance and Police Science” was developed by the Department of Criminology, Criminal Policy and Police Science (Faculty of Law) of Ruhr-Universität Bochum in Germany, in collaboration with the Research Group on 'Governing and Policing Security' (GaPS) located at the Faculty of Economics & Business Administration at Gent University in Belgium.

 Degree: Master of Criminal Justice, Governance and Police Science (M.A.)  Duration: 2-years | Credits: 60 ECTS | Language: English  Type: part-time (studying while working) | Workload: approx. 15 hours per week  Distance-learning: e-learning, teaching seminars, virtual conferences  No attendance required at the Ruhr-Universität Bochum This advanced degree focuses on international security and justice perspectives, raising awareness and facilitating a broader foundation for better decision-making in the future with regards to the following topics: peace-making and peace-keeping efforts in post-conflict and transitional countries | Establishing rule of law, human rights standards and sustainable security | Capacity building in the law enforcement 10–13 September 2014, Prague, Czech Republic and criminal justice sector | Developing personal skills of professionals working within the respective fields | Supporting NGOs and civil societies in their functions to monitor and evaluate democratic police work and criminal justice based on human rights standards.

Keywords: Master's Program, Criminal Justice, Police Science PO-09 Violent victimization: Classification of coping strategies for surviving victimization experiences Irit Ein-Tal (The Max Stern Yezreel Valley College, Israel) The question of 'who is the victim of crime' received a lot of attention during the last decades and various definition had been offered. The current study asks to reexamine theses definitions through the lens of the victim's perception and his coping with and after the event. The study offers a new victimization classification that focuses on violent crime victims and dividing them into four groups on a continuum: from those whose sense of victimhood is strong to those who not only feel they are not victims, but are also classified

as heroes. The resulting continuum is as follows:

Chroni vi tim ŕ Renewed vi tim ŕ S rvivor – Non-vi tim ŕ S rvivor-hero The offered presentation will examine the new classification by comparing between the characteristics and coping mechanisms of victims of various crimes such as domestic violence victims (can be women and/or children), rape victims, aggravated assault victims and genocide victims. The findings will demonstrate that the self-identification with the victimization definition is primarily related to the coping strategies taken by the victims, which are derived from their socio-demographic as well as psychological characteristics.

The new victimization classification provides us with a deeper understanding of the coping strategies of different victims with different victimhood experiences.

Keywords: Victimization classification, Violent victimization PO-10 Trust in courts, fairness and the communicative style of judges Raluca Enescu (University of Hamburg, Germany) This contribution investigates trust in criminal justice from the perspective of trust towards courts, more specifically from the standpoint of defendants. In this regard, the perceived fairness of their treatment is a crucial element for trust in criminal justice. We will distinguish procedural fairness, which derives from the courts procedures, from distributive fairness stemming from the case outcome. In forming an opinion about the court, procedural fairness surprisingly prevails over distributive fairness (Tyler & Huo, 2002). As Casper wrote already in 1978: “In many ways, though, what is striking is that sentence received does not, by itself, carry the day. Defendants are not just saying that they find their sentences palatable or unpalatable”. Moreover the defendant's perception of the judge is by far the most important factor in the perceived judicial fairness, even if the treatment of the defendant by other court actors (court officers, attorneys, prosecutors) also plays a role (Frazer, 2006). In this regard, the procedure followed by a judge constitutes a key factor and is transferred by means of what is said or kept silent in the hearings. We will analyze the communicative style in official transcripts of English Crown Court trials and put them in parallel to the data of the last round of the European Social Survey dealing with trust towards courts. We will finally discuss the possibility to improve the defendant’s experience of a trial, which could subsequently have a major influence on law-abiding behaviour.

–  –  –

PO-12 Punitive attitudes in the context of traffic accidents under the influence of alcohol in Austria Gerald Furian (KFV (Austrian Road Safety Board), Austria), Christopher Schlembach (KFV (Austrian Road Safety Board), Austria), Birgit Salamon (KFV (Austrian Road Safety Board), Austria) The paper investigates differentials in punitive reactions on the micro level in terms of individual attitudes towards crimes in the context of traffic accidents in contemporary Austrian society. In Austria, the range of punishment for causing a traffic accident under the influence of alcohol is up to 3 years (negligent manslaughter) or up to 2 years (bodily injury caused by negligence). Actual sanctions start from financial fines and hardly ever exceed one year. A survey among 670 adults (face-to-face interviews using vignettes that describe accident scenarios) was carried out, aiming at investigating whether the range of punishment in the criminal code is considered adequate, thus exploring the Austrian population’s punitiveness towards drunk driving and its severe consequences. The survey also includes items assessing attitudes towards other selected crimes as well as general punitive attitudes. The population survey was contrasted with indepth interviews carried out among judges dealing with the offenses analyzed. Results suggest that regarding these offenses, judges tend to defend the sanction system they act within and do not ask for more severe sanctions. The population, however, leans towards a punitive reaction, particularly in the case of severe consequences (manslaughter) under dangerous conditions (drunk driving).

Keywords: Punitivity, Traffic accidents, Alcohol PO-14 Tolerance of contraband use and economic cycles: The case of Lithuania Vincas Giedraitis (Vilnius University, Lithuania), Ilona Cesniene (Vilnius University, Lithuania) The tolerance of the Lithuanian population for the shadow economy creates favorable conditions for the shadow economy to exist in an economic downturn. The shadow economy is usually neither condemned, nor rejected as immoral activity in Lithuania. For example, from our collected survey, 61 percent of the population of the country entirely justifies or tends to justify the illegal consumption of alcoholic beverages (based on the LFMI population survey on the consumption of illegal goods, 2012). Lower prices of fuel, cigarettes and alcohol in neighbouring Belarus and Russia are conducive for contraband. However, high levels of corruption in the country reduces the risk and promotes the expansion of the shadow activity – it is easy to bribe officers and evade being punished by the criminal justice system.

Keywords: Lithuania, Contraband, Economic cycles PO-15 The Media Image of the New Penal Code in the Czech Republic Lucie Hakova (The Institute of Criminology and Social Prevention, Czech Republic) This poster deals with the media analysis and the media´s representation of legislative changes and the application of the new Penal Code. The new Penal Code came into effect in the Czech Republic in January

2010. We examined articles published in Czech print media in the period from January till March 2010.

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