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«Criminology of Europe: Inspiration by Diversity BOOK OF ABSTRACTS Prague, Czech Republic, 10−13 September 2014 The abstracts are published as ...»

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We would also like to have our second meeting in Prague to continue our discussions about the panels, to debate our working plan and to build new ideas and strategies to consolidate this initiative.

Keywords: Criminal Law-Making, Criminal Policy, Penal Policy, Cross-National comparison

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P11-22

GENDER, VICTIMIZATION AND POLICING

Panel Chair: Rossella Selmini (University of Minnesota, USA) P11-22-1 Are rape and female homicide victimization declining? An explorative study on the trends in Europe, Canada, and the United States Suzy Maves McElrath (University of Minnesota, USA), Rossella Selmini (University of Minnesota, USA) This paper presents the first results of a comparative study of trends in rape and female homicide across Europe, Canada and the United States, contributing to the conversation on the crime drop in the Western world. Current debate on crime trends pays little attention to violence against women, yet a better understanding of the gender – related component of the broad category of “violent crime” has self –evident scientific and policy relevance. After a discussion of the methodological propblems in analysing gender – related crimes and in making cross-national comparisons, the paper examines changes in two forms of violence against women, rape and female homicide victimization, and places these crime specific trends in conversation with overall crime trends, including exploring the gender gap in rape, assault and homicide victimization where possible. Potential explanations of trends and female homicide are offered in the context of the current debate on the reasons for the overall crime drop.

Keywords: violence against women, crime trends, rape, homicide P11-22-2 From Kurt Wallander to Salvo Montalbano: An explorative study of police cultures and policemen in European fiction books.

Rossella Selmini (University of Minnesota, USA) In recent years a remarkable amount of scientific literature on the representation of crime and the criminal justice system in the media and in culture (or popular culture) has been produced. Most studies investigate how crime is re-shaped in a variety of media communications, especially in movies and newspaper.

Some explore how police cultures and policemen are represented in movies and tv series. Most do not take into consideration, however, what is probably becoming, in current times, one of the most powerful means of communication of the image of police and policemen: works of fiction. Fiction books on police in Europe have become more and more successful in recent years, thanks in part to the spread of some notorious Scandinavian books on police, and they are now reaching a far larger public than in the past. European fiction on police (and, above all, on policemen) is a subject that is – with some few exceptions – understudied from a scientific and comparative point of view. This paper examines the representation of police work and culture in police fiction, with reference to some celebrated characters (for example, Kurt Wallander in Sweden, Salvo Montalbano in Italy, John Rebus in Scotland, Kostas Charitos in Greece, and Fabio Montale in France) using interpretative theoretical keys of cultural criminological analysis in a comparative perspective.

Keywords: police, cultural criminology 10–13 September 2014, Prague, Czech Republic P11-22-3 A Tertium Genus of Detention. A Comparative Analysis of the Condition of Transgender Inmates in Europe and America.

Adriana Dias Vieira (Federal University of Paraiba, Brazil), Sofia Ciuffoletti (University of Florence, Italy) Starting from the consideration that one of the traditional area of persistent mandatory gender segregation is the prison context, our paper focuses on a socio-legal analysis of the condition of transgender inmates and of the policy choices (or the lack of them) concerning their detention, both in Europe and America.

Two empirical considerations prompted our study. Of these, the first is related to the sources of law in the current global legal landscape that shows different solutions, from the undifferentiated imprisonment in male penitentiary, to the informal creation of special section or, as the case of the Italian prison of Sollicciano, Florence, to the informal establishment of a tertium genus of detention, not provided for by law. All of these scenarios share the same conceptual roots: the normative binarism and the consequential legal impossibility of engaging in a political discussion concerning the condition of transgender inmates. Thus, the second consideration, which lies at the heart of our study and defines its theoretical and practical framework, consists in the necessity of interpreting the complex relations between law and gender, and prison and gender.

The legal phenomenon of the incarceration of transsexual people emerges as the preliminary object of analysis. In this view, we based our analysis on the study of the related prison policies, according to a comparative approach that focuses on policy choices in order to shed light on the legal and social landscape in question.

The intersection of prison and gender lies at the heart of our inquiry and as a tool of legal understanding we will analyze the transnational jurisprudential trends in the protection of transgender prisoners rights.

Our study will unfold by laying out the most problematic issues concerning the incarceration of transsexual persons in Europe and America with the aim of initiating a public discourse that will replace the political and public aphasia on such a topic.





Keywords: Prison Studies, Gender Studies, Transgender Inmates' Rights

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P11-24

TECHNOLOGY AND JUSTICE

Panel Chair: Richard Jones (University of Edinburgh, UK) P11-24-1 The electronic monitoring of offenders: penal moderation or penal excess?

Richard Jones (University of Edinburgh, UK) The technologies used in the electronic monitoring of offenders continue to develop, and next-generation ‘tags’ will likely feature new capabilities. As the technology develops, older criminal justice institutions and practices may appear increasingly anachronistic in one form or other, and their legitimacy called into question. Whereas existing monitoring systems are often presented as incapacitative or retributive in aim, future systems may make greater claim to a rehabilitative potential. In any case, one justification for the expanded use of offender monitoring may be as a practical component of a strategy of ‘penal moderation’.

However, given the surveillant and controlling qualities of electronic monitoring systems, widening the extent of their use is in many respects troubling, even 'excessive'. It is argued that the question of the justification of offender monitoring goes to the heart of contemporary debates and contradictions regarding penal purpose, the effects of the criminal justice system, electronic surveillance, and explanations of penal change.

Keywords: technology, punishment, surveillance, politics P11-24-2 Useful or useless videocamera?

Palmina Caruso (University of Milan, Italy), Guido Travaini (University of Milan, Italy), Danilo De Angelis (University of Milan, Italy) These last few years it has been a greater and greater employment of new technologies such as video surveillance systems.

The use of cameras finds its own theoretical requirement in the Situational Crime Prevention Theory, which supposes to act on the environment so that it becomes less suitable to those who want to commit a crime.

Actually, cameras represent a great deterrent and allow to understand how some kind of crimes happen.

They are, indeed, an outer eye on reality.

But what happen when framed images on cameras become evidence to identify the criminal?

Things are not easy. Are this pics always trustworthy and usable? How many of the images printed on the tape are able to really let police identify the author of a crime?

In order to give an answer it’s necessary to; go for a multidisciplinary method, since both technical and methodological problems exist: the first ones concerning the technology used, while the second ones concern the matching phase between taped images and the ones exposed to investigation.

Authors analyzed 50 Italian cases of videotaped robberies and verified in how many of them videotaped images led to the certain identification of the guilty person.

Results show how difficult both the identification phase, and the following forensic validation of this kind of evidence, are.

Keywords: videosurveillance system, robbery, new forensic methods 10–13 September 2014, Prague, Czech Republic P11-24-4 SURVEILLE: Using technologies for prevention Sebastian Sperber (European Forum for Urban Security, France) Which surveillance and security technologies are being used to fight crime? What can be said about their effectiveness and efficiency? Which ethical risks arise from their use? How can fundamental rights and privacy be protected? The European FP7 research project „SURVEILLE“ (SURVeillance: Ethical Issues, Legal Limitations-, and Efficiency), gives elements to answer these questions.

SURVEILLE has undertaken a thorough analysis of various technologies in the context of different scenarios of their use and created a multidimensional matrix that gives and an overview on the technologies in terms of efficiency, cost, usability, ethical risk and intrusion into fundamental rights.

SURVEILLE is an interdisciplinary research project that brings together Law, Philosophy, Sociology, Engineering as well as technology end users. It is undertaken by a consortium of the European University Institute in Florence, the university of Birmingham, the university of Warwick, the Raoul Wallenberg Institute for Human Rights, TU Delft, Fraunhofer IOSB, the university of Freiburg, the Université libre Brussels, as well as Merseyside Police and the European Forum for Urban Security (Efus).

The proposed talk will present the insights of this research project from the point of view of local authority end-users and their use of technologies in crime prevention.

Keywords: crime prevention, surveillance

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POSTERS

PO-01 Why do Europeans trust criminal courts? A multilevel analysis Eva Aizpurúa (University of Castile-La Mancha, Spain), David Vázquez (University of Castile-La Mancha, Spain), Esther Fernández (University of Castile-La Mancha, Spain) Recent decades have seen a notable increase in research examining public attitudes towards legal authorities. One of the main contributions made by this research has been its empirical demonstration of the fact that citizens who trust institutions of justice are more likely to cooperate with them in their fight against crime. Therefore, confidence in the authorities represents a fundamental value for the effective functioning of democratic societies. Major opinion surveys have shown that criminal courts are one of the most criticized elements of the system. From a comparative perspective, analyses have demonstrated great variations depending upon the countries surveyed, which have been linked to certain structural factors.

The central argument underpinning the present study is that, in addition to those above, there are some characteristics of subjects that are related to the degree of confidence and help to explain intra-national variations. To test this hypothesis we used the fifth edition of the European Social Survey (2010-2011), which includes data from 27 countries and a sample of 52,458 subjects, carrying out an analysis applying multilevel regression models. As a dependent variable we used the degree of public trust in the courts, and as independent variables we included measures related to two different levels of aggregation: measures at the individual level and measures in a conglomerate by countries. The results are presented and their fundamental implications are discussed.

Keywords: Criminal courts, public confidence, procedural justice, European Social Survey, multilevel analysis PO-04 Questioning Norwegian Societal Security Efforts – Police-Military Cooperation in National Crisis Management Bjorn Barland (Norwegian Police University College, Norway) The poster will highlight one sub-project: Challenges in cooperation between special units in the police and Armed Forces whichlooks at some major challenges to, and repercussions of, the Norwegian Entry Team Delta’s cooperation with Norwegian Special Forces.

Bacground:

The changing security landscape of the post-Cold War era has given rise to an unclear distinction between internal and external security affecting boundaries between the roles and responsibilities of various security providers in liberal democracies. Easton et al. (2010) suggest that boundaries can become blurred in complementary or competitive ways. Returning to policing, unclear and disputed roles and responsibilities paved the way for the “police as extended family” idea, whereby the police cooperate with other policing actors. In the wake of the severe terrorist attack of 22 July 2011, serious shortcomings in the Norwegian emergency response system were identified. Calls were made to improve and strengthen operative capacity and cooperation between the police and the Armed Forces, especially in crises on this scale All in all, the state of knowledge on police-military cooperation in national crisis management seems fragmented and rudimentary, and in urgent need of further examination.



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