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«Criminology of Europe: Inspiration by Diversity BOOK OF ABSTRACTS Prague, Czech Republic, 10−13 September 2014 The abstracts are published as ...»

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10–13 September 2014, Prague, Czech Republic 1 To what extent does the age-crime curve for Moroccans differs from the ‘conventional’ age-crime curve?

2 What causes the high percentage of offenders among Moroccan teenagers compared to the overall percentage of offenders among Moroccans?

Methods: This research comprises a literature review and quantitative analyses of data regarding people who are registered as an offender in the Netherlands. For the latter aspect, we have used integrated population data that can be analysed at individual level.

Results: Multivariate analyses for adults between 18 and 37 described above showed that the effect of being of Moroccan origin diminishes as Moroccans get older. The explanation for the high rate of offenders among Moroccan teenagers compared to the overall percentage of offenders among Moroccans may be found in the cultural dissonance of young Moroccans. Cultural dissonance is where migrants have to steer a middle course between two highly contrasting cultures, namely the culture of their country of origin (of their parents) and that of the country in which they are residing. The fact that second-generation Moroccans are comparatively more often registered as an offender than those of the first generation (after the figures were corrected for socio-economic circumstances) is an indication that cultural dissonance is a factor that plays a role among young Moroccans. Usually, cultural dissonance is seen more among the second generation than the first generation that socio-culturally mostly identifies itself with the country of origin.

Keywords: Age-specific crime, Cultural dissonance, Recorded crime, Moroccans, The Netherlands P11-10-3 Framing and Presentation of Nationalist Ideologies among Far-Right Extremists Dylan Waite (Portland State University, USA) The political climate in America continues to become more polarized each year. The “left” and “right” political parties are locked in near-constant struggle and it is often the people whom they are meant to serve that suffer the harshest effects of this struggle. This mainstream political posturing and hostile behaviour has allowed for the continued presence, and some say resurgence, of racially motivated right-wing nationalist groups. Groups such as the Ku Klux Klan, the Aryan Nations and racist Skinheads have seen periods of strength and decline throughout American history. In the late 20 th and early 21st Centuries they have begun to adapt their message to find acceptance in groups outside their own and plant the seeds of racial and ethnic bias and supremacy in minds not yet stricken with the illnesses of hate and bigotry.

This presentation examines the ideological framing of far-right White Supremacist groups in the United States. Discussion of political, nationalist and economic ideologies and the ways these ideologies are framed and presented to wider audiences are described.

Using content analysis, more than 50 editorials, articles and other writings from five of the most circulated newsletters produced by American based White Supremacist groups were examined. Thematic analysis and line-by-line coding allowed for the development of various codes related to nationalism, immigration, traditional supremacy and perceived political failure, as well as many others.

Findings suggest that many White Supremacist groups and individuals are shifting away from the biological or genetic supremacist beliefs of a previous era. Instead adopting a racially motivated nationalist identity and positioning themselves as being engaged in a struggle for “white civil rights.” While still vehemently racist and racially/ethnically biased they seem to have taken up this new position in order to thinly veil their racism behind a guise of nationalist pride and altruism. This is especially troubling when one considers that many hate crimes are committed by individuals with no formal affiliation to organized hate groups. These individuals are often racially radicalized in a slow process that starts with mainstream political beliefs and slowly progresses to more radical beliefs as they struggle to understand the world in which they live.

Keywords: White Supremacist, Hate Crime, Far-Right Extremism 14th Annual Conference of European Society of Criminology WG11-14


THE DEVELOPMENT OF A PLURALISTIC LEGAL MODEL – CASE STUDY ON THE RWANDAN GENOCIDE (NANDOR KNUST) (presented by the European Criminology Group on Atrocity Crimes and Transitional Justice) Panel Chair: Susanne Karstedt (University of Leeds, UK) Other authors: Hans Jörg Albrecht (Max Planck Instiute for Foreign and International Criminal Law, Germany), Nandor Knust (Max Planck Institute for Foreign and International Criminal Law, Germany) This panel will focus on the discussion of a pluralistic approach to Transitional Justice. Transitional Justice is a comparatively new discipline in criminological research and literature. History shows a variety of reactions to ongoing conflicts or in the aftermath of mass violence – in so- called conflict-, post-conflict- and transitional phases. Over the years a plurality of Transitional Justice models and mechanisms were developed with different aims and goals. The different models were based on different modules and legal procedures, including procedures of a national, non-national, or mixed national and non-national nature. But

all the models share the following common problems:

• The immense quantity of possible perpetrators;

• The lack of resources and infrastructure in war-torn countries;

• The need to create accountability in order to overcome impunity; and

• The need to establish mechanisms for reconciliation at the national and individual level.

The panel will discuss the book: Criminal Law and Gacaca: The development of a pluralistic legal model by Nandor Knust which uses the idea of a pluralistic approach to Transitional Justice and analyzes the different models which were initialized as a legal reaction to the crimes of the Rwandan genocide.

Nandor Knust will provide a main overview of the content and the outcomes of his study. Hans-Jörg Albrecht und Susanne Karstedt will comment on the book of Nandor Knust and discuss the idea of the use of pluralistic models of Transitional Justice in future cases.

Keywords: Transitional Justice, Post-Conflict Justice, Atrocity Crimes, International Criminal Justice, Mass violence WG11-14-1 Why we need pluralism in transitional justice. Commentary on Nandor Knust, Entwicklung eines pluralistischen Rechtsmodells am Beispiel des ruandischen Völkermordes Susanne Karstedt (University of Leeds, UK) With the international gaze firmly focussed on the ICC and its predecessors and contemporaries in transitional criminal justice the diversity of procedures, approaches and institutions is often neglected. However, transitional justice started in its contemporary form from local and national initiatives, complemented by regional instruments and institutions, and has had a prolific development since the 1980s.

Rather than seeing these as pluralistic and complementary, much research has addressed transitional justice issues from a comparative perspective, and with a perspective on impact, and efficiency; in addition, this research surprisingly mainly contrasted the more traditional forms with international criminal justice procedures. This neglect of the national criminal justice system and the blind spot it has remained in our vision of transitional justice until today, is very visible in the Rwandan case, where either the ICTR or the gacaca courts are analysed. With his research, Nandor Knust transcends this perspective, and looks at a pluralistic model of transitional justice. The commentary will discuss these issues and will use historical evidence from post-war Germany.

Keywords: Transitional Justice, Post-Conflict Justice, Atrocity Crimes, International Criminal Justice, Mass violence 10–13 September 2014, Prague, Czech Republic WG11-14-2

Post-Conflict Legal Pluralism: A multi-level approach to Transitional Justice – The main ideas of the book:

Criminal Law and Gacaca (Strafrecht und Gacaca) by Nandor Knust Nandor Knust (Max Planck Institute for Foreign and International Criminal Law, Germany)

Post-Conflict Legal Pluralism: A multi-level approach to Transitional Justice – The main ideas of the book:

Criminal Law and Gacaca (Strafrecht und Gacaca) by Nandor Knust Mass violence doesn’t just affect individuals – it also affects society as a whole. Besides the satisfaction of the needs of the individual victims of these crimes, the State – as well as the international community as a whole - has an obligation to not only prevent these kind of crimes but to guarantee a peaceful coexistence and generate legal expectations within its boundaries. Therefore, besides the creation of individual responsibility, the State is obliged to make reforms and establish different mechanisms in order to reestablish trust in the State authorities.

The book, “Strafrecht und Gacaca” (Criminal Law and Gacaca), was the first work to compare the three systems that were established in the aftermath of the Rwandan genocide: The International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, the National Rwandan Court and the “Gacaca”. The study examines whether the combination of the three systems can be seen as one pluralistic model of Transitional Justice that facilitates a more precise and selective mode of operation within the transition phase in Rwanda.

The presentation will show that only through the use of a combination of a plurality of systems at different levels may the necessities and needs of a post-conflict-society be addressed correctly. At the local level, the individuals (i.e., victims, perpetrators, etc.) have different needs – such as individual reconciliation and restoration – than those at the national level, where the focus is clearly geared more towards the reestablishment of a governmental structure and institutions to guarantee social order and peace within national boundaries. At the international level, the strict use of the rule of law and international standards plays a vital role and must be respected to bring to justice those perpetrators that committed international crimes affecting the international community as a whole.

The presentation will highlight the main ideas which attempt to answer the question concerning the benefits of a pluralistic approach of Transitional Justice and demonstrate how mechanisms have to be designed to satisfy the needs of the affected (i.e., international, national and local) communities.

Keywords: Transitional Justice, Post-Conflict Justice, Atrocity Crimes, International Criminal Justice, Mass violence

–  –  –



Panel Chair: Janice Joseph (Richard Stockton College of New Jersey, USA) P11-15-1 Young people, offending and making sense of racism in their everyday lives John Wainwright (University of Central Lancashire, UK), Cath Larkin (University of Central Lancashire, UK) This paper will explore the issue of racism, ethnicity and difference, which is ever present, but often overlooked by practitioners and policy makers when considering youth offending in the UK. It will draw on responses from fifty young people in the north west of England that participated in research that addressed their offending behaviour, to elicit in their opinion on racism, ethnicity and difference in their every day lives (Larkins and Wainwright 2013). The young people who participated resided in communities with a significant population of people of south Asian and/or African/Caribbean heritage. The methodology employed to encourage the young people to talk about their experiences was participatory reflective action research (Friere1973). This approach encouraged the young people to reflect on what was important in their lives, why they felt they became involved in offending behaviour and how they thought racism ethnicity and difference informed their understanding of their everyday experiences. It will conclude by making some recommendations for youth offending teams in the UK to re-evaluate how racism, ethnicity and culture should be addressed when working with young people.

Keywords: racism, ethnicity, young people, offending P11-15-2 In the Name of God? Influences of Religiosity on Juvenile Delinquency among Migrant and Non-Migrant Youth Christian Walburg (University of Muenster, Germany) Possible influences of religiosity on juvenile delinquency belong to the most controversial criminological issues in today’s multi-religious immigrant societies. Especially since September 11th, 2001, the religiosity of immigrants from Muslim countries has increasingly been blamed in public debates for inhibiting their integration and (thereby) causing social problems such as crime.

Previous criminological research on the effects of individual religiosity has primarily referred to Christians.

Overall, in line with assumptions especially derived from control theory, moderate crime-inhibiting effects have been found. In this paper, based on self-report panel data (age 13 to 17) from a West-German industrial city, the (cross-sectional) relationship between individual religiosity and delinquency as well as crosslagged effects of religiosity will be analyzed for both non-migrants and adolescents from Turkish immigrant families respectively. Delinquent norm orientations and lifestyle risks are included as main mediating factors.

The findings somewhat differ between both groups, and crime-inhibiting effects cannot be found for all types of crime among adolescents with a Muslim background. Anyhow, it is worth noting that individual religiosity increases delinquency in none of the two groups. Among religious adolescents from Muslim families, a much less risky lifestyle (particularly less alcohol consumption) proves advantageous to inhibit delinquent behavior.

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