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«Criminology of Europe: Inspiration by Diversity BOOK OF ABSTRACTS Prague, Czech Republic, 10−13 September 2014 The abstracts are published as ...»

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Keywords: Crime prevention, At-risk youths, Combat sports, Program implementation P11-8-3 Victimisation and insecurity of undergraduate students while using internet Christina Zarafonitou (Panteion University of Social and Political Sciences, Greece), Evangelia Koumentaki (Manchester University, UK) In every field of daily life and social contacts there have been significant changes due to the rapid development of technology. There are a number of specialists arguing that cyber space gives the users the potential for several actions, good and negative applicability. Especially, the fact that internet use has given a new perspective to traditional forms of human behaviour and communication, at the same time gives an opportunity to the rise of several new deviant acts. Regarding this, the last decades there is a rising interest by the academics worldwide about deviant behaviours that take place in cyber space. Notably, several studies have shown that victimisation rates related to internet use are increasing steadily, while among the groups of 'high risk' victimisation the youngest age groups have a higher place on the cyber victimisation scale.

The purpose of this study was to investigate the general behaviour of internet users in security matters.

Specifically, the research aims to investigate trends on fear of crime, insecurity and victimisation resulting in the use of internet. The sample of the research, 585 students in total from several higher institutions of Greece, consists of undergraduate students. Also, there was a random collection of the sample, so therefore the students were asked to respond anonymously to a standardized questionnaire with closed and open-ended questions.

The key finding of the present research show that students' answers about security matters and fear of crime on cyber space present a contradictory and puzzled perspective on the subject while on the other hand victimisation rates are higher the academic year 2012-2013. We hypothesize that this is due to the intensive cybercrime prevention activities that took place in Greece last year. We conclude by arguing that issues of fear of crime and insecurity on cyber space need an immediate and further investigation, while at the same time there is an urgent need for correct and quality information on the risks associated with the use of the internet.

Keywords: fear of crime, victimisation, internet 10–13 September 2014, Prague, Czech Republic P11-8-4 A psycho-criminological approach to cybercrime: a comparative study of child pornography and online grooming Aude Ventéjoux (University Rennes 2, France), Astrid Hirschelmann (University Rennes 2, France), Céline Lemale (University Rennes 2, France), Mélanie Mouet (University Rennes 2, France) Since the development of the Internet and new technologies, violence and crime have taken new shapes, in what is commonly called ‘cybercrime’. This presentation will focus on one aspect of this developing criminality: sexual offenses towards children, which have been perpetrated using an electronic device.

Considering the scientific international literature dealing with the impact of the Internet on interpersonal relationships and human behaviour, we will analyse cases of ‘cybercrime’, more specifically online grooming and child pornography viewing. This research is focused on the psychological issues: the particular role of virtual reality in the offender-victim relationship. Cybercrime is a quite new phenomenon and new possibility of practicing violence. The aim of this presentation will be to analyse its various psychological and criminological outcomes, in cases of child pornography viewing and online grooming.

On the methodological level, clinical interviews, the Rorschach test and clinical assessments of Internet addiction have been conducted with the offenders. The data analysis shows that this ‘cybercrime’ is neither a consequence of the sole characteristic of cyberspace, nor the sole result of specific personality traits, but much more a consequence of the combination of at least both dimensions.

The results open a new space for criminological practices, because the traditional focus on empathy, responsibility, guilt feelings, competences and risk factors are maladjusted in this context, and need a more global approach of computer-mediated violence, which modifies significantly the offender-victim relationships.

Keywords: cybercrime, child pornography, online grooming, computer-mediated violence

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Panel Chair: Jacqueline Sebire (Individual Purchaser, UK) P11-9-1 Prevention of Domestic Violence Mojgan Amrollahi Byouki (Max Planck Institute for Foreign and International Criminal Law, Germany) A number of factors are involved in broad prevention of violence. Naturally, criminalization of violence is not enough to ensure prevention and complete eradication of violence. Within the scope of criminal law, criminalization should be carefully devised in order to prevent increase in domestic violence.

A factor that can be used by criminal law to counter domestic violence is to prevent violence in instances of criminal conduct. Not all forms of domestic violence have been criminalized, but instances of such conducts may be examined to the extent they are criminalized in order to prevent reoffending.

Effective prevention of all forms of domestic violence through criminal law and criminological studies requires identification of all instances of violence and provision of a detailed statistical data on victims and frequencies of victimization by gender and age. These data can then be used along with sociological studies to inform social measures developed to prevent violence.

True enforcement of criminal law means enforcing punishment for domestic violent offenders in order to prevent recidivism. This however does not mean that criminal justice is only responsible for punishing offenders; rather, ongoing rehabilitation and reintegration are equally important since an offender cannot be held in prison for a long term and he or she should be reintegrated into the community.

Community-based prevention of domestic violence with all required measures is one of the best tools for controlling and eliminating domestic violence. This approach to prevention, for example, draws on the available statistics and focuses on potential victims and offenders in providing required training to ensure the safety or in developing wide-ranging education programs for children at high schools in order to prevent violence or help children in knowing how to deal with violence and reduce potential harms.

Keywords: Prevention, Domestic, Violence, Criminal P11-9-2 The Use of Technology in Police Responses to Domestic Violence Mangai Natarajan (John Jay College of Criminal Justice, USA) Domestic violence (DV) is under-reported in many parts of the world, whether in economically developed or traditional countries. In developed countries, the social infrastructure and improved social status of women have gradually strengthened efforts to improve reporting of DV. Police forces have introduced hot lines and improved their dispatching and emergency response systems. In addition, many police forces are using technology to protect victims from repeat victimization and to respond to their calls more rapidly, which, in principle, increases the risks for offenders in committing further assaults. This paper provides a case study of experiments in the UK where police have provided mobile phones to DV victims who have previously sought police help, or those identified as high risk. The phones are programmed to speed dial domestic violence/community safety units for help. The case study examines the value of the phones in improving the reporting of DV to police, whether those serving immigrant or non-immigrant communities.

It will also discuss the potential value of these phones in protecting DV victims in developing countries, where land lines are increasingly being replaced by mobile phones because they are more affordable and versatile in use.

Keywords: Domestic Violence, Police response, Technology 10–13 September 2014, Prague, Czech Republic P11-9-3 A relationship based approach to the analysis of Intimate Partner Homicide Jacqueline Sebire (Individual Purchaser, UK) In-depth analysis regarding intimate partner homicides (IPH) within London had been limited. Whilst the capitals overall homicide rate reduced by 17% from 2008/9 – 2013/14, the proportion of IPH to the homicide total has increased from 12.9% 2008/9 to 20.4% 2013/14 over the same time period. Uniquely this study drew upon the original Metropolitan Police Service case files of 207 IPH committed between 1998 and 2009 where a criminal justice outcome had been achieved to provide a descriptive analysis through examination of 77 variables associated with victim, suspect, relationship and offence. Non-parametric tests of association indicated female offending was associated with quarrels, intoxication, self-defence, killing by stabbing and the presence of step-children. Male offending was motivated by infidelity or separation. Men exhibited more varied means of killing and were likely to kill themselves and others.

These findings test feminist criminological theory of female perpetrated violence as being solely a response to patriarchal terrorism. The results suggest this is not such a clear cut situation and women killed on only because they were abuse but also because they were also drunk, devious and malign.

Whilst there has been considerable research in relation to victim, suspect and offence typologies within the field of intimate partner homicide what is noticeably absent is an in-depth analysis of the relationships, for it is only where the victim and suspect come together within their relationships which catalyses fatal violence. This research not only considered the individual variables but uniquely reviews the comparative relationship dynamics of couples to add value and meaning to the analytical profile of London homicides.

The results highlight the importance of incorporating a relationship based approach to studies of IPH rather than singular victim or suspect typologies. Additionally the findings highlight the need for police services to capture and exploit homicide case data to allow for informed analysis and evidence based risk assessment measures and prevention tactics. Recommendations to improve the tactical policing of domestic violence are considered.

Keywords: intimate, partner, homicide, domestic, violence

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Panel Chair: Dylan Waite (Portland State University, USA) P11-10-1 Ethnic and Religious Diversity: The direct and moderation effects on terrorist violence Katharine Boyd (University of Exeter, UK) In the last twenty years many areas of the world have experienced dramatic ethnic and religious diversification. The current study investigates how these demographic characteristics of a country influence political and religiously motivated violence. Ecological theory contextualizes terrorist violence as a product of terrorist group traits in relation to the environment. Terrorist violence is often described by in-group versus out-group polarization, suggesting the importance of group identification in relation to demographic factors in the environment in explaining terrorist violence. Ethnic and religious diversity in a country are hypothesized to have unique influences on the rate of terrorist violence, and distinct effects on different types of terrorist groups. For example, terrorist groups that distinguish themselves by ethnicity are hypothesized to be uniquely influenced by ethnic diversity, while religious diversity is hypothesized to have a distinct effect on terrorist groups with a religious ideology. The current study uses longitudinal multilevel modeling to analyze how diversity and country characteristics, terrorist group traits, and counterterrorism tactics influence the number of terrorist attacks over time. The study also includes additional country characteristics, group traits and co This study uses counterterrorism and group-level data from the Big Allied and Dangerous (BAAD) datasets, attack data from the Global Terrorism Database (GTD), country data from multiple public datasets, and counterterrorism and terrorist group data originally collected from open-sources. The sample includes 148 terrorist groups in 48 countries operating for at least two years between 1998 and 2007 (1,240 years total). The results show that ethnic diversity is a significant predictor of more attacks, while religious diversity does not have a significant effect on the rate of attacks. The moderation hypothesis that ethnic diversity conditions the influence of ethnonationalist terrorist groups is supported. Specifically this study finds that ethnonationalist groups conduct fewer attacks in countries with greater ethnic diversity. The study further investigates whether greater ethnic diversity is the driving force for terrorist attacks, or the change in diversity in this time period that may produce a state of anomie. The results of this study have implications for how different types of groups respond uniquely to contextual demographic factors.

Keywords: Terrorism, Diversity, Multilevel modeling, Ecological theory P11-10-2 Cultural dissonance and the age-specific crime of Moroccans living in the Netherlands Roel Jennissen (Netherlands Ministry of Security and Justice, The Netherlands) The results of several studies show that the crime rate amongst individuals of non-western origin residing in the Netherlands is higher than the crime rate amongst the average Dutch population. This study too shows that things are none too bright where it concerns crime among non-western immigrants if we compare the figures to those among the people of Dutch native heritage. A striking feature in studies subdividing the group of non-western immigrants into separate ethnic groups often is the high crime rate among Moroccans. There is something peculiar about the age-crime curve of this group. As it turns out, the agecrime curve shows extremely high crime rates for Moroccan teenagers residing in the Netherlands – by comparison much higher than the crime rates relating to other ethnic groups.

Aim and research questions: The aim of this study is to get a better insight into the backgrounds of the

deviance in the age-crime curve for Moroccans. To that end, we will try to answer the following two questions:

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