FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Theses, dissertations, documentation

Pages:   || 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 |   ...   | 6 |

«Prager, Christian M. A Study of the Classic Maya Hieroglyphic Inscriptions of Pusilha, Toledo District, Belize Indiana, núm. 30, 2013, pp. 247-282 ...»

-- [ Page 1 ] --


ISSN: 0342-8642


Ibero-Amerikanisches Institut Preußischer



Prager, Christian M.

A Study of the Classic Maya Hieroglyphic Inscriptions of Pusilha, Toledo District, Belize

Indiana, núm. 30, 2013, pp. 247-282

Ibero-Amerikanisches Institut Preußischer Kulturbesitz

Berlin, Alemania

Available in: http://www.redalyc.org/articulo.oa?id=247029853013

How to cite

Complete issue

Scientific Information System

More information about this article Network of Scientific Journals from Latin America, the Caribbean, Spain and Portugal Journal's homepage in redalyc.org Non-profit academic project, developed under the open access initiative A Study of the Classic Maya Hieroglyphic Inscriptions of Pusilha, Toledo District, Belize Christian M. Prager Universität Bonn, Germany Abstract: This paper is concerned with an epigraphic analysis of 48 Maya hieroglyphic monuments of the archaeological site of Pusilha (Belize). The study explores the dynastic history of that ancient Maya kingdom, whose rulers were named un ajaw or “lord of avocado”. The epigraphic study yielded a total of 40 named individuals, including ten male rulers and a queen linked to the Pusilha emblem glyph. 21 of them could be placed within the local dynastic and chronological matrix spanning a historical period between and The analysis reveals a 220-year span of history dating from a.d. 571 to 798.

Earlier historical dates prove that some Pusilha kings traced their origin back to Preclassic times and referred to legendary individuals that were most likely ancestors or even dynastic founders from foreign locations. In the Classic Period there is an uninterrupted sequence of six kings and one queen, from Ruler A to G, spanning a secured dynastic period from a.d. 571 to 731.

Keywords: Maya epigraphy, hieroglyphic monuments, Pusilha, southeastern Maya lowlands, Belize, Classic period.

Resumen:  Este texto presenta un análisis epigráfico de 48 monumentos jeroglíficos mayas  del sitio arqueológico de Pusilhá (Belice). El estudio explora la historia dinástica de este antiguo reino maya cuyos gobernantes llevaban el título un ajaw o “señor de aguacate”. El estudio  epigráfico  dio  como  resultado  un  total  de  40  personas  mencionadas,  incluyendo  diez gobernantes masculinos y una reina vinculada al glifo emblema de Pusilhá. De estas personas, 21 podrían ser colocadas dentro de las matrices dinástica y cronológica locales  que abarcan un período histórico entre y El análisis revela un período  de 220 años de dataciones históricas de 571 a 798 d. C. Las fechas históricas más antiguas demuestran que algunos reyes de Pusilhá remontaron sus orígenes a la época del Preclásico  refiriéndose  a  individuos  legendarios  que  probablemente  fueron  ancestros  o  fundadores  dinásticos de otros lugares. En el Clásico hay una secuencia ininterrumpida de seis reyes y una reina, del Gobernante A a G, que abarca un período dinástico asegurado de 571 hasta  731 d. C.

Palabras clave:  Epigrafía  maya,  monumentos  jeroglíficos,  Pusilhá,  tierras  bajas  mayas  sudorientales, Belice, período Clásico. 

–  –  –

Introducción The subject of  this paper is the little known hieroglyphic inscriptions from the Classic  Maya site of Pusilha, located in the Toledo District of southern Belize. The site was discovered in 1926 and was partially excavated by the British Museum between 1928 and 1930 (Joyce et al. 1928; Joyce 1929; Gruning 1930). This paper is concerned with the dynastic history as recorded on some forty-four carved limestone monuments thus far discovered. While some of the monuments are still in situ, though severely eroded, the best-preserved stelae and monument fragments were removed by the British Museum Expeditions, where they still reside today. Since the 1930’s, there has been little archaeological work at Pusilha. Sporadic excavations have been conducted at the site by Norman Hammond in 1970 (1975), Richard Leventhal in 1979 and 1980 (1990; 1992), Gary Rex Walters and Lorington Weller in 1992 (1994) and by the Pusilha Archaeo

–  –  –

Indiana 30 (2013): 247-282 A Study of the Classic Maya Hieroglyphic Inscriptions of Pusilha, Toledo District, Belize 249 logical Project (pusap), directed by Geoffrey Braswell (2002). Photographs and several incomplete sketches of  some of  the stelae were first published by Joyce in 1928 (Joyce  et al. 1928), and later by Morley (1937-1938) and Riese (1980). Except for a few brief studies concerning the chronological and astronomical contents of the hieroglyphic inscriptions, the majority of  the monuments have never been adequately recorded. Nor  have these hieroglyphic texts been thoroughly analyzed according to proper epigraphic standards set forth by the Corpus of  Maya Hieroglyphic Inscriptions Project (Graham  1975). To better understand these texts, the author conducted field work at the British  Museum in London in 1996 and 2000 and at the modern Q’eqchi’ village of San Benito Poité in 2001 and in 2005.1 As part of this research, all of the monuments located in both the British Museum and at the site of Pusilha were surveyed, photographed, and professionally drawn by the author.

Figure 2. Map of Pusilha (courtesy of Geoffrey Braswell).

1 The epigraphic investigation at Pusilha formed part of a research program (pusap) initiated and directed by Geoffrey Braswell of  the University of  California at San Diego. The first field season was  carried out in 2001 and included Geoffrey Braswell, Susan Maguire, Lorington Weller and myself.

pusap was funded during the 2001 season by the Foundation for the Advancement of Mesoamerican Studies, Inc. (famsi) and the School of American Research (Braswell et al. 2004).

Indiana 30 (2013): 247-282250 Christian M. Prager

Pusilha, nestled in the foothills of the southwestern Maya Mountains, lies within a well-defined  cultural  region,  as  first  proposed  by  Leventhal  (1992).  This  area  can  be  defined by specific geographic and archaeological features unique to the area roughly  defined as the Toledo District of  southern Belize and the adjacent Río Pasión Region  of southeastern Guatemala (Dunham, Jamison & Leventhal 1989: 263). It encompasses more than 4000 square kilometers and is bounded to the northwest by the southeastern foothills of the Maya Mountains, to the east by the Caribbean Sea, to the south by the marshy terrain of the Temash and Sarstoon Rivers (Dunham, Jamison & Leventhal 1989: 269; Leventhal 1992: 145), and to the southwest, the area extends well up into the upper reaches of  the Río Cancuen (Corzo et al. 1999). Southern Belize differs from  adjacent  cultural  zones  by  its  distinctive  architectural  remains  that  include  terraced  platform constructions, ballcourts within walled enclosures, the use of natural terrain for terraces and pyramid-like structures, collective tombs, a regional style of carving and idiosyncratic hieroglyphic inscriptions (Leventhal 1990: 138-139; Grube, MacLeod & Wanyerka 1999: 36-37). The earliest occupation appears to be concentrated along the western part of  the region, which includes the major monument-erecting sites of   Uxbenka and Pusilha (Leventhal 1992: 152; Wanyerka 1996: 35). By a.d. 650-700, an eastward  expansion  of   major  centers  began  to  rise  and  form  throughout  the  southcentral portion of the Maya Mountains region. This eastward expansion would eventually lead to the foundation of other monument erecting sites like Nim Li Punit, Xnaheb, Lubaantun, and Tzimin Che.

Pusilha (16°06’45’’ N, 89°11’43 W)2 is located between the Poité and Pusilha Rivers  along the Guatemalan/Belizean border some 42 km northwest of Punta Gorda, the capital of the Toledo District (Figure 1). Rising to the north and south of Pusilha are an extensive series of karst limestone ridges that extend to some 200 meters above sea level. Architectural remains and ancient settlements are dispersed over an area comprising some 6.4 square kilometers. Numerous settlements have been found along the sloping karst foothills north of the Pusilha River and along the limestone massif to the south of the site. Cutting through the middle of the site is the Pusilha River, whose triple-span bridge abutments are still visible even today.

The central site core is comprised primarily of  several major residential and ceremonial structures (Main or Stela Plaza, Big Tree Group), each grouped around a series of plazas or ballcourts (Figure 2). In the 1990’s, two additional residential groups (the Moho  Plaza  and  Machaca  Plaza)  were  discovered  just  southwest  of   the  main  plaza  (Walters & Weller 1994). In between these major residential zones are dozens of  smaller  outlying house-mounds that cover the area north of the Pusilha River. Located south 2 The geographical coordinates are obtained with a hand-held gps navigator at the southern end of the Stela Plaza.

Indiana 30 (2013): 247-282 A Study of the Classic Maya Hieroglyphic Inscriptions of Pusilha, Toledo District, Belize 251

–  –  –

to the Main Plaza, on the opposite bank of the Pusilha River, is a stepped residential complex known as the Gateway Hill Acropolis. This portion of the site includes the famous bridge abutments at the banks the Pusilha River and the hilltop complex known as Gateway Hill, located some 75 meters above the river (Braswell 2002; Braswell et al.

2004; Leventhal 1990).

Of particular interest to this study are the hieroglyphic inscriptions found in the main Stelae Plaza and those found in the Moho Plaza. Most of the carved monuments and artifacts were found in the main Stela Plaza, a large area defined by six platforms  (labelled Structure I - VI see Figure 3). Arguably, Structure I was the most important structure of this group, due to the fact that its massive superstructure construction is

–  –  –

much larger than any of the other structures, and that nearly all of the known monuments were concentrated in a line across the north end of the structure. All of the carved monuments discovered by the British Museum were found broken lying on the ground north of Structure I. Each monument was labeled with an alphabetic designation (Stela A-N) by Gann (see Figure 2 in Joyce et al. 1928). This system has been generally accepted, except for a few modifications by Morley (1937-1938), Riese (1980), and  the author of the present study (Prager 2002). Following a suggestion by Riese (1980), all  of   the  monument  fragments  found  during  the  2001  field  season  were  numbered  consecutively (Figure 3). None of the newly discovered carved monument fragments belong to any of the known monuments documented so far.

Indiana 30 (2013): 247-282 A Study of the Classic Maya Hieroglyphic Inscriptions of Pusilha, Toledo District, Belize 253 As  first  reported  by  Gann  (1928)  and  Joyce  (1929),  most  of   the  stelae  were  found  broken and lying on the ground near their respective monument bases, except for Stela F, which was found intact. In total, twelve stelae were located in a line along the north face of Structure I. Because of the way in which the monuments fell, most of the best-preserved hieroglyphic texts at the site survived because they were buried text-side down. Therefore, the front figural-sides of  most of  the stelae are heavily eroded. Shortly  after their initial discovery, many of the best-preserved monuments (Stela C, D, E, H, M, O, P, Q, R, Z, Monument Fragment 1 and 2) were removed from the country of Belize and shipped directly to the British Museum.

In 1992, several new hieroglyphic inscriptions were discovered by Gary Rex Walters and Lorington Weller in an area outside the central core of Pusilha, known today as the Moho Plaza (Walters & Weller 1994). Located approximately two kilometers southwest of the Stela, Plaza Walters and his team discovered a large residential complex and ceremonial group that included a previously unknown ballcourt (Figure 4). In addition, Walters and Weller discovered three small ballcourt markers in the alley-way of the ballcourt, and located nine hieroglyphic and iconographic cartouches engraved into the risers of a stair leading up to the top of Structure VI. During the 2001 season, the PUSAP team recovered fifteen new sculpted monument fragments in the Stela Plaza  and one well-preserved fragment of an unknown stela. Today, the corpus of carved monuments  from  Pusilha  totals  some  forty-five  objects:  twenty  stelae  (Stelae  A,  A1,  B-H, K-S, U, Z), three altars (Altar V-X), three ballcourt markers (Ballcourt Markers 1-3), one hieroglyphic stairway (Hieroglyphic Stairway 1), seventeen sculptured monument fragments (Fragments 1-17), and one miscellaneous text (Miscellaneous Text 1).

Previous epigraphic studies To date, the hieroglyphic texts of Pusilha have received only moderate attention by epigraphers. One of the few researchers to use data from the Pusilha inscriptions was Heinrich Berlin (1958) in his study of Classic Maya emblem glyphs. Others examined the dates and portions of the Supplementary Series as found on the texts shortly after their discovery (Thompson 1928; Gann 1928; Morley 1937-1938; Andrews 1951;

Pages:   || 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 |   ...   | 6 |

Similar works:

«Montello, D. R. (1997). The perception and cognition of environmental distance: Direct sources of information. In S. C. Hirtle & A. U. Frank (Eds.), Spatial information theory: A theoretical basis for GIS (pp. 297-311). Proceedings of COSIT ‘97. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, Lecture Notes in The Perception and Cognition of Environmental Distance: Direct Sources of Information Daniel R. Montello Department of Geography University of California, Santa Barbara Santa Barbara, CA 93106, U.S.A....»

«Delayed Conifer Tree Mortality Following Fire in California1 Sharon M. Hood,2 Sheri L. Smith,3 and Daniel R. Cluck3 Abstract Fire injury was characterized and survival monitored for 5,246 trees from five wildfires in California that occurred between 1999 and 2002. Logistic regression models for predicting the probability of mortality were developed for incense-cedar, Jeffrey pine, ponderosa pine, red fir and white fir. Two-year post-fire preliminary models were developed for incensecedar,...»

«Newsletter No 278/16 Thursday 11th February 2016 Dear Parent/Carers It is hard to believe that it is now February half term. Over the last two weeks there have been lots of exciting things happening in school and it is a shame that I can only give you a flavour of them in the newsletter. On Wednesdays after school, some parents have been joining their children for Family Learning Music Sessions. Feedback from the sessions has been really positive and I know that the children and parents alike...»

«DONOR ADVISED FUND AGREEMENT This Donor Advised Fund Agreement is to establish a Donor Advised Fund between _, and (hereafter referred to as “Donor(s)”) and The Community Foundation for the National Capital Region, (hereafter referred to as “The Community Foundation”). With this Agreement, the Donor(s) acknowledges that property transferred to and accepted by The Community Foundation constitutes an irrevocable gift to The Community Foundation for the purpose of providing charitable...»

«The Ultimate Cannabis Indoor Cultivation and Usage Guide By An Old Hippie Revised in 2016 Index ● Introductions Are In Order – p. 3 ● Chapter 1 – The Truth About Marijuana – p. 4 ● Chapter 2 – Botanical Basics – p. 15 ● Chapter 3 – The Growing Sanctuary – p. 19 ● Chapter 4 – From Seed to Weed – p. 26 ● Chapter 5 – The Fruits of Your Labor – p. 33 ● A Fond Farewell – p. 43 This information was originally released in 2013, then revised in 2016. It is...»

«JOB DESCRIPTION 1. JOB TITLE: Learning and Information Services Senior Project Officer (Network and Infrastructure) Shrewsbury 2. HRMS REFERENCE NUMBER: HR14419 3. ROLE CODE: SPOLIS 4. DEPARTMENT: Learning and Information Services 5. ORGANISATION CHART: Reporting to Deputy Director LIS 6. JOB PURPOSE: The post holder will report directly to the Deputy Director of LIS and work closely with the Networking and Infrastructure teams to install, maintain and administrate the University’s server and...»

«PALEOBIOLOGIA NEOTROPICAL CONTRIBUCIONES OCASIONALES EDITADA POR EL LABORATORIO DE PALEOBIOLOGÍA Universidad Simón Bolívar, Apdo. 89.000 Caracas 1080 Venezuela Número 1 15 Noviembre 2004 BIOESTRATIGRAFIA DE LA FAUNA DE MAMIFEROS DE LAS FORMACIONES SOCORRO, URUMACO Y CODORE (MIOCENO MEDIO-PLIOCENO TEMPRANO) DE LA REGION DE URUMACO, FALCON, VENEZUELA Omar J. LINARES1 Resumen La fauna más diversa de vertebrados fósiles del Neógeno de Venezuela se localiza en la región de Urumaco, situada...»

«Math. Program., Ser. A (2010) 122:1–20 DOI 10.1007/s10107-008-0239-4 FULL LENGTH PAPER Conic mixed-integer rounding cuts Alper Atamtürk · Vishnu Narayanan Received: 24 March 2007 / Accepted: 6 May 2008 / Published online: 21 August 2008 © Springer-Verlag 2008 Abstract A conic integer program is an integer programming problem with conic constraints. Many problems in finance, engineering, statistical learning, and probabilistic optimization are modeled using conic constraints. Here we study...»

«REV 4 1 5 2 0 1 5 TABLE OF CONTENTS DWD Contact Information UI at a Glance I. Introduction to Unemployment VII. Your Employer Experience Account Insurance A. Your Experience Account A. UI – In General B. Qualification for UI Benefits II. Getting Started i. Examples of Individuals NOT Eligible for UI Benefits A. Employer Qualifications ii. Deductible and Non-Deductible B. Employee Qualifications Income C. Multi-State Employment C. How Your Former Employee’s Benefits D. Employer Registration...»

«The final version of this document has been published in May 2011. http://www.bis.org/publ/bcbs194.htm Basel Committee on Banking Supervision Consultative document Range of Methodologies for Risk and Performance Alignment of Remuneration Issue for comment by 31 December 2010 October 2010 The final version of this document has been published in May 2011. http://www.bis.org/publ/bcbs194.htm The final version of this document has been published in May 2011. http://www.bis.org/publ/bcbs194.htm...»

«Journal of Asian and African Studies 1–18 Incompleteness: Frontier Africa © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and and the Currency of Conviviality permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav DOI: 10.1177/0021909615580867 jas.sagepub.com Francis B Nyamnjoh University of Cape Town, South Africa Abstract This paper makes a case for conviviality as a currency for frontier Africans. It argues that incompleteness is the normal order of things, and that conviviality invites us to celebrate and...»

«Surg Clin N Am 88 (2008) 1429–1447 Distal Biliary Malignancy Gregory Veillette, MD*, ´ Carlos Fernandez-del Castillo, MD a Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, 55 Fruit Street, Boston, MA 02114, USA Distal biliary malignancy (cholangiocarcinoma) remains a rare diagnosis with a dismal prognosis. The vast majority of these cancers are adenocarcinomas that preferentially invade adjacent structures and drain to local lymph nodes. Given the small diameter of the common bile...»

<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2016 www.theses.xlibx.info - Theses, dissertations, documentation

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.