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Counter Terrorism Protective
for Bars, Pubs and Nightclubs
“Copyright in this guide is (except where expressly stated held by third parties) vested in the Association of Chief Police
Officers of England and Wales and Northern Ireland, but ACPO recognises that recipients may want to reproduce some
or all of the guide for the purpose of informing, training or otherwise assisting their staff, customers, contractors,
tenants and others with whom they deal in running their operations. ACPO therefore grants, to all in receipt of this guide, a royalty-free non-exclusive non-sublicensable right to reproduce all or any part of it provided that each of the following conditions is met: (1) the National Counter-Terrorism Security Office (NaCTSO) must be consulted before any reproduction takes place; (2) reproduction must be for the purpose set out above and for no other purpose; (3) no part of this guide may appear as or in any advertisement or other promotional material; (4) no charge may be made to any person receiving any reproduced material; (5) no alteration may be made in the course of reproduction save for alteration to font, font size or formatting; and (6) the reproduced material must be accompanied by a statement clearly acknowledging ACPO as the source of the material.” forward The National Counter Terrorism Security Office (NaCTSO), on behalf of ACPO (TAM), works in partnership with MI5 the Security Service to reduce the impact of
terrorism in the United Kingdom by:
• protecting the UK’s most vulnerable and valuable sites and assets
• enhancing the UK’s resilience to terrorist attack
• delivering protective security advice across the crowded places sectors.
NaCTSO aims to:
• raise awareness of the terrorist threat and the measures that can be taken to reduce risks and mitigate the effects of an attack
• co-ordinate national service delivery of protective security advice through the CTSA network and monitor its effectiveness
• build and extend partnerships with communities, police and government stakeholders
• contribute to the development of CT policy and advice.
2. Managing the Risks
3. Security Planning
4. Physical Security
5. Good Housekeeping
6. Mail Handling Procedures
7. Access Control
8. CCTV Guidance
9. Search Planning
10. Door Supervisors
11. Evacuation Planning
12. Vehicle Borne Improvised Explosive Devices (VBIEDs)
13. Suicide Attacks
15. Cyber Security Procedures
16. Hostile Reconnaissance
17. High Profile Events
18. Firearms and Weapons Attacks
16. Threat Levels
APPENDIX ‘A’ Housekeeping Good Practice Checklist
APPENDIX ‘B’ Access Control Good Practice Checklist
APPENDIX ‘C’ CCTV Good Practice Checklist
APPENDIX ‘D’ Searching Good Practice Checklist
APPENDIX ‘E’ Communication Good Practice Checklist
Bomb Threat Checklist
Useful Publications and Contacts
one introduction This guide provides protective security advice to those who own, operate, manage or work in bars, pubs or nightclubs. It aids those who are seeking to reduce the risk of a terrorist attack and limit the damage an attack might cause. It highlights the vital part you can play in the UK counter terrorism strategy.
Terrorist attacks in the UK are a real and serious danger. Crowded places, including bars, pubs and nightclubs, may feature in the attack plans of terrorist organisations in the future; as they are usually locations with limited protective security measures and therefore affords the potential for mass fatalities and casualties.
Although terrorist attacks on bars, pubs and nightclubs in the UK have been infrequent recently, there is a long history of such attacks and there have been recent attacks on bars and nightclubs in other countries around the world.
It is possible that your premises could be involved in a terrorist incident. This might include having to deal with a bomb threat or with suspect items left in or around your premises or sent through the post.
In the worst case scenario your staff and customers could be killed or injured, and your premises destroyed or damaged in a ‘no warning’, multiple and co-ordinated terrorist attack.
It is recognised that there is a need to maintain a friendly and welcoming atmosphere within bar, pub and nightclub environments and this guide is not intended to create a ‘fortress mentality’.
There is however a balance to be achieved where those responsible for security are informed that there are robust protective security measures available to mitigate against the threat of terrorism, e.g. protection from flying glass and vehicle access controls into underground car parks.
Terrorism can come in many forms, not just a physical attack on life and limb. It can include interference with vital information or communication systems, causing disruption and economic damage. Some attacks are easier to carry out if the terrorist is assisted by an ‘insider’ or by someone with specialist knowledge or access. Terrorism also includes threats or hoaxes designed to frighten and intimidate. These have in the past been targeted at bars, pubs and nightclubs in the UK.
Law, Liability and Insurance.
There are legal and commercial reasons why your premises should plan to deter such acts, or
at least to minimise their impact. They are:
Criminal prosecution and heavy penalties under health and safety laws for companies and individuals who own or run licensed premises are a real possibility in the wake of a terrorist incident, particularly if it emerges that core standards and statutory duties have not been met. Particularly relevant to protective security in bars, pubs and nightclubs are the specific requirements of the Health and Safety at Work Act 1974 and Regulations made
under it to do all of the following:
• carry out adequate risk assessments and put suitable measures in place to manage
identified risks, even where they are not of your making and are outside your direct control:
then be alert to the need to conduct prompt and regular reviews of those assessments and measures in light of new threats and developments
• co-operate and co-ordinate safety arrangements between owners, managers, security staff, tenants and others involved on site, including the sharing of incident plans and working together in testing, auditing and improving planning and response. The commercial tensions which naturally arise between landlords and tenants, and between neighbouring organisations who may well be in direct competition with each other, must be left aside entirely when planning protective security
• ensure adequate training, information and equipment are provided to all staff, and especially to those involved directly on the safety and security side
• put proper procedures and competent staff in place to deal with imminent and serious danger and evacuation.
Insurance against damage to your own commercial buildings from terrorist acts is generally available but typically at an additional premium. Adequate cover for loss of revenue and business interruption during a rebuild or decontamination is expensive even where available from the limited pool of specialist underwriters. Full protection against compensation claims for death and injury to staff and customers caused by terrorism is achievable, albeit at a cost.
With individual awards for death and serious injury commonly exceeding the publicly – funded criminal injuries compensation scheme upper limit, there is every incentive for victims to seek to make up any shortfall through direct legal action against owners, operators, managers and tenants under occupiers liability laws. Having to pay large and numerous compensation claims out of your own uninsured pocket could set your business back several years.
Business continuity planning is essential in ensuring that your premises can cope with an incident or attack and return to ‘business as usual’ as soon as possible. An attack on a crucial contractor or supplier can also impact on business continuity. This is particularly important for smaller operations that may not have the resources to withstand even a few days of financial loss.
Reputation and goodwill are valuable, but prone to serious and permanent damage if it turns out that you gave a less than robust, responsible and professional priority to best protecting people against attack. Being security minded and better prepared reassures your customers and staff that you are taking security issues seriously.
Do you know who your neighbours are and the nature of their business? Could an incident at their premises affect your operation? There is limited value in safeguarding your own business premises in isolation. Take into account your neighbours’ plans and those of the emergency services.
A number of organisations have adopted good practice to enhance the protective security measures in and around their premises. This document identifies and complements such good practice measures.
This guide recognises that bars, pubs and nightclubs differ in many ways including size, location, layout and operation and that some of the advice included in this document may have already been introduced at some locations.
For specific advice relating to your operation, contact the nationwide network of specialist police advisers known as Counter Terrorism Security Advisors (CTSAs) through your local police force. They are co-ordinated by the National Counter Terrorism Security Office (NaCTSO).
It is essential that all the work you undertake on protective security is undertaken in partnership with the police, other authorities as appropriate and your neighbours, if your premises are to be secure.
It is worth remembering that measures you may consider for countering terrorism will also work against other threats, such as theft and burglary. Any extra measures that are considered should integrate wherever possible with existing security.
two managing the risks Managing the risk of terrorism is only one part of a bar, pub or nightclub owner or manager’s responsibility when preparing contingency plans in response to any incident in or near their premises which might prejudice public safety or disrupt normal operations.
Management already has a responsibility under Health and Safety Regulations and the Regulatory Reform (Fire Safety) Order 2005.
With regard to protective security, the best way to manage the hazards and risks to your premises is to start by understanding and identifying the threats and vulnerabilities.
This will help you to decide:
• what security improvements you need to make
• what type of security and contingency plans you need to develop.
For some bars, pubs and nightclubs, simple good practice – coupled with vigilance and well exercised contingency arrangements – may be all that is needed.
If, however, you assess that you are vulnerable to attack, you should apply appropriate protective security measures to reduce the risk to as low as reasonably practicable.
The following diagram illustrates a typical risk management cycle:
Step One: Identify the threats.
Understanding the terrorist's intentions and capabilities - what they might do and how they
might do it - is crucial to assessing threat. Ask yourself the following questions:
• what can be learnt from the government and media about the current security climate, or about recent terrorist activities? Visit www.cpni.gov.uk
• is there anything about the location of your premises, its customers, occupiers and staff, or your activities that would particularly attract a terrorist attack?
• is there an association with high profile individuals or organisations which might be terrorist targets?
• do you have procedures in place and available for deployment on occasions when VIPs attend your premises?
• could collateral damage occur from an attack or other incident to a high risk neighbour?
• what can your local Police Service tell you about crime and other problems in your area?
• is there any aspect of your business or activities that terrorists might wish to exploit to aid their work, e.g. plans, technical expertise or unauthorised access?
• do you communicate information about the threat and response levels to your staff?
Step Two: Decide what you need to protect and identify your vulnerabilities.
Your priorities for protection should fall under the following categories:
• people (staff, visitors, customers, contractors)
• physical assets (buildings, contents, equipment, plans and sensitive materials)
• information (electronic and paper data)
• processes (supply chains, critical procedures) – the actual operational process and essential services required to support it.
You know what is important to you and your business. You should already have plans in place for dealing with fire and crime, procedures for assessing the integrity of those you employ, protection from IT viruses and hackers, and measures to secure parts of the premises.
Review your plans on a regular basis and if you think you are at greater risk of attack – perhaps because of the nature of your business or location of your premises then consider
what others could find out about your vulnerabilities, such as:
• Information about you that is publicly available, e.g. on the internet or in public documents
• Anything that identifies installations or services vital to the continuation of your business
• Any prestige targets that may be attractive to terrorists, regardless of whether their loss would result in business collapse