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«Heidi Wiig and Michelle Wood R-01 • What Comprises a Regional Innovation System? An 1995 Empirical Study Heidi Wiig and Michelle Wood STEP ...»

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adapted to regional particularities53. In which case, further investigation of the characteristics and needs of other regions will give a more comprehensive understanding of the national system of innovation.

Lastly, in terms of the innovation system in the region the results discussed here provide only one, albeit important, perspective - that of manufacturing firms - and as the discussion indicates, in terms of analysing innovation linkages, the ’innovation system' or network in Møre and Romsdal is limited in scope and extent. This supports findings from similar studies elsewhere 54. It may be that such linkages are more highly evident amongst firms and institutions within a sub-region, such as Sunnmøre, giving rise to a 'local innovation system' or within particular industries, embodied in their particular knowledge bases or labour markets; although further evidence is needed in order to investigate this. In addition, the apparent weakness of the Møre and Romsdal innovation system may lie with conceptual difficulties and perceptions associated with models of 'regional innovation systems', resulting from studies of successful, core regions where innovation linkages are strong. In fact, the problematic of constructing a definition of an 'innovation system' which is applicable to a whole range of different localities and regions has been raised elsewhere55, with suggestions that individual firm strategies and networks actually work against the formation of an visibly integrated regional innovation system. This paper attempts to provide an empirical basis for this, but recognises that a great deal of work remains in this area, in both conceptual and empirical terms.

Koschatzky K (1994) op cit, 26 see Héraud, (1995) op cit Higgins, T (1995) op cit, p7 Appendix: Methodology In the regional innovation study of the Norwegian county of Møre and Romsdal, data was collected via postal questionnaires sent to business enterprises in the region.

This was followed up by a telephone survey (using a slightly modified questionnaire) to all non-respondents to the initial postal questionnaire. The total number of responses was 399 representing a response rate of 49%.

Address lists covering all industrial firms in the county were supplied by the Møre and Romsdal Advisory Council. Constant cross-referencing with the Brønnøysund register together with the Council's extensive first-hand contact with industry in the area ensured that these lists were both comprehensive and up-to-date. In addition to firm names, these lists furnished the names of the managing director, which proved important when contacting the individual companies.

In all, the original list contained 1128 business enterprises. Some of the firms were not relevant to the study and were discarded, as in the case of individual companies simply constituting a division of a enterprise. The original list also consisted of firms that were not engaged in production and a number of the remaining industrial firms did not deem the study relevant to their activities, owing for example, to the fact that they were involved in closing down production. Further, some had changed their activities away from production several years back, while still others had not been involved in production for at least three years. There were another set of firms that found the study irrelevant for them and businesses that had gone bankrupt.

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1/94 Keith Smith New directions in research and technology policy: Identifying the key issues 2/94 Svein Olav Nås og Vemund Riiser FoU i norsk næringsliv 1985-1991 3/94 Erik S. Reinert Competitiveness and its predecessors – a 500-year cross-national perspective 4/94 Svein Olav Nås, Tore Sandven og Keith Smith Innovasjon og ny teknologi i norsk industri: En oversikt 5/94 Anders Ekeland Forskermobilitet i næringslivet i 1992 6/94 Heidi Wiig og Anders Ekeland Naturviternes kontakt med andre sektorer i samfunnet 7/94 Svein Olav Nås Forsknings- og teknologisamarbeid i norsk industri 8/94 Heidi Wiig og Anders Ekeland Forskermobilitet i instituttsektoren i 1992 9/94 Johan Hauknes Modelling the mobility of researchers 10/94 Keith Smith Interactions in knowledge systems: Foundations, policy implications and empirical methods 11/94 Erik S. Reinert Tjenestesektoren i det økonomiske helhetsbildet 12/94 Erik S. Reinert and Vemund Riiser Recent trends in economic theory – implications for development geography 13/94 Johan Hauknes Tjenesteytende næringer – økonomi og teknologi

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15/94 Erik S. Reinert A Schumpeterian theory of underdevelopment – a contradiction in terms?

16/94 Tore Sandven Understanding R&D performance: A note on a new OECD indicator 17/94 Olav Wicken Norsk fiskeriteknologi – politiske mål i møte med regionale kulturer 18/94 Bjørn Asheim Regionale innovasjonssystem: Teknologipolitikk som regionalpolitikk 19/94 Erik S. Reinert Hvorfor er økonomisk vekst geografisk ujevnt fordelt?

20/94 William Lazonick Creating and extracting value: Corporate investment behaviour and economic performance 21/94 Olav Wicken Entreprenørskap i Møre og Romsdal. Et historisk perspektiv 22/94 Espen Dietrichs og Keith Smith Fiskerinæringens teknologi og dens regionale forankring 23/94 William Lazonick and Mary O’Sullivan Skill formation in wealthy nations: Organizational evolution and economic consequences 1/95 Heidi Wiig and Michelle Wood What comprises a regional innovation system? An empirical study 2/95 Espen Dietrichs Adopting a ‘high-tech’ policy in a ‘low-tech’ industry. The case of aquaculture 3/95 Bjørn Asheim Industrial Districts as ‘learning regions’. A condition for prosperity 4/95 Arne Isaksen Mot en regional innovasjonspolitikk for Norge

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1/96 Arne Isaksen m. fl.

Nyskapning og teknologiutvikling i Nord-Norge. Evaluering av NT programmet 2/96 Svein Olav Nås How innovative is Norwegian industry? An international comparison 3/96 Arne Isaksen Location and innovation. Geographical variations in innovative activity in Norwegian manufacturing industry 4/96 Tore Sandven Typologies of innovation in small and medium sized enterprises in Norway 5/96 Tore Sandven Innovation outputs in the Norwegian economy: How innovative are small firms and medium sized enterprises in Norway 6/96 Johan Hauknes and Ian Miles Services in European Innovation Systems: A review of issues 7/96 Johan Hauknes Innovation in the Service Economy 8/96 Terje Nord og Trond Einar Pedersen Endring i telekommunikasjon - utfordringer for Norge 9/96 Heidi Wiig An empirical study of the innovation system in Finmark 10/96 Tore Sandven Technology acquisition by SME’s in Norway 11/96 Mette Christiansen, Kim Møller Jørgensen and Keith Smith Innovation Policies for SMEs in Norway 12/96 Eva Næss Karlsen, Keith Smith and Nils Henrik Solum Design and Innovation in Norwegian Industry 13/96 Bjørn T. Asheim and Arne Isaksen Location, agglomeration and innovation: Towards regional innovation systems in Norway?

14/96 William Lazonick and Mary O’Sullivan Sustained Economic Development

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15/96 Eric Iversen og Trond Einar Pedersen Postens stilling i det globale informasjonsamfunnet: et eksplorativt studium 16/96 Arne Isaksen Regional Clusters and Competitiveness: the Norwegian Case 1/97 Svein Olav Nås and Ari Leppãlahti Innovation, firm profitability and growth 2/97 Arne Isaksen and Keith Smith Innovation policies for SMEs in Norway: Analytical framework and policy options 3/97 Arne Isaksen Regional innovasjon: En ny strategi i tiltaksarbeid og regionalpolitikk 4/97 Errko Autio, Espen Dietrichs, Karl Führer and Keith Smith Innovation Activities in Pulp, Paper and Paper Products in Europe 5/97 Rinaldo Evangelista, Tore Sandven, Georgio Sirilli and Keith Smith Innovation Expenditures in European Industry R-01/1998 Arne Isaksen Regionalisation and regional clusters as development strategies in a global economy R-02/1998 Heidi Wiig and Arne Isaksen Innovation in ultra-peripheral regions: The case of Finnmark and rural areas in Norway R-03/1998 William Lazonick and Mary O’Sullivan Corporate Governance and the Innovative Economy: Policy implications R-04/1998 Rajneesh Narula Strategic technology alliances by European firms since 1980: questioning integration?

R-05/1998 Rajneesh Narula Innovation through strategic alliances: moving towards international partnerships and contractual agreements

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R-06/1998 Svein Olav Nås et al.

Formal competencies in the innovation systems of the Nordic countries: An analysis based on register data R-07/1998 Svend-Otto Remøe og Thor Egil Braadland Internasjonalt erfarings-grunnlag for teknologi- og innovasjonspolitikk: relevante implikasjoner for Norge R-08/1998 Svein Olav Nås Innovasjon i Norge: En statusrapport R-09/1998 Finn Ørstavik Innovation regimes and trajectories in goods transport R-10/1998 H. Wiig Aslesen, T. Grytli, A. Isaksen, B. Jordfald, O. Langeland og O. R. Spilling Struktur og dynamikk i kunnskapsbaserte næringer i Oslo R-11/1998 Johan Hauknes Grunnforskning og økonomisk vekst: Ikke-instrumentell kunnskap R-12/1998 Johan Hauknes Dynamic innovation systems: Do services have a role to play?

R-13/1998 Johan Hauknes Services in Innovation – Innovation in Services R-14/1998 Eric Iversen, Keith Smith and Finn Ørstavik Information and communication technology in international policy discussions

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