«ROBERT F. KANABY, Publisher Bruce L. Howard and John C. Gillis, Editors NFHS Publications © 1997, 2003 By the National Federation of State High ...»
Provision 2: Scorer’s judgment determines whether a run-batted-in shall be credited for a run that scores when a fielder holds the ball or throws to the wrong base. Ordinarily, if the runner keeps going, credit a run-batted-in; if the runner stops and takes off again after noticing the misplay, credit the run as scored on a fielder’s choice.
SECTION 7: Substitute Batter Provision 1: When a batter leaves the game with two strikes, and a substitute batter strikes out, charge the strikeout to the first batter. If a substitute batter completes the turn at bat in any other manner, including a walk, charge the action to the substitute batter.
Provision 1: A sacrifice bunt is credited to the batter when, with fewer than two outs, the bunt enables a runner to advance, provided no other runner is put out attempting to advance.
Exception: If, in the judgment of the official scorer, the batter is bunting primarily for a base hit, do not score a sacrifice.
Instead, charge the batter with a time at bat.
Provision 2: A sacrifice fly is credited when, with fewer than two outs, a batter’s fly, fair or foul ball enables a runner to score. In either case, the sacrifice ruling applies when the batter is put out before reaching first base or would have been put out if the ball had been fielded without error.
SECTION 9: Stolen Base
Provision 1: A stolen base shall be credited to the base runner whenever the runner advances a base unaided (such as by a base hit, fielder’s choice, putout, error, balk [baseball only], illegal pitch [softball only], walk, wild pitch or passed ball). A stolen base shall be credited when a runner starts for the next base before the pitcher delivers the ball, and the pitch results in what would otherwise be scored a passed ball or a wild pitch.
Exception: Where any runner is thrown out on an attempted double or triple steal, no runner is credited with a stolen base.
Note: On a double-steal attempt with runners on first and third bases, if there is a legitimate attempt by the fielder to retire the runner at second base and the runner is safe, that runner shall be credited with a stolen base, even if the runner from third is thrown out at home on a continuous play.
Provision 2: If a base runner is tagged out while oversliding a base, the runner shall not be credited with a stolen base.
Provision 3: No stolen base shall be credited to a runner whose advance is the result of the opposing team’s indifference.
Provision 4: A base runner shall be charged with “caught stealing”
whenever the runner is put out in the following situations:
a) when the runner attempts to steal, 48 Baseball/Softball
b) when the runner is picked off a base and tries to advance, or
c) when the runner overslides while stealing.
Note 1: Do not charge a base runner as “caught stealing” unless the runner has an opportunity to be credited with a stolen base when the play starts.
Note 2: If a muffed throw on an attempted steal results in the runner being safe, charge the runner as “caught stealing.”
SECTION 10: Fielder’s Choice
Provision 1: This term is used by official scorers to account for the following situations (the batter shall be charged with an official time
at bat but no hit in all such situations):
a) when a batter-runner advances one or more bases while a fielder, who handles a fair hit, attempts to put out a preceding runner (unless the batter would have been safe if the play had been made on the runner),
b) when a runner advances (other than by a stolen base or error) while a fielder is attempting to put out another runner,
c) when a runner advances solely because of the defensive team’s indifference (undefended steal), or
d) when a batter apparently hits safely and a runner, who is forced to advance by reason of the batter becoming a runner, fails to touch the first base to which the runner is advancing and is called out for the base-running infraction.
SECTION 11: Putout Provision 1: A putout is credited to a fielder who catches a batted ball in flight, tags out a runner or puts out a runner by holding the ball while touching a base to which a runner is forced to advance or return. When a batter strikes out, a putout is credited to the catcher, unless the catcher fails to field the pitch cleanly and must put the batter-runner out at first base.
Exception 1: When a batter is called out for an illegally batted ball, for a foul third strike bunt, for being hit by the batter’s Baseball/Softball 49 own batted ball, for interference with the catcher or for failing to bat in proper turn, the putout shall be credited to the catcher.
Exception 2: When a batter is declared out on an infield fly that is not caught, the putout is credited to the fielder who is nearest the ball at the time.
Exception 3: When a base runner is out because of being hit by a fair batted ball, the putout shall be credited to the fielder nearest the ball at the time.
Exception 4: When a runner is called out for running out of the baseline to avoid being tagged, the putout shall be credited to the fielder whom the runner avoided.
Exception 5: When a runner is called out for passing another runner, the putout shall be credited to the fielder nearest the point of passing.
Exception 6: When a runner is called out for running the bases in reverse order, the putout shall be credited to the fielder covering the base left in starting the reverse run.
Exception 7: When a runner is called out for interfering with a fielder, the putout shall be credited to the fielder with whom the runner interfered, unless the fielder was in the act of throwing the ball when the interference occurred. In that case, the putout shall be credited to the fielder for whom the throw was intended; the fielder whose throw was interfered with shall be credited with an assist.
Exception 8: When a batter-runner is called out because of interference by a preceding runner, the putout shall be credited to the first baseman. If the interference occurred on the fielder who was in the act of throwing the ball, the fielder shall be credited with an assist. In no case can the fielder be credited with more than one assist on any one play.
Exception 9: See Note regarding appeal play in Section 13, Provision 1, Note.
SECTION 12: Assist 50 Baseball/Softball Provision 1: An assist is credited to a fielder when the fielder handles or effectively deflects the ball during action that is connected with a putout or the fielder handles the ball before an error that prevents what would have been a putout. If several fielders handle the ball, or one fielder handles it more than once during a play, only one assist is credited to each of such fielders.
Provision 2: Do not credit the pitcher with an assist on a strikeout or when after a pitch the catcher tags out or throws out a runner.
Note: A play that follows a misplay (whether or not it is an error) is a new play, and the fielder making any misplay shall not be credited with an assist unless the fielder takes part in the new play.
SECTION 13: Double play and triple play
Provision 1: A double play or triple play is credited to one or more fielders when two or three players are put out between the time a pitch is delivered and the time the ball next becomes dead or is next in possession of the pitcher in pitching position.
Exception: When an error or a misplay occurs between the time one player is put out and the time a second player is put out, a double play or triple play is not credited.
Note: Also credit a double play or triple play if an appeal play after the ball is in possession of the pitcher results in an additional putout.
SECTION 14: Errors
legs or a pop fly falls untouched and, in the scorer’s judgment, the fielder could have handled the ball with ordinary effort, an error should be charged.
Note 3: Mental mistakes or misjudgments are not to be scored as errors unless specifically covered in the rules.
Provision 2: An error shall be charged against any fielder when the fielder catches a thrown ball or a ground ball in time to put out any runner on a force play and fails to tag the base or the runner, including a batter-runner on a play at first base.
Provision 3: An error shall be charged against any fielder whose throw takes an unnatural bounce, touches a base or the pitcher’s rubber, or touches a runner, a fielder or an umpire, thereby permitting any runner to advance. Apply this rule even when it appears to be an injustice to a fielder whose throw was accurate. There must be an accounting of every base advanced by a runner.
Provision 4: Charge only one error on any wild throw, regardless of the number of bases advanced by runners.
Provision 5: An error shall be charged against any fielder whose failure to stop, or try to stop, an accurately thrown ball permits a runner to advance, providing there was occasion for the throw. If, in the scorer’s judgment, there was no occasion for the throw, an error shall be charged to the fielder who threw the ball.
Exception 1: A walk, a base awarded to a batter for being hit by a pitched ball, a balk, a passed ball or a wild pitch shall not be scored as an error.
Exception 2: No error is charged to the catcher for a wild throw in an attempt to prevent a stolen base unless the runner advances an extra base because of the wild throw.
Exception 3: No player is charged with an error for a poor throw in an attempt to complete a double play unless the throw is so wild that it permits a runner to advance an additional base(s).
However, if a player drops a thrown ball, when by holding it the player would have completed a double play, it is an error.
Exception 4: A fielder is not charged with an error for accurately throwing to a base whose baseman fails to stop or tries to stop 52 Baseball/Softball the ball, provided there was a good reason for the throw. If the runner advances on said throw, the error is charged to the fielder making the throw.
Exception 5: If a fielder drops a fly ball or fumbles a ground ball, but recovers the ball in time to force a runner, the fielder is not charged with an error.
Exception 6: No error shall be charged against any fielder who permits a foul fly to fall safely with a runner on third base and fewer than two outs if, in the judgment of the official scorer, the fielder deliberately allows the ball to fall in order to prevent the runner on third from scoring after a catch.
Note 1: An error shall be charged to a fielder who commits obstruction that entitles a batter or runner to advance one or more bases beyond the base the runner would have reached had the obstruction not occurred.
(See Note regarding scoring hit and error in Section 3 — Base hit.)
SECTION 15: Passed Ball
Provision 1: A passed ball is a pitch the catcher fails to stop or control when the catcher should have been able to do so with ordinary effort and on which a runner (other than the batter) is able to advance. When a passed ball occurs on a third strike, permitting a batter to reach first base, score a strikeout and a passed ball.
SECTION 16: Wild Pitch Provision 1: A pitcher shall be charged with a wild pitch when a legal pitch is such that a catcher cannot catch or control it with ordinary effort, so that the batter reaches first base or any runner advances one or more bases.
Note: Generally, a pitch that hits the ground before touching the catcher’s glove is scored a wild pitch.
SECTION 17: Earned RunBaseball/Softball 53
Provision 1: An earned run shall be charged against a pitcher when a runner scores due to a safe hit, sacrifice bunt, sacrifice fly, stolen base, putout, fielder’s choice, walk, hit batter, balk or wild pitch (even when the wild pitch is a third strike), provided that in each case it is before the defensive team has had an opportunity to make a third putout.
Note: In determining earned runs, the scorer shall reconstruct the inning as if there were no errors or passed balls. Give the pitcher the benefit of the doubt in determining the advancement of runners, had the defensive team been errorless.
Provision 2: No earned run shall be charged to a relief pitcher if the runner was on base when the relief pitcher entered the game.
Likewise, if a batter has more balls than strikes, unless the count is one ball, no strikes, when a relief pitcher enters the game and the batter receives a walk, charge that action to the preceding pitcher.
Any other action of the batter shall be charged to the relief pitcher.
Provision 3: No run shall be earned when scored by a runner whose time as a runner is prolonged by an error, if such runner would have been put out by errorless play.
Provision 4: An error by a pitcher is treated exactly the same as an error by any other fielder in computing earned runs.
Provision 5: When pitchers are changed during an inning, the relief pitcher shall not be charged with any run (earned or unearned) scored by a runner who reaches base on a fielder’s choice that puts out a runner left on base by a preceding pitcher.
Note: The intent of this rule is to charge each pitcher with the number of runners put on base, rather than with the individual runners.
Provision 6: When pitchers are changed during an inning, a relief pitcher shall not have the benefit of errors made earlier in the inning. Thus, the pitcher will be charged with earned runs for which the pitcher is responsible.
Provision 1: A strikeout is credited to the pitcher when a third strike is delivered to a batter, even if the third strike is a wild pitch or is not caught or the batter reaches first base. It also is a strikeout if an attempted bunt on a third strike is a foul that is not caught.
SECTION 19: Winning and Losing Pitchers Provision 1: The starting pitcher must pitch at least four innings to get credit for the win. Additionally, the winning pitcher’s team must be in the lead when the pitcher is replaced and must remain in the lead for the rest of the game. If a game ends, for whatever reason, having gone fewer than seven innings, then the starting pitcher must have pitched three or more consecutive innings to be declared the