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«ROBERT F. KANABY, Publisher Bruce L. Howard and John C. Gillis, Editors NFHS Publications © 1997, 2003 By the National Federation of State High ...»

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b) A FTA is charged if the only penalized violation is for the failure of the throw to touch the rim or if the shooter enters the lane too soon.

Provision 2: A FTM is credited to a player any time a FTA by that player results in the throw being counted or results in an awarded score of one point.

SECTION 3: Rebounds

–  –  –

SECTION 4: Turnovers Basketball 37 Provision 1: If a single player is judged to be primarily responsible for the turnover, that player is charged with the turnover. Only one player may be charged with a turnover on each play. If no single player can be judged to be primarily responsible, or if the responsibility rests with anyone not a player, then the “Team” is charged with the turnover.

Provision 2: “Team” turnovers primarily include: jump-ball violations, five-second violations, and 10-second violations.

Provision 3: The use of the term “entitled to” is to indicate that the team about to attempt to make either a throw-in or a free throw need not actually have the ball before it can be charged with a

turnover. A team is entitled to the ball as soon as the ball is dead:

a) after a field goal or free throw that is to be followed by either a throw-in or a free throw by that team, or

b) for any other reason, and the ball is to be awarded to that team for either a throw-in or a free throw.

CD 1: Player A commits a player-control foul before a fieldgoal attempt. Charge Player A with a turnover.

CD 2: Player A attempts a field goal and then runs into Player B and is charged with a foul. Since the shot was attempted before the foul, no turnover is assessed. Charge Player A with a FGA and Team B with a dead-ball rebound.

Provision 4: If it is not obvious that a team is entitled to the ball when it commits a violation or foul, do not charge that team with a turnover.

–  –  –

Provision 1: A steal is credited to a player when the player’s positive, aggressive action(s) causes a turnover by an opponent. In all instances, when Team A is credited with a steal, Team B is assessed

a turnover. This may be accomplished by:

a) taking the ball away from an opponent in control of the ball,

b) getting a hand on the ball in control of an opponent and causing a held ball to be called, and having the player’s team awarded the ball for a throw-in,

c) batting a ball in control of an opponent to a teammate,

d) batting a ball in control of an opponent or the opponent’s team away from and off the opponent and out of bounds,

e) intercepting an opponent’s pass,

f) deflecting an opponent’s pass to a teammate,

g) deflecting an opponent’s pass away from and off an opponent and out of bounds.

Exception: Taking a charge is NOT a steal.

SECTION 7: Blocked Shots

Provision 1: A blocked shot is credited to a player any time the player appreciably alters the flight of a FGA, and the shot is not made.

The shot clearly must have left the hand of the shooter and there must not be any goaltending. If there is doubt about whether the ball was in flight, the interpretation shall be that it was in flight.

NOTE: A blocked shot should be credited only when the shot clearly is in flight or the player is in the obvious act of shooting. If the ball is knocked loose before the player is in the act of shooting, it is a turnover for Team A and steal for Team B. A blocked shot is not credited if the player is fouled in the act of shooting.

–  –  –

SECTION 9: Balancing a Box Score Provision 1: A properly completed box score should balance. To make this determination, add the total number of individual, team and dead-ball rebounds for both teams.

A better balance can be achieved if rebounds are kept according to whether they are “offensive” or “defensive” rebounds. This must include both team and dead-ball rebounds. In this case, the sum of Team A’s offensive rebounds and Team B’s defensive rebounds must equal the total number of missed shots by Team A.

Also, the sum of Team B’s offensive rebounds and Team A’s defensive rebounds must equal the number of missed shots by Team B.

Neither check guarantees that there are no mistakes, but they do indicate that mistakes are unlikely.

If the box score does not balance and the mistake cannot be

found, the following suggestions may help:

a) Check the dead-ball rebounds. Look at the number of two-shot fouls where the first FTA was missed.

b) Check the team rebounds. Think about whether either team was awarded the ball for a throw-in when the ball went out of bounds after a shot.

c) If there was a feeling during the game that an individual should have been credited with another rebound, see if that will help.

d) Go back and decide whether another dead-ball rebound should be added.

e) If the feeling is that the error is in the individual or team rebounds, but there is no idea about which one or about which 40 Basketball player, consider adjusting the team rebounds.

These suggestions also can be used if there are too many rebounds. Strive for perfection, but when there are mistakes, adjust them in a sensible manner. Do not merely “plug” rebounds.

Regulation game: Seven innings (turns at bat) for each team unless shortened according to regulations of the state association or unless extra innings are necessary to break a tie score.

Batters: Players of the team at bat are designated as B1, B2, B3, etc.

with B1 being the first batter, B2 being the second batter, etc.

Substitutes: Designated as S1, S2, S3, etc., in the same way as batters.

Runners: Designated as R1, R2, R3, etc., in the same way as batters.

Batter-runner: A player who has finished a time at bat until put out or


SOFTBALL42 Baseball/Softball


until playing action ends.

Substitute: A player who is eligible to replace another player already in the lineup.

Pinch runner: A runner placed in the game to run for the batter who last became a batter-runner in the inning.

Fielders: Designated as F1, F2, F3, etc., using the following guide:

Pitcher (1), Catcher (2), First Base (3), Second Base (4), Third Base (5), Shortstop (6), Left fielder (7), Center fielder (8), Right fielder (9) and Designated hitter (10).

Starting pitcher: The player who started the game in the pitcher position.

Relief pitcher: A player who replaces a pitcher during the game.

Pitcher of record: The pitcher who is in the game at the time the winning team gains the lead, provided the lead never is relinquished, or the one who is charged with the runs by which the opposing team takes the lead, provided the lead never is relinquished. The starting pitcher is not the pitcher of record unless he pitches at least four innings. (See Exception in Section 19 — Winning and Losing Pitchers.) Bunt: A fair ball in which the batter does not swing to hit the ball but holds the bat in the path of the ball to tap it slowly to the infield.

Ball: A pitch which is not touched by the bat and is not a strike.

Walk: A base on balls is an award of first base if a batter receives four such balls. The batter must immediately go to first base before “time” can be called.

Foul ball: A batted ball that:

a) settles on foul territory between home and first base, or between home and third base,

b) bounds past first or third base on or over foul territory,

c) first falls on foul territory beyond first or third base,

d) while on or over foul territory, touches the person of an umpire or a player or any object foreign to the natural ground.

Foul tip: A batted ball that goes directly to the catcher’s hands. It shall Baseball/Softball 43 be called a strike, and the ball is in play.

Balk: An illegal act committed by the pitcher with a runner(s) on base which entitles each runner to advance one base.

Fielder’s choice: The act of a fielder with a live ball, who elects to throw for an attempted putout or to retire unassisted any runner or batter-runner, thus permitting the advance of another runner(s).

Scorers use the term in the following ways:

a) to indicate the advance of the batter-runner who takes one or more bases when the fielder who handles the batted ball plays on a preceding runner,

b) to indicate the advance of a runner (other than by stolen base or error) while a fielder is trying to put out another runner,

c) to indicate the advance of a runner due to the defensive team’s refusal to play on the runner (an undefended steal).

Illegal pitch: A violation of the pitching rule.

Infield fly: A fair fly (not including a line drive or an attempted bunt) which can be caught by an infielder with ordinary effort (rule does not preclude outfielders from being allowed to make the catch) and provided the hit is made before two are out and at a time when first and second bases or all bases are occupied. When it seems apparent that a batted ball will be an infield fly, the umpire immediately announces it for the benefit of the runners.

Stolen base: An advance of a runner to the next base without the aid of a base hit, a putout or a fielding (including battery) error.

Double steal: Two runners advancing on a stolen base play.

Triple steal: Three runners advancing on a stolen base play.

SECTION 1: Time at Bat Provision 1: An official time at bat is charged to a player whenever the player completes a turn at bat, unless the player has been awarded first base or has been credited with a sacrifice.

SECTION 2: Batting out of Turn

–  –  –



batter is called out before the ball is pitched to the next batter, charge the proper batter with a time at bat and score the putout and any assists the same as if the correct batting order had been followed.

Provision 2: If an improper batter becomes a runner and the proper batter is called out for having missed a turn at bat, charge the proper batter with a time at bat. Credit the putout to the catcher and ignore everything entering into the improper batter’s safe arrival on base.

Provision 3: If more than one batter bats out of turn in succession, score all plays just as they occur, skipping the turn at bat of the player or players who first missed batting in the proper order.

SECTION 3: Base Hit

Provision 1: A base hit is credited to a batter when the batter advances

to first base safely:

a) due to the batter’s fair hit (rather than a fielder’s error),

b) due to a runner being declared out for being hit by a batted ball or the umpire being hit by a batted ball,

c) when a fielder attempts to put out a preceding runner but is unsuccessful although there is no fielding error, and the official scorer believes the batter-runner would have reached first base with perfect fielding,

d) when a batter reaches first base safely on a fair ball hit with such force, or so slowly, that any fielder attempting to make a play has no opportunity to do so. A hit shall be scored even if the fielder deflects the ball from or cuts off another fielder who could have put out a runner,

e) when a fair ball that has not been touched by a fielder touches a runner or an umpire,

f) when a batter reaches first base safely on a fair ball that takes an unnatural bounce so that a fielder cannot handle it with ordiBaseball/Softball 45 nary effort, or that touches the pitcher’s rubber or any base (including home plate) before being touched by a fielder and bounces so that a fielder cannot handle it with ordinary effort.

NOTE: In scoring between a hit and error, keep in mind the following. If, in the opinion of the scorer, an ordinary effort by the defensive player would have resulted in the batter being retired, an error should be credited instead of a hit. Likewise, if a defensive player uses extraordinary effort to retrieve a ball and in doing so, bobbles or throws errantly to allow the batter to reach safely, no error should be charged. A resulting errant throw that allows the batter or any other runner to advance an extra base should be recorded as an error.

SECTION 4: Extra-Base Hit

Provision 1: A base hit for extra bases is credited to the batter when it is the sole reason for the batter’s safe arrival at a base beyond first.

Any fair batted ball that clears in flight an outfield fence in fair territory, even though it may be deflected by a fielder, is a home run.

Provision 2: When, with one or more runners on base, the batter advances more than one base on a safe hit, and the defensive team makes an attempt to put out a preceding runner, the scorer shall determine whether the batter made a legitimate two-base hit or three-base hit, or whether the batter advanced beyond first base on the fielder’s choice.

Provision 3: If a batter overruns second or third base and is tagged out trying to return, the batter shall be credited with the last base touched.

Exception: If put out while oversliding second or third base, the batter is not credited with reaching such base.

SECTION 5: Game-Ending Hit

–  –  –

SECTION 6: Runs-Batted-In Provision 1: A run-batted-in is credited to the batter when a runner

scores due to:

a) a base hit (including batter scoring on a home run),

b) a sacrifice bunt or sacrifice fly,

c) any putout, Exception: It is not a run-batted-in if there is a double play from a force or one in which the batter is or should have been put out at first base.

d) a forced advance, such as a base on balls or batter being hit by a pitch, or an error, provided there are fewer than two outs and the action is such that the runner on third base would have scored even if there had been no error.

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