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«SpiritedAway: Film of the Fantastic and Evolving Japanese Folk Symbols Noriko T. Reider Released in 2001, Miyazaki Hayao'sI (1941 - ) animated film ...»

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1 Translation found in http://www.nausicaa.net/miyazaki/sen/ proposal.html. The original text is found in Sait6, 74.

6In "Suzume no Oyado," a sparrow that a kind grandpa has cared for disappears after his wicked wife cut its tongue. With much trouble and hardship, the grandpa finds the sparrow's house. There he is entertained with good food and dances. The sparrow gives him a souvenir, which turns out to be great treasures. His wife follows his suit and visits the sparrows' house, too. Disregarding the sparrows' entertainment, she picks a large souvenir, which turns out to be full of snakes, bugs, and monsters. "Nezumi no Goten," popularly known as "Nezumi jado" (The Mice Paradise) or "Omusubi kororin" (The Rolling Rice-ball) is a similar story to "Suzume no Oyado." One day a grandpa goes to the mountains to cut wood. When he eats his lunch, one of his rice-balls (or dumplings) falls and rolls into a hole in the ground. The grandpa tried to reach it, but the earth gives way and he tumbles down the hole, too. Following the rice-ball, he reaches the mice's mansion. There he 'is entertained with good food and songs. As an appreciation of the grandpa's rice-ball, the mice give him treasures. A neighboring wicked old man hears the grandpa's story and attempts to do the same thing as the grandpa did. But the neighbor makes a mistake in the process, and instead of getting treasures, he is punished by the mice.

7For examples of Kamikakushi from Yanagita Kunio's T6no monogatari in English, see Sadler 1987, 217-226. Komatsu Kazuhiko notes that many stories and legends of Kamikakushi are handed down in various regions of Japan and that the typical example of its story is Shuten d6ji.

Komatsu 1991, 62.

8The translation is taken from http://www.nausicaa.net/miyazakiinterviews/sen.html.

9Quoted in Yu, 104.

"10As Oshima Takehiko writes, there are many legends and sites that tell the stories of yamauba giving birth to a child (children) and raising him (them). See Oshima 1979, 51.

"The Great Mother who encompasses both the light and dark sides can be seen in many mytho-religious figures such as the Egyptian mother Goddess, Isis, and the Hindu's Kali. Franz 1974, 195.

12 See Kawai's The JapanesePsyche, particularly chapters 2 and 3.

BRegarding the birth of Kintar6 and his changing images, see Torii 2002.

11 The most famous ukiyo-e artist of yamauba is Kitagawa Utamaro (1753-1806), who produced about forty works on the theme of "Yamauba and Kintar6." Shimizu 1990,231. For the Utamaro's prints, see Shimizu 1990.

15 For the Rosetsu's paintings, see Rosetsu 2000.

16 One of the works which influenced Miyazaki in creating the film is Kashiwaba Sachiko's Kiri no muk5 nofushiginamachi (A Mysterious Town beyond the Mist). Aunt Picot, a major character of Kiri no muk5 no fushigina machi, is an elderly owner of an apartment-house. Her motto is "those who don't work should not eat," and like Yubaba, she appreciates and rewards a good worker.

"According to Komatsu Kazuhiko, an anthropologist, the term "the other world" can be understood from two levels: one is to look at the world from temporary point of view - time axis - and the other is spatial viewpoint - space axis. The temporary view considers the world of time from birth to death as "this world," and the time prior to birth and after death as "the other world." From spatial viewpoint, the space where everyday life exists is regarded as "this world" and the space outside of everyday life - meta-everyday life realm - is regarded as "the other world."... heaven, ocean, river, underground, and strange land are understood as "the other world" from spatial point of view.

The "skatial other world" cannot visit easily, but unlike the "temporary other world," if the conditions are met, one can go without undergoing death. Komatsu 1991, 57-58.

"11Sugii Gisabur6, an animation director, writes, "I wonder whether a spider is Kamaji's model. Miyazaki likes (a creature with) many hands."

Uekusa, 51.

" Tsuda S6kichi, an eminent scholar of Asian history, notes that the term tsuchigumo is applied to an individual, not to a group. Tsuda 1963, 188.

20 For English translation, see Philippi 1969, 174-75. Also see Nihongi (Ancient Matters, 720). Sakamoto, et. al.1967, 210. Its English translation is found in Aston 1956, 129-130.

21 For example, one tsuchigumo named Ormimi in the district of Matsuura of Hizen Province promised to give food to the emperor a tribute (Uegaki 335-336), another tsuchigumo called Utsuhiomaro in Sonoki district of the same province even saved an imperial ship (Uegagi 345).

22 The Noh text of Tsuchigumo is based on the tsuchigumo narrative of Nihongi (the section quoted earlier in this paper), that of Yashiroversion of Heike monogatari (the Tale of Heike, the 1 4 1h century), and the picture scroll entitled Tsuchigumo sishi (Story of Tsuchigumo, early 14th century).

23 This is similar to Ged leaving his Master Wizard at Gont Island to enter the Wizard School at Roke to learn magic faster. See Le Guin1968, p. 36.

24See Kurano, 161, Philippi, 177, Kojima, et al., 227 and Aston, 128.

25 For the English translation, see Takahashi 2003, 91.

–  –  –

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Franz, Marie-Louise von. Shadow andEvil in FairTales. Zurich: Spring Publications, 1974.

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University of Chicago Press, 1968.

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Kodansha, 2003.

Kawai Hayao. The Japanese Psyche. Connecticut: Spring Publications, 1996.

KojimaNoriyuki, Naoki K6jirb, NishimiyaKazutani, Kuranaka Susumu and Mbri Masanori, eds. Nihonshoki. Vol. 2 of ShinpenNihon koten bungaku zenshu. Tokyow: Shogakukan, 1994.

Komatsu Kazuhiko. Kamikakushi to nihonjin. Tokyo: Kadokawa Shoten, 2002.

• Shinpen Oni no tamatebako. Tokyo: Fukutake shoten, 1991.

Kurano Kenji and TakedaYukichi, eds. Kojiki, Norito. Vol. 1 of Nihon koten bungaku taikei. Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten, 1958.

Le Guin, Ursula K. A Wizard ofEarthýea. New York: Atheneum Books for Young Readers, 1968.

The Tombs ofAtuan. New York: Simon Pulse, 1971.

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Miyazaki Hayao. SpiritedAway. DVD. Walt Disney Home Video, 2003.

Moes, Robert. Rosetsu. Denver Museum of Art, 1973.

Nagasawa Rosetsu. Exhibition Nasawa Rosetsu: The 20"' Anniversary of his Death. Tokyo: Nihon Keizai Shinbunsha, 2000.

Nakane Chie. Japanese Society. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1970.

Napier, Susan. The Fantasticin Modem JapaneseLiterature:the subversion of modernity. Routledge: London and NY, 1996.

Oshima Takehiko. "Yamauba to Kintar6." In Tenmei bungaku. Hamada Giichir6, ed. Tokyo: Tokyodo Shuppan, 1979.

Philippi, Donald D. tr., Kojiki. Princeton University Press, 1969.

Sadler, A. W. "The Spirit-Captives of Japan's North Country: Nineteenth Century Narratives of the Kamikakushi." Asian Folklore Studies 46 (1987): 217-226.

Sait6 Ry6ichi, et al., ed. Roman Arubamu: Sen to Chihiro no kamikakushi. Tokyo: Tokuma Shoten, 2001.

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