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«Amazay Lake Photo by Patrice Halley Draft Submission to the Kemess North Joint Review Panel May, 2007 Report Prepared By: Loraine Littlefield Linda ...»

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The dates for the archaeological sites for the area are also important. One stone flake from HgSq-6 is estimated to be several thousand years old, due to its patination. Both sites HgSq-1 and HgSq-2 predate 3500 years BP. HfSq-1 is estimated to be between 200 and 3500 years BP. HgSq-3, a hearth site on northern shore of Amazay Lake, is 1350 +/_ 70 years BP. HgSq-13, recorded by Craig at the south end of Amazay Lake provided two dates, 910 +/- 40 and 760 +/- 40 years BP. Tree core samples from culturally modified trees at the north end of Amazay Lake provide dates from the mid 19th century. These few sites offer dates that suggest a long history of use of Amazay Lake from before 1550 BC to 1850 AD. Other sites that are post 1846, and thus not deemed to be archaeological, as well as traditional use research reveal use to the present day.

Another concern with the 2004 AIA is its assignment of site value. In addition to concerns about assigning “cultural significance”, there also seems to be discrepancy in the assignment of overall significance. In 1993, Antiquus rated small lithic scatter sites as having medium significance, noting that the lack of prehistory in the region makes these sites important (Yellowhorn 1993:26). According to the report, these sites are of significant antiquity (up to 3500 years for one and greater than 3500 years for the other) (Yellowhorn 1993:19, 23). Later, in 2004, for similar sites, and one can only assume, with similar antiquity, the sites are given a low significance rating. Between 1993 and 2004, only eight sites were recorded in the area, so there was not a lot of information added to our knowledge of prehistory. Why then the change in significance rating?

Finally, it is important to consider the burial sites around Amazay Lake. In the summer of 2006, Traces recorded “one depression feature believed to represent a burial” (Craig 2006:10). Traces suggest that this could “be the final resting place of Duncan Pierre who is reported to have been buried at the… end of Amazay Lake” (Craig 2006:10). There are also numerous references in the traditional use interviews to burials around Amazay Lake. These burials are important to Tse Keh Nay people and must be protected.

After review of all the available archaeological data, reports and information, it seems that there is more to protect around Amazay Lake than suggested by Antiquus and the Provincial Archaeology Branch. These places are an expression of Tse Keh Nay connection to ancestors, culture, history and lands.

References Craig, Frank 2006 Archaeological Inventory Survey Summary. Unpublished Preliminary Report.

Permit No. 2006-294.

Environmental Assessment Panel Hearing Transcript 2006 Transcript from the EA Panel Hearing, Oct. 30, 2006 in Prince George, B.C.

Evaschuk, Dana 2006 Archaeological Preliminary Field Reconnaissance. Unpublished Report held by the Takla Lake First Nation.

Harris, Yvonne Dorothy 1984 Choices of Change: A Study of the Fort Ware Indian Band and Implications of Land Settlement for Northern Indian Bands. M. A. thesis, University of British Columbia Pike, James 2006 Letter from James Pike to Ray Crook, Co-Manager, Kemess North Mine Panel, dated June 22, 2006.

Rousseau, Mike K., Ian Franck and Jeff Bailey 1993 An Archaeological Impact Assessment for the Kemess South Copper-Gold Project, North-Centreal B.C. Report on file APA, Permit No. 1992-107.

Simonsen, Bjorn 2006 Personal Communication.

Tsay Keh Dene (TKD) 2002 Tsay Keh Dene Traditional Use Study: Understanding the Land and People, Final Report, Prepared for the British Columbia Ministry of Sustainable Resource Management, Prepared by the Tsay Keh Dene and D.M. Cultural Services Ltd.

Will, Mike, Lisa Seip and Mike K. Rousseau 2004 An Archaeological Impact Assessment for Kemess North Mine Expansion, North Central B.C. Report on file APA, Permit No. 2003-341.

Yellowhorn, Eldon and Mike K. Rousseau 1997 An Archaeological Impact Assessment for Kemess Mines Inc.’s Kemess South Mine Facilities and Related Ancillary Developments in North-Central B.C.

Report on file APA, Permit No. 1996-139.


The place name map included with this submission identifies the names of prominent land features in the Thutade watershed. Although much more work is required to fully record place names, the names that are recorded attest to the long history the Tse Keh Nay have with this region.

The place names recorded here were gathered from various sources including previous studies conducted by the Tse Keh Nay and the current study for this submission. The map provided with this submission is a draft and further research is required. This map is confidential and is for the EA Panel use and information only. It is not to be become part of the Public Registry for Kemess North Gold-Copper Mine.

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Through this trail network, the Sekani kept in close contact with one another and were able to establish trade relations with their neighbours. For example, they acquired iron and dentalium shell from the Babines, Gitksan and Carriers, and salmon from the

Nahanees. Jenness described some of these trade routes:

Westward there was a route from McLeod lake via Carp lake to Fort St.

James on Stuart lake…; one up Nation river to Nation and Takla lakes;

one up Manson river to Manson creek, thence south to Stuart lake or west to Takla lake; one from Fort Graham up the Mesilinka to Bear Lake; one via Ingenika river and another by the Finlay itself to Thutade and Tatlatui lakes, whence there were trails across the divide to the headwaters of Stikine and Skeena rivers. (1937:2-3) This appendix provides some brief information about trails in Tsay Keh Nay territory. For further information, refer to the main body of this submission.

During research for this study, Tse Keh Nay advisors explained that it is not possible to use the presence of blazes to distinguish an animal trail from a human trail because not all Tse Keh Nay trails were blazed.

There was no need. This transportation network was well known by the people who had traveled them since infancy. It was also noted that it was usual for animals and humans to use the same trail. This is common sense as the trails, created either by human or animal use, would be attractive for any foot traveler.

Thus, the trails became used, and consequently kept open, by both humans and animals.

Knowledge of these trails is alive and well among the Tsay Keh Nay today. Many people have intimate knowledge of them, where they go, how they connect and the resources available along them. Many trails were recorded during research for this submission. At times, the advisor was given the pencil and soon, trail after trail appeared and became connected to other trails on the map. It became obvious that there were main routes that connected the discrete geographic ranges of the Sasuchan, Tseloni, Yutuwichan and Tsekani, the four groups that made up the Tsay Keh Nay in the 18th century. It became obvious that these trails led through the Thutade region.

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The map provided with this submission is a draft and further research is required.

This map is confidential and is for the EA Panel use and information only. It is not to be become part of the Public Registry for Kemess North Gold-Copper Mine.

References Jenness, Diamond 1937 The Sekani Indians of British Columbia. National Museum of Canada Bulletin No. 84. King’s Printer, Ottawa.

Rich, E.E.

1947 Part of Dispatch from George Simpson Esq’r, Governor of Rupert’s Land, to the Governor& Committee of the Hudson’s Bay Company London, Toronto: The Champlain Society.


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Ph.D. Anthropology 1995 University of British Columbia M.A. Anthropology 1987 Carleton University, Ottawa B.A.

Honours 1981 Carleton University, Ottawa


Ph.D. thesis: Gender, Class and Community: The Employment History of Sne-nay-muxw Women M.A. thesis: The Role of Women in the Northwest Coast Fur Trade B.A. thesis: Metis and Non-Status Indian Land Claims


Melville Jacobs Research Grant 1991 Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada, 1988-1989, 1989-1990, 1990-1991 M.A. Thesis Pass with Distinction, 1987 Carleton University Fellowship, 1982 John B. McDonald Bursary, 1976 Langara College, Vancouver Community College Honour Roll, 1976


2003 Beryl Cryer and the stories she collected, Shale: Journal of the Gabriola Historical and Museum Society, no 6, April.

2001 Coast Salish Placenames on Gabriola, Shale: Journal of the Gabriola Historical and Museum Society, no 2, March.

2000 The Snuneymuxw Village at False Narrows, Shale: Journal of the Gabriola Historical and Museum Society, Vol 1, no l, November.

1989 Book Review: Resistance and Renewal: Surviving the Indian Residential School, by Celia Haig-Brown. B.C. Library, Summer 1988 Book Review: The Adventures & Sufferings of John R. Jewitt, by Hilary Stewart. B.C.

Studies No.79 Autumn, pp.83-4.

1987 Women Traders in the Maritime Fur Trade, in Native People, Native Lands: Canadian Indians, Inuit and Metis, Bruce Aldine Cox (ed), Ottawa: Carleton University Press (reprinted in Canadian Women: A Reader, ed. Wendy Mitchinson et al. Harcourt Brace & Company, Canada, 1996)


Canadian Anthropology Society/Societe Canadienne d'Anthropologie Society for Applied Anthropology American Society of Ethnohistory


Presentations A Gathering of Documents: Observations in First Nations’ Research. Archives Association of British Columbia, Annual Conference, Nanaimo, 2003.

Women’s Voices in “Indian Legends of Vancouver Island”, American Historical Association, Pacific Coast Branch, University of British Columbia, August 2001 Methodological Dilemma Proving Aboriginal Rights for an Urban Community. The Society for Applied Anthropology Conference, Seattle, March 1997.

Implications of Information Sharing Policies and Government Funding Criteria for Traditional Use Studies. Stolo Nation Traditional Use Workshop, Chilliwack, December 1996.

Employment History of Women in a Coast Salish Community. Northwest Anthropological Conference, Simon Fraser University, April 1992 Images of Northwest Coast Native Women in the Historical Literature of the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries. B.C. Studies Conference, University of British Columbia, November 1990 Native Women and Wage Labour in British Columbia in the 19th Century. Pacific Northwest Labour Conference, Learned Societies Conference, Victoria June 1990 Chaired Gender, Space and History in the 19th and 20th Century Indigenous Northwest, Fifth Women’s West Conference, Washington State University, Puyallup. 2000 Organized on behalf of Snuneymuxw First Nation British Columbia Archaeology Conference, Nanaimo, 2002, Co-chaired with Malaspina University College.

Hulquminum Language Conference, Nanaimo, Spring 2001, funded by First Peoples’ Cultural Foundation Hulquminum Language Conference, Nanaimo, Fall 2000, funded by First Peoples’ Cultural Foundation


First Nations People and their Contact History on Vancouver Island, History Lecture, Malaspina University College, November 2003 An Introduction to the History of First Nations Women Lecture for Capilano College Women’s Studies Department, part of the Hon. Thomas A. Dohm, Q.C. lecture series, March 2003 First Nations History on Vancouver Island, History Lecture, Malaspina University College, 2002 BC Treaty Process, History Lecture, Malaspina University College, 2001 Women’s Role in the Fur Trade on the Northwest Coast, First Nations Studies, Malaspina University College 1997 Women Traders in the Fur Trade, Stolo Cultural Centre, 1996


1995-2006 Numerous Research Studies and Surveys related to Treaty Negotiations 1997-1999 Snuneymuxw First Nation Traditional Use Study 2000 False Narrows: Report for the Historic Sites and Monument Board 2000-2006 Specific Claims Historical Research and Reports for Snuneymuxw Douglas Treaty Claims, (10 Claims)


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Telephone: (250) 390-1202 Cell: (250) 619-6017 Email: lindadorricott@shaw.ca ________________________________________________________________________


I have worked on behalf of aboriginal people in British Columbia since 1983 providing services in ethno-historical and legal research and treaty management. I have a comprehensive knowledge of the aboriginal history of British Columbia, the establishment of the reserve system, aboriginal resource rights and use as well as a good working knowledge of provincial and federal legislation that directly affects aboriginal lives in British Columbia.


B.A., Anthropology, University of British Columbia 1977


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Services Provided

• The preparation of studies and reports to support First Nations claims within the British Columbia Treaty Process, for Specific Claims and litigation and for educational purposes, including: specific claims research, analysis of aboriginal, legal and reserve rights, ethno-historical reports, and traditional land use studies.

• Assessment of research needs, coordination and direction of projects, development of proposals and training Manager, Technical Support October 2000 – December 2005 Hamatla Treaty Society Cape Mudge, Campbell River, Comox and Kwiakah First Nations

• Management and coordination of resource team and committees (Lands, Forestry, Fisheries, Culture, Governance, and Environment) including: support in the development of interest statements, negotiation mandates and consultation processes

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