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[The dream and the myth have found for them the language of symbolism.] The opposition of a fellow man against the working out of an impulse arouses a tendency to overcome this man, to get him out of the way, to kill him. The type of the obstructing man is always the instructor (father, eventually mother). That he is at the same time a doer of good is less appreciated because the psychical apparatus takes the satisfaction of desires as the natural thing, which does not excite its energy nearly as much as does a hindrance to its satisfaction. [Recognition of a good deed, thankfulness, etc., regularly presuppose sublimation; they do not belong to the titanic aspect. A form of appreciation of this kindness however comes to mind. Towards the mother there occurs on the part of the child, though it has been completely overlooked for a long time, very early and gradually increasing, a sexually-toned feeling, although the manifestations of this feeling are very dim and at times may completely disappear. In this [261] “love” is contained a germ of desire, of erotic appropriation-toself. Any woman in the environment and especially the mother 200 Hidden Symbolism of Alchemy and the Occult Arts must needs supply the ideal of the desired woman. In so far as the father is perceived as an obstacle to the love towards the mother he must, in the elementary tendency, be killed to remove the obstacle, and there arises the murder impulse belonging to the Œdipus Complex. [The child has no clear idea of death. It is only a matter of wishing to have some one out of the way. If this primal motive appears to us subsequently as a “killing,” it is again only because of the error of superposition, just as in the later mentioned “rape.”] In so far as the mother herself does not meet the desired tenderness or in refusing, acts as a corrective agent, while carrying on the education, she, too, becomes an obstacle, a personality contrasting with the “dear” mother, a contrast which plunges the psyche in anxiety and bitterness. Anxiety comes principally from the conflict of psychical tendencies, which result from the same person being both loved and hated. The correlative to the denying action of the mother is to commit rape on her. Another cause of the attraction towards the mother besides the erotically toned one, is the desire for her care, called forth by the hardships encountered elsewhere in the world. It is an indolence opposed to the duties of life. The propensity towards ease is psychologically a very important factor. The home is in general the place of protection; the characteristic embodiment of this is preëminently the mother. We speak of [262] maternal solicitude but less of paternal solicitude. I have noted the solicitous mother type in the story of the three feathers, where the mother toad bestows the gifts from the big box. In so far as the solicitous person refuses the requests made of her and for reasons of necessity thrusts the child out into the world, or in so far as any other obstacles (demands of life) stand in the way of the gratification of the lazy, “feed me” state of mind, like the angel with the flaming sword before the entrance to paradise, so far the obstructing power appears as the type of the “terrible” mother, a picture whose terribleness is yet intensified by the working of the incest conflict. In this aspect therefore the otherwise beloved A. Introversion And Intro-Determination. 201 mother is a hostile personality.

To the process of education on the part of the parents, felt as pedantry by the child, or to otherwise misunderstood action, he opposes a well known defiance, and there results, as also from the attempt to change in general the rough path of life, the hopeful attempt to get a creative “improvement,” which I have already discussed. The wish to die sometimes occurs. Further the obstacles that stand in the way of the full erotic life in the external world, in so far as they are insuperable or are not overcome on account of laziness, lead to autoerotism. (That this is found even in early childhood is for the mechanism of the impulses, a sideissue. The scheme just given is not to be regarded as a historical or chronological development, but the tendencies are quite as [263] intimately connected with each other as with the acquisition of the psychical restraints that are not generally brought to view; in separating them we commit something like an error.) We have considered the following main forces: 1. Removal of obstacles. 2. Desire for the solicitude of the parents. 3.

Desire for the pleasurable [especially of the woman]. 4. Autoerotism. 5-6. Improvement and re-creation. 7. Death wish. The following scheme shows the retrograde (titanic) as well as the anagogic aspect of these powers, which later corresponds to an intro-determination of the types, and a species of sublimation of impulses.

–  –  –

We need not scent anything extraordinary behind these introdeterminations, as the scheme is here indeed only roughly sketched; they take place in each and every one of us, otherwise we should be mere beasts. Only they do not in every one of us rise to the intensity of the mystical life.

[264] A more careful inquiry into the mechanism of the psychic powers in the development of mysticism, would show in greater detail how everything that happens is utilized toward introdetermination in the process of education. It would be interesting as an example to discover the application of the special senses to introversion and ascertain the fate of the sense qualities. It is quite remarkable what a prominent rôle tastes and smells often play in descriptions given by persons who have followed the path of mysticism. I mention the odor of sanctity and its opposite in the devilish, evil odor. The experimenter in magic Staudenmaier, who will be mentioned later, has established in his own case the coördination of his partial souls (personifications, autonomous complexes) to definite bodily functions and to definite organs.

Certain evil, partial souls, which appear to him in hallucinations as diabolical goat faces, were connected with the function of certain parts of the lower intestine.

Mysticism stimulates a much more powerful sublimation of impulses than the conventional education of men. So it is not strange if intro-determination does not accomplish its desires quickly but remains fragmentary. In such unfortunate or fragmentary cases, the inward-determined powers show more than mere traces of their less refined past. The heroes of such miscarried mysticism appear as rather extraordinary saints. So, for instance, Count von Zinzendorf's warm love of the Savior has Explained later.

A. Introversion And Intro-Determination. 203 so much of the sensual flavor, with furthermore such decided [265] perversities, that the outpourings of his rapture are positively laughable. Thus the pious man indulges his phantasy with a marked predilection for voluptuousness in the “Seitenhölchen” (Wound in the Side) in Jesus' body and with an unmistakable identification of this “cleft” with the vulva.

Examples of the poetical creations of Zinzendorf and his

faithful followers are given:

So ever-sideways-squinting So side-homesickness-feeling;

So lambs-hearts-grave-through crawling, So lambs-sweat-trace-smelling.

So Jesus sweat-drop-yielding, With love's fever trembling Like the child full of spirit.

So corpse-air-imbibing, So wound-wet-emitting, So grave-fume-sniffing.

So martyr-lamb's heart-like, So Jesus-boy-like, So Mary Magdalene-like being, Childlike, virgin-like, conjugal Will the lamb keep us Close to the kiss of his clefts.

204 Hidden Symbolism of Alchemy and the Occult Arts

–  –  –

On this curiosity compare the psychological explanations of Pfister. (Frommigkeit G. Ludw. v. Zinzendorf.) Returning to the previously mentioned “spiritual powers” I should mention that alchemy also attempts to include in a short schema the inventory of powers available for the Great Work.

It uses different symbols for this purpose; one of the most frequent is the seven metals or planets. Whether I say with the astrologers that the soul (not the celestial spirit, which is derived from God) flowing in from the seven planets upon man, is therefore composed of their seven influences, or if with the alchemists I speak of the seven metals, which come together in the microcosm, it is of course quite the same, but expressed in another closely related symbol. The metals are, as we know, incomplete and have to be “improved” or “made complete.” [267] That means we must sublimate our impulses.

A. Introversion And Intro-Determination. 205 “From the highest to the lowest everything rises by intermediate steps on the infinite ladder, in such manner that those pictures and images, as outgrowths of the divine mind, through subordinate divinities and demigods impart their gifts and emanations to men. The highest of these are: Spirit of inquiry, power of ruling and mastering self, a brave heart, clearness of perception, ardent affection, acuteness in the art of exposition, and fruitful creative power. The efficient forces of all these God has above all and originally in himself. From him they have received the seven spirits and divinities, which move and rule the seven planets, and are called angels, so that each has received his own, distinct from the rest. They share them again among the seven orders of demons subordinated to them, one under each.

And these finally transmit them to men.” (Adamah Booz. Sieb.

Grunds., p. 9 ff.) In this enumeration the fundamental powers, whose partition varies exceedingly, already show a certain measure of introdetermination. If we wish to contrast their titanic with their anagogic aspect, we get approximately the following scheme, to which I add the familiar astrological characters of the seven planets.

–  –  –

[Freud is of the opinion that the original inquisitiveness about the sexual secret is abnormally transformed into morbid over subtlety; and yet can still furnish an impulsive power for legitimate thirst for knowledge.] Beside the partition of the fundamental powers according to the favorite number seven, there are to be sure in alchemy still other schemata with other symbols. We must furthermore continually keep in mind that the symbols in alchemy are used in many senses.

In so far as the Constellations, as is often to be understood in the hermetic art, are fundamental psychic powers, it sounds just like psychoanalysis when Paracelsus expresses the view that in sleep the “sidereal” body is in unobstructed operation, soars up to its fathers and has converse with the stars.

With regard to intro-determination I must refer to my observations in the following sections on the extension of personality. It is an important fact that those external obstructions which oppose the unrestrained unfolding of the titanic impulses are gradually taken up as constraints into the psyche, which adopts those external laws, that would make life practicable.

In so far as deep conflicts do not hinder it, there arises by the operation of these laws a corresponding influence upon the propensities. Habit, however, can learn to carry a heavy yoke [269] with love, even to make it the condition of life. I have just made the restriction: if conflicts do not hinder it; now usually these exist, even for the mystics; and the “Work” is above all directed toward their overcoming. For the annihilation of the opposition, the weapons aimed outward in the “titanic” phase must be turned inward; there and not outside of us is the conflict. [Here we see the actual intro-determination briefly mentioned above.] B. Effects Of Introversion. 207

B. Effects Of Introversion.

Introversion is no child's play. It leads to abysses, by which we may be swallowed up past recall. Whoever submits to introversion arrives at a point where two ways part; and there he must come to a decision, than which a more difficult one cannot be conceived. The symbol of the abyss, of the parting of the ways, both were clearly contained in our parable. The occurrence of the similar motive in myths and fairy tales is familiar. The danger is obvious in that the hero generally makes an apparently quite trivial mistake and then must make extraordinary efforts to save himself from the effects of these few trivial errors. One more wrong step and all would have been lost.

Introversion accordingly presents two possibilities, either to gain what the mystic work seeks, or to lose oneself.

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