«FICHA TÉCNICA Título Segurança e Higiene Ocupacionais - SHO 2012 - Livro de Resumos Autores/Editores Arezes, P., Baptista, J.S., Barroso, M.P., ...»
correlations between the defined profiles and the risk ergonomic factors identified in each CAFCP were studied. Results common areas where professionals and clients interact show that in CAFCP01 restrictiveness and Lightning quality’ evaluations were significantly affected respectively by gender and clients’ age. In CAFCP02 noise and thermal evaluations were significantly affected by age. Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to follow up these findings. However, a deeper study showed that older clients’are more susceptible to these identified critical ergonomic factors. Considering the fact that in CAFCP02 clients are, in average, older than those of the CAFCP01, this must be taken into consideration when it comes to weight the dimensions results. In fact, these findings can influence the decision-making regarding the ergonomic intervention.
4. FINAL CONSIDERATIONSThe ETdA (Ergonomic Tri-dimensional Analysis) development follows the ergonomics future tendency since it allows the participation of the entire organization in the identification of critical situations and in the proposal of intervention.
The clients’ visit regularity can help to obtain more reliable information as it can be related to clients’ CAFCP recognition and consequently to their different ergonomic factors knowledge. Even though the main issue of the use of supplementary variables is to contribute to the dimension profile definition, it is the authors’ believe that the obtained dimensions profile can also be relevant for the Analyst decision-making regarding ergonomic intervention. Findings also reveal that clients’ profile can influence the ergonomic evaluation of a CAFCP and it should be taken into consideration when it comes to the ergonomic intervention implementation.
5. REFERENCES IEA Council, 2000. What is Ergonomics? The Discipline of Ergonomics. International Ergonomics Society (2000). Outubro 6, 2011, http://www.iea.cc/01_what/What%20is%20Ergonomics.html Hedlund, A., Åteg, M., Andersson, I.-M., Rosén, G. (2010). Assessing motivation for work environment improvements: Internal consistency, reliability and factorial structure. Journal of Safety Research, 41,145-151.
Kettenring, J.R. (2009). Massive datasets. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Computational Statistics, 1, 25-32.
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Khalid, H.M., Helander, M.G. (2004). A framework for affective customer needs in product design. Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science, 5, 27-42.
Lindon D., Lendrevie J., Rodrigues J., Dionisio P. (2000). Mercator XXI: Teoria e Práticado Marketing (9nd ed). Lisboa: Publicações D. Quixote (in Portuguese).
Loureiro, I., Leão, C. P. & Arezes, P. (2009). Modelo de Análise Ergonómica Tridimensional: impacto nas áreas comerciais com livre circulação de pessoas. In Proceedings from International Symposium on Occupational Safety and Hygiene (SHO 2009),Portugal, Arezes et al. (Eds.). (273-277). ISBN 978-972-99504-5-2 Loureiro, I. F., Leão, C. P., & Arezes, P. M. (2010). Ergonomic Tridimensional Analysis: exploratory analysis in clients’ dimension observation tool. In Vol. Selected papers of the XVIII Congresso Anual da Sociedade Portuguesa de Estatística (119-122), S. Pedro do Sul.
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Indoor Air Quality in Primary Schools and in Homes and its Impact on Children´s Health - Study Design Madureira, Joanaa, Paciência, Inêsb, Ramos, Elisabetec, Barros, Henriqued, de Oliveira Fernandes, Eduardoe a IDMEC-FEUP, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias-Porto, email: firstname.lastname@example.org; b IDMEC-FEUP, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias-Porto, email: email@example.com; c FMUP, Al. Prof. Hernâni Monteiro-Porto, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; d FMUP, Al.
Prof. Hernâni Monteiro-Porto, e-mail: email@example.com; e IDMEC-FEUP, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias-Porto, e-mail:
1. INTRODUCTION Children spend most of their time indoors, basically at home and, also, at the school. They are more vulnerable to poor indoor air quality (IAQ) as their bodies are under development and may have altered sensitivity to exposure to xenobiotics; they breathe a greater volume of air relative to their body weight and their immune system is immature to respond effectively to environmental attack, and they have a longer lifetime ahead of them and therefore a longer foreseen span of exposure (Simoni et al., 2010; Heath and Mendell, 2004; Viegi et al., 2004).
Scientific evidence has shown that exposure to poor IAQ can cause or contribute to short and long-term health problems including asthma, allergic reactions and respiratory tract infections (Jantunen et al., 2011; Madureira et al., 2009). More than 1/3 children in Europe have bronchial asthma or allergy and the rate of respiratory illness is increasing year by year (Oliveira Fernandes et al., 2008; Zao et al., 2008).
The European Union, in the Action 12 of the Environment and Health Action Plan 2004-2010 (“Improve Indoor Air Quality”) (CEC, 2004) and the World Health Organization in the Parma Declaration on Environment and Health (5 th Ministerial Conference on Environment and Health, Parma, Italy, 10–12 March 2010) have been underlying the importance of improving IAQ for the prevention of disease (WHO, 2004).
Although there has been considerable interest in the health effects of indoor air pollution, many questions still remain without clear or complete explanation in particular in what regards the exposure to indoor air pollution specifically in what regards the specific contributions of home and school environments.
The purpose of this study is to make a contribution towards the understanding of the effect on children’s health of the exposure to indoor air in schools, taking into account also the contribution of the home environment. It aims at to respond to the question: what is the health effect on children of ages 8 -10 of IAQ in schools taking into account the effect of the “historic” exposure to indoor air at home.
2. METHODS A cross-sectional study will be developed in order to evaluate the exposure of children to indoor air in a large sample of schools and investigate the associated health effects among 1600 children’s aged 8 to 10 years old (such as respiratory and allergic effects). In order to understand the effects on children’s health resulting from the exposure to indoor air pollution, a case-control study will be implemented in the major indoor micro-environment where the children spend most of their time indoors: home. This study will include the assessment of indoor air in homes of asthmatic children, which is a susceptible group with an increased risk of respiratory and allergic symptoms when exposed to an adverse indoor environment, and in a representative sample of non-asthmatic children.
The monitoring, walkthrough and survey phases will occur concurrently between November 2011 - March 2012 and November 2012 – March 2013, covering the winter period.
2.1 Selection Procedure of Buildings, Indoor Spaces and Children’s The study will be carried out in public primary schools of Porto city. The number of schools was determined by the student sample size required to answer the health related objectives. Based on prevalence figures obtained in recent Portuguese studies a sample of 1600 children has to be specified. Bearing in mind that the prevalence of asthma is approximately 10%, it is estimated that 10% of non-asthmatic children have symptoms and that the exposure to poor indoor air lead a two times higher risk to have symptoms. Therefore, assuming 20 children’s per room and 4 classrooms by school, our sample will include 20 schools.
In each school, if there were more than four 3rd-4th classes, four classes will be randomly selected among classrooms with similar conditions. It is preferable a “permanent” classroom (i.e. a classroom that is mainly occupied) with possibly high occupation time per weekday; if there were four classes or less than four, all were selected. In general terms we will evaluate 80 classrooms.
A case study control regarding asthmatic (vulnerable group) and non-asthmatic children will be perform. Therefore, based on data of child health outcomes from questionnaires 420 homes (140 homes of asthmatic and 280 homes from non-asthmatic children) will be identified without distinction between standalone houses, houses in a row, and apartment blocks as well as the age of the building. In the home assessments, one location (bedroom) and one outdoor location will be sampled.
Occupational Safety and HygieneInternational Symposium on
2.2 Field Studies and Environmental Monitoring To accomplish the objectives an interdisciplinary work will be undertaken supported on a diversified set of the field studies to characterize the exposure. Those field studies will be carried out during the winter season, as this provides the worst case scenario of for exposure for the most critical compounds (table 1). Since the physical and chemical characterisation of the indoor environment mainly focuses on substances leading to chronic health effects, long-term sampling is organised. Most of the compounds will be assessed with passive sampling techniques and direct reading devices, as well as the monitoring of CO2, CO, temperature and relative humidity will be collected during a 5-day period (scholar week, from Monday morning to Friday afternoon) in each room, except radon that will be deployed, at least, during 4 weeks.
The assessment of biological contaminants will be done by collection of indoor dust using three different, well established approaches, adapted the analyses of the different biological agents: settled dust from surfaces above floor level will be vacuumed into dust sampling socks (“sock sampling”); electrostatic dust fall collectors will be used for passive sampling of airborne dust onto electrostatic wipes (“EDC sampling”); and floor dust and dust from other surfaces will be also collected using vacuum cleaners with ALK adaptors and filter cassettes (“ALK filter sampling”). The sampling of biological indoor contaminants will be performed simultaneously with sampling/measurement of physical and chemical pollutants.
2.3 Health Assessment The age group of 8-10 years will be chosen because in this age children are able to perform satisfactorily the questionnaire and the proposed tests, including spirometry (often problematic in younger age groups).
The assessment of health outcomes and potential confounders will include the utilization of different standardized questionnaires derived from the ISAAC (Asher et al., 1995) which will be distributed to the pupils, teachers and parents.
The teachers and parents questionnaire survey will be performed at least four weeks before the physical, chemical and biological measurements and will be starting after their informed consent. All the personal information from questionnaire will be stored to ensure the confidentiality of the information.
All children in the selected classrooms will be invited to take part the study answering a written questionnaire and performing the spirometry test (we expect evaluate a total of 1600 pupils).
Additionally, a set of clinical tests will be performed in a random restricted sub-sample (5 children per class), approximately 400 pupils, in the total of 1600 participants’ pupils. Table 2 summarizes the health assessment included in the study.
3. EXPECTED RESULTS The survey is designed to address exposure in the school and home environment. This study will provide a picture of the current situation addressing the combined effect of school and home as well as will enable critical information about schools and home construction, maintenance and ventilation characteristics and occupants behaviour in relation to the prevalence of respiratory and allergic symptoms among children’s.
The significance of the school indoor environment to the students’ and teachers’ health can be better evaluated, leading to adequate risk assessment and facilitating policy development for IAQ and maintenance of school buildings.
The study will also produce data on determinants and distribution of chemical and indoor biological agents at home environment and their role in health effects observed in children’s, which will help to develop adequate control and avoidance measures.
Therefore, the data will allow for a better understanding of the issue and can give a support to policy actions targeting schools and homes based on more appropriate planning of interventions to promote IAQ and consequent promotion of health and life quality.
4. REFERENCES Asher, M.I., Keil, U., Anderson, H.R., Beasley, R., Crane, J., Martinez, F., et al. (1995). International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC): rationale and methods. Eur Respir J. (8)3, 483–491.
CEC. (2004). The European Environment & Health Action Plan 2004-2010, COM(2004) 416 final, Volume I, SEC(2004), 729.