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«FICHA TÉCNICA Título Segurança e Higiene Ocupacionais - SHO 2012 - Livro de Resumos Autores/Editores Arezes, P., Baptista, J.S., Barroso, M.P., ...»

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4. CONCLUSIONS In order to improve the effectiveness of education in safety and prevention, it is necessary to incorporate, and extend the use of ICT tools in the construction industry. The incorporation must be done having in consideration that not all workers have the same level of skill. Each worker must be educated in prevention according his learning capacity, using an appropriate ICT tool.

Videos are the most effective teaching method because they include pictures in movement, audio and text, and in addition they can be played using portable devices.

5. REFERENCES Banks, M.(2001). Visual Methods in Social Research. Sage, London. Banks.

BOE. Boletín Oficial del Estado. (1995). Ley 31/1995, de 8 de noviembre de 1995, de Prevención de Riesgos Laborales.

BOE. Boletín Oficial del Estado. (1997). Real Decreto 485/1997, de 14 de abril, sobre disposiciones mínimas en materia de señalización de seguridad y salud en el trabajo.

Bust,P.D. Gibb,A.G.F y Pink,S. (2008). Managing construction health and safety: Migrant workers and communicating safety messages. Safety Science, Volume 46, Issue 4, April 2008, Pages 585-602.

Chalfen, R. y Rich, M. (2007). Combining the applied, the visual and the medical: patients teaching physicians with visual narratives.

In: S. Pink, Editor, Visual Interventions, Berghahn, Oxford.

CIDB. (1998). Construction economics report: third quarter 1998. Singapore: Construction Industry Development Board.

Consejería de Empleo 2011. Dirección General de Seguridad y Salud Laboral http://www.juntadeandalucia.es/empleo/www/prl/publicaciones/entrada.php?nav=1&valnav=4&idreg=85#videos Delp, C.y Jones, J. (1996). Communicating information to patients: the use of cartoon illustrations to improve comprehension of instructions. Academic Emergency Medicine 3 (3), 264–270.

Eurostat (2011).Globalisation indicators. Non nationals in the labour force.

http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/tgm/table.do?tab=table&init=1&plugin=0&language=en&pcode=tgipe120&tableSelection=3 Fundación Laboral de la Construcción (2011). Línea Prevención TV. http://www.lineaprevenciontv.com/index.php Instituto Asturiano de Prevención de Riesgos Laborales (2011).

http://iaprl.asturias.es/opencms/es/instituto/formacion/publicaciones/listado3/ Oller, J.W y Giardetti, J.R. (1999). Images That Work; Creating Successful Messages in Marketing and High Stakes Communication, Westport, CT06881, Greenwood Publishing Group, Inc.

Pink, S. ( 2001). Doing Visual Ethnography. Sage, London.

Rose, G. (2001). Visual Methodologies. Sage, London.

Trajkovski, S. y Loosemore, M. (2006). Safety implications of low-English proficiency among migrant construction site operatives, International Journal of Project Management, Volume 24, Issue 5, July 2006, Pages 446-452.

S. Mohamed, R.A Stewart, An empirical investigation of users' perceptions of web-based communication on a construction project.

Automation in Construction, Volume 12, Issue 1, January 2003, pp. 43-53.

Yang, L.R., O'Connor, J.T., Chen, J.H., Assessment of automation and integration technology's impacts on project stakeholder success. Automation in Construction, Volume 16, Issue 6, September 2007, pp. 725-733.

Occupational Safety and HygieneInternational Symposium on

Clients’ Ergonomic factors Knowledge and its Influence on the Ergonomic Intervention Loureiro, I.F., Leão, C.P., Arezes, P.M.

Department of Production and Systems Engineering, University of Minho, Campus de Azurém, Guimarães, Portugal, id2500@alunos.uminho.pt; {cpl, parezes}@dps.uminho.pt

1. INTRODUCTION Nowadays, competitive business strategies are changing and companies are no longer the economic centre of the market economy. They became a scene for different ‘actors’ who, over time, have different roles within organizations. This market approach provides that organizations come to be seen as a socio-technical system (Querelle & Thibault, 2007) comprising a set of different but interrelated subsystems involved: supplier, customer, employee, patient and managers (Vink et. al, 2008). This whole process of change will have impact in the distribution chain where clients are assuming a vital role (Lindon et al., 2000). In this marketing context, where competitive advantage and value creation are increasing, micro-marketing (customer specific marketing) is the driving force transforming retail competition. According to Swann (2001), it is important to maintain a good relationship and effective communication with clients, identifying their needs and expectations. A great effort to improve organizational adjustments that correspond to clients’ expectations is required from the organization. These adjustments can be related with: utility, functionality and products’ aesthetics, environmental adjustment, prestige, usability and pleasure (Kalid and Helander, 2004; Sojka, 2003; Tsao and Chan, 2010). As clients are intrinsically linked to the organizations, the total quality management philosophy must be focused not only in workforce satisfaction, but also in clients’ expectations and satisfaction. Processes of improvement are often multidimensional (considering all the organizational participants), cross and serially correlated (Jarrett & Pan, 2007).

Much has been done in macro ergonomics domain, however in human work activities only workers participation in the workspace design process was considered an added value to the process. In fact, Robertson et al. (2008) proposed that enhancing workers’ control over their work environment allows them to influence decisions about where and how they might lead to improved physical health and performance. They also refer that teamwork is a fundamental means by which corporations conduct organizational activities and meet business goals in a global economy. According to the International Ergonomics Association (IEA) ‘‘Ergonomics (or human factors) is concerned with the understanding of interactions among humans and other elements of a system, in order to optimize human well-being and overall system performance’’ (IEA Council, 2000). According to this, the optimization of the performance of the overall system (economical goal), the organizations’ strategies and goals must also consider the human wellbeing (social goal). In the common areas, where professionals’ activities are related with a clients or consumers’ service provide or products sales, the human wellbeing is related with its users, both the clients and professionals. In these situations, macro ergonomics approach must also recognise that customer, client or user is an active part of the ergonomic context.

The Ergonomic Tridimensional Analysis (ETdA) was developed to be used as an auxiliary tool during ergonomic analysis and intervention in common areas where professionals and clients interact and can be exposed to the same ergonomic risk factors (Loureiro, et al, 2009). It can be considered as a continuous model that presents a realistic (in occupational and usability terms) overview of these areas, allowing the diagnosis of the studied conditions and identification of the critical Ergonomic Factors and consequent adjustments representing the ergonomic intervention.The proposed analysis is multidimensional since it considers all the organizational participants, namely the clients, professionals, and managers. In ETdA model, specific observation tools were assembled: an evaluation form and a checklist for direct and indirect observations (professionals and analyst dimensions) and ETdA questionnaire (clients’ dimension). The questionnaire was previously tested in order to be used in the survey (Khalid and Helander, 2004) and the results of validation (sensibility, validity and reliability) contributed to its improvement (Hedlund et al., 2010;

Loureiro et al., 2010). The observation tools’ results are submitted to different processing’s reproducing variables, identified as ETdA variables. According to the ETdA dimension, they are named Ae variables in the analyst dimension, Pe variables in the professional dimension and Ce in the clients’ one. An inter and intra analysis is used in different levels of action to measure the intensity of the ergonomics perception in each ETdA dimension. This procedure will simplify and summarize the results of the dimensions, leading to the 3-dimension matrix assembling (Kettenring, 2009). This matrix is the starting point to the weighting table construction, where the areas that needs an ergonomic intervention or not, are easily identified. The need to develop these tables supports the analyst final task, which is the real perception of the ergonomic situation and the development of priority list of changes to be implemented according to the severity of the identified situations. The process involves exploratory data analysis, inference and decision-making. Through the ETdA questionnaire, it is also possible to obtain knowledge about the socio-demographic characterization of the clients.

Based on this line of research, it is important to be able to understand the effect of the clients’ profile in the ergonomic evaluation and ultimately in the analyst decision-making regarding the ergonomic intervention.

A study based on two different Commercial Areas For Clients and Professionals (CAFCP), namely a wholesale retailer (CAFCP01) and an entertainment retail chain (CAFCP02) was performed. These commercial areas comprise large open spaces where a wide variety of products are displayed and comprising different ergonomic contexts with specific professionals’ activities.This study is based on results obtained from the ETdA use in these areas. According to the severity of the analysed situation, critical EFs were identified for each CAFCP. The aim of this paper is to investigate how clients’ profile influences the ergonomic evaluation of a CAFCP and in what way it should be taken into consideration when it comes to implementing the ergonomic intervention.

It is authors’ believe that the ergonomic evaluation of clients can help to highlight some problems that in others situations could be unnoticed. It also will be benefit to the professionals’ ergonomic context, by facilitating the ergonomic intervention. To improve the success of the proposed adjustments it is important to study the clients’ socio-demographic differences.


2.1. Procedure for the identification of ergonomic factors In order to encourage the participation of the entire organization in the ergonomic analysis, ETdA planning was carefully defined with the two commercial areas managers. This is a very important issue in the ETdA application since it encourages the participation of the entire organization in the process success.

A multiplicity of ergonomics contexts was identified on both commercial areas. Therefore, areas were divided in sectors according to the professional activity identified. The observation tool for the professional dimension was delivered by sector, thus making it possible to obtain a global and by professional activity profile. The ETdA questionnaire was suitably adapted to each type of commercial business and applied randomly during three months. Labour force available in the store was used contributing to the success of this particularly task. In the Analyst dimension, direct and indirect observations (checklist) were used to classify the ergonomic contexts previously identified.

Finally, data collection and a tri-dimensional analysis of the results were performed, leading to the construction of the weighting table.

2.2. Clients profile characterization Clients’ dimension profile is obtained through the study of the ETdA supplementary variables. These variables are related to a specific group of questions presented in the ETdA questionnaire, namely questions related with clients characterization (age, gender, professional occupation, qualifications, ergonomic issues perception)and questions related to clients/store relationship (frequency and purpose of the visit, store hygiene,...). For example, the clients’ visit frequency issue can help to reproduce more reliable information, as it can be related to clients’ CAFCP recognition and consequently to their different ergonomic factors knowledge. With the defined profiles and the different answer categories related to the ergonomic evaluation, several correlations can be studied. For instance, it is possible to verify that the influence of gender in the ergonomic perception is significant. To increase the meaningful of the results, it may be necessary to do a re-coding of the categories, using the standard residuals procedure (Loureiro, et.al, 2011).


In this case study, risk ergonomic factors were identified according to the categories with highest negative percentage reported in clients and professionals dimensions, which in CAFCP01 were restritiveness (use of technology in a commercial transaction), postures and movements, and noise. In the CAFCP02 those variables were Thermal environment, Noise, Postures and movements.

Clients’ dimension is characterized through an exploratory analysis. From table 1 it is possible to see that, on average, clients’ age in CAFCP01 is lowest than in CAFCP02. Comparing the skewnessZ- scores, it is possible to observe in CAFCP01 age distribution has too many low scores. In opposite CAFCP02 shows frequent scores clustered at older people. In either commercial area male population prevails.

–  –  –

In CAFCP01, approximately 50% of the clients are student from senior high school and this seems to be related to an asymmetrical age distribution ( (30) =72.846, p≤0.001). About 94.45% of the respondents have much knowledge about ergonomic issues, and most of them are regular clients (65%).

Most of the CAFCP02 clients are businessmen orretired. Generallythey reported a senior high school qualification. A deeper study reveals the clients’ qualifications are highly associated with the clients´ occupations ( (155) =192.212, p≤0.001). Clients have considerable knowledge regarding to ergonomic issues and are regular clients (85%). In both CAFCP, there are no statistical differences between genders regarding the importance to ergonomic issues. Several

Occupational Safety and HygieneInternational Symposium on

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