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«FICHA TÉCNICA Título Segurança e Higiene Ocupacionais - SHO 2012 - Livro de Resumos Autores/Editores Arezes, P., Baptista, J.S., Barroso, M.P., ...»

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In this scenario propane is assumed to leak from the bottom of the tank which leads to explosion.

Scenario 5, Rupture of propane vessel In this scenario it is assumed that propane vessel ruptures from metal fatigue of flanges.

Scenario 6, Diesel pool fire The selected scenarios were modeled in EFFECTS 8.1, a software developed by Netherlands Organization for Applied Scientific Research (TNO), with a custom-made selection of input parameters. Afterwards total replacement costs of the facilities of the neighbor-companies (containers, buildings, product inside of the containers etc.) were calculated for each scenario, including domino-effects.

The results of the study showed that Scenario 1 could be considered a worst-case in terms of liability risk. The liability risk in this case was found to be approximately 260 million Euro (See Figure 1).

It should be noted that risk of damage to the environment and people is very important but in this study the scope was limited to the damage to property of the neighbor-companies.

Figure 1 - Worst-case scenario on terms of liability risk.

5. CONCLUSION Methodology to determine the liability risk was developed and tested using EFFECTS 8.1.

The suggested methodology includes the study of previous accidents, ’what-if’ analysis, event tree analysis, modeling of the most probable scenarios in EFFECTS 8.1 and manual consideration of domino effects. Some parameters for the modeling, like fraction of flammable cloud confined, were also calculated manually.

Using the developed methodology worst-case scenario was chosen.

It can be reasonably assumed that Scenario 1 can lead to BLEVE at LPG storage (Scenario 2). But since it is impossible currently to establish the replacement values of BLEVE consequences – Scenario 1 remains the worst-case in terms of liability risk (≈260 million Euro).

The similar methodology can be used for the assessment of liability risk in chemical and oil industries as well as to determine the insurance value of a company’s own property.

6. REFERENCES Buncefield Major Incident Investigation Board, 2008. The final report of the Major Incident Investigation Board, Volume 1, p.7.

Hemeltoday, 2009. Total found liable for Buncefield explosion. [Online] Available through:

http://www.hemeltoday.co.uk/news/berkhamsted- news/total_found_liable_for_buncefield_explosion_1_1204512 [Accessed 08 June 2011].

Taylor, M., 2009. Oil company Total admits Buncefield fire failings. Guardian. [Online] Available through:

http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2009/nov/13/total-admits-charges-buncefield/ [Accessed 08 June 2011]. The Times of India, October 30, 2009. 12 killed in Jaipur IOC depot fire, Army called.

[Online] Available through:

http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2009-10-30/jaipur/28104614_1_nearby-chowkidhani-resorts- ioc-officials-jaipur-iocdepot-fire/ [Accessed 08 June 2011].

Occupational Risk Assessment - An Element of Sustainable Enterprise Izvercianu1, Monica1a, Ivascu2, Larisa2b a Politehnica University of Timisoara, Faculty of Management in Production and Transportation, 14 Remus Str., 300191 Timisoara, Romania1, monica.izvercianu @ mpt.upt.ro; b Politehnica University of Timisoara, Faculty of Management in Production and Transportation, 14 Remus Str., 300191 Timisoara, Romania2, larisa_ivascu@yahoo.com

1. INTRODUCTION The human factor is a key element in the company. Thus, the associated risks are inherent in an assessment.

Occupational risk assessment is the activity that identifies existing risk factors in workplaces and quantifies the risk dimension. Occupational accidents and illnesses involve direct and indirect costs as follows: human costs for employees and their families, financial costs for companies / organizations (absences in case of accident or illness, costs for insurance, productivity, profit, competitiveness, etc.) costs for the entire society (becoming a greater burden on health systems) (Dragoi, Draghici, Rosu, Radovici, & Cotet, 2010).

A currently used classification of the risk factors divides them, after the way they affect the human body, in risk factors of work accidents and risk factors of professional sickness, but without a rigorous limit between the two categories (European Commission, 2011). According to Work Security and Safety Law no. 319/2006 (published in Romanian

Official Monitor no. 646/26.07.06):

- The work accident means “the hurting of the human body and occupational acute intoxication that are happening during working process or during work duties that cause the loss of work capacities for at least 3 days, invalidity or death”;

- Occupational disease is that “disease produced by the exercitation of a profession, caused by physical, biological, chemical agents from the working environment and the overload of the body’s organs and systems during the working process”.

The occupational safety and health problem is of great interest because of the wish to reduce / eliminate the duration and the consequences of employees’ exposures to different occupational risks. At international and national level, there are strategies of improvement of the statistical indicators concerning accidents and occupational diseases. National statistics regarding working accidents, occupational diseases and absence from production due to occupational causes and accidents are not a reflection of reality and that is why the economic and social effects of those elements are hard to evaluate and stand as a base for coherent national strategies (Pece, 2003).

At international level, there are a lot of available references, guides, specifications, national and international models aiming to the management of occupational health and safety that had evolved in different proportions from country to country. Although there isn’t yet a national standard for health and safety management systems in Romania, concerns for a management approach in this area are concurrent with implementation and research of different models and international standards (OSHAS 18001, The DOE (USA), The RATP (Paris), The Enterprise Mission Conseils (Paris), etc.). In Romania the only method to solve this problem: health and safety at work, is the one of the National Institute for Research and Development. This is a time and resource consuming method because there isn’t a developed software, only rules and checklists to be completed manually (without using the computer).

Thus the authors aim to cover all practical cases that can occur in different work systems in terms of occupational risks, using a user-friendly software that allows resumption of the evaluation process at any time and from any point. This software is an important pillar in health and safety risk assessment that can be applied at any level of the enterprise.


2.1. Risk Assessment in Sustainable Enterprises The European Commission launched in April 2000 the tool of “triple basis line” on the request of measuring their value, having as subordinated: environmental, economic and social issues.

In another theory, a forth base line appears, now very important, and that is the technological responsibility, an important element in the development of any organization (Izvercianu, 2011). This new approach is presented in Figure 1, where by integrating the four responsibilities you get this concept, sustainability. The company is subjected to the concept of "sustainable development", because development in a sustainable manner meets any requirements for existing company to operate continuously in an indefinite future without reaching key resource depletion. From these considerations in sustainable enterprise, the technology must become itself a resource with a specific management, namely technology management.

One of the directions towards which the sustainable enterprise must fundamentaly guide itself is technology management. Durable sustainability, with all its attributes will be based on technology and especially on the management, which is not simple, of multiple forms of the approach of technology in the enterprise.

Technology management is defined essentially as involvement and commitment of technology for an action in conjunction and simultaneously with all functions of an enterprise (Izvercianu, Lobontiu, & Draghici, 2007).

These responsibilities, technological environmental, economic and social, lead to a sustainable development and thus sustainable enterprises management becomes integrated management social of the quadruple (Izvercianu, Lobontiu, &

–  –  –

Draghici, 2007). Technologies can be embedded in people, materials, cognitive and physical processes, facilities, equipment and tools (Izvercianu, 2011).

Risk is an element present in any enterprise. Its sustainability needs risk identification within all four responsibilities of the sustainability: technological, environmental, economic and social. The essence of this development model is to establish the relationship between the human activities and the natural environment, which cannot diminish the perspectives of the next generation (Dumitrescu, 2011).

Identifying the temperament (choleric, sanguine, phlegmatic and melancholic) of the risk assessor is an essential element in this process. Depending on the temperament some risks may be omitted or passed being considered unimportant for the moment (Hillson, 2007). By combining various types and kinds of temperament from psychology, the authors have obtained a clear classification of types of attitudes towards risk with these influences (risk-aversion, risk-neutral, risk-seeking, risk-tolerance). This model of risk aversion allows a correct identification of the assessor. By identifying the manager's psychology it can be obtained a proper report of workplace risks. Thus each evaluation report contains the assessment report and how the manager's temperament influenced the enterprise's evaluation. (Ivascu, & Izvercianu, 2011).

Figure 1 - The responsibilities of the sustainability (Izvercianu, 2010)

2.2. Occupational Risk Assessment Model for Sustainable Enterprises The approach proposed by the authors aims to cover all practical cases that can occur in different work systems in terms of occupational risks, using a user-friendly software that allows resumption of assessment at any time from any point on the required responsibility technological, environmental, economic or social. With this tool, security responsibles (managers at various levels) within organizations can better define their strategies, policies and tactics to act pro-actively investing in intelligence, learning, communication and knowledge to develop the security organizational culture. Human resource is essential to any enterprise, occupational risk assessment is imminent (Hunag, 2011).

The logical scheme for risk assessment in an enterprise is structured in the version proposed in Figure 3. As shown, the steps are: defining the purpose, description of analyzed system, identification of hazards, within the four responsibilities, risk identification, risk analysis, risk treatment, communication and control.

This scheme will be associated to the evaluation platform, realizing hazards identification on each responsibility and within every responsibility being presented the causes (hazards) for safety and health risks.

Often it is found that approaches for sustainability are understood only as protecting the environment and natural resources, either as compliance with environmental legislation or by voluntary measures to implement an environmental management system ISO 14001. In some Romanian organizations we find voluntary implementation of environmental management systems for occupational health and safety after OSHAS 18001 standard. Less common are SA8000 standard implementation, on certifiable systems to ensure decent working conditions (European Commission, 2011). The standard ISO26000: 2010, on corporate social responsibility, is embryonic in Romania. The European Commission proposed the following definition: "Corporate social responsibility is a concept whereby companies integrate social and environmental concerns in their operational activities and their interaction with the relevant actors on a voluntary basis".

CSR objective is to contribute to sustainable development of the company.

The computer system for occupational risk assessment in organizations has the role / main benefit to identify risks of the organization and then, based on identified risks, the system will provide the user (risk responsible) a number of measures to counter, treat or pass the risks identified (Ivascu, & Izvercianu, 2011)..

The database underlying the system of occupational risk assessment can be made public. In this way, the company may develop and highlight the corporate social responsibility through active participation in enrichment of information from public databases with questions about risk, consequences and measures specific to their business. Thus, there is a continuous improvement of the information system and a widening of the area of application.

Through these integrated concepts the information system proves its two other benefits: advertising and communication (self-help enterprise).

The preliminary results of the research are presented in Figure 2, including the pages contained in the platform. On the first page there is the evaluator identification, then on the next page the mandatory element is the psychological test.

Then the hazards’ identification takes place, in the four responsibilities of sustainability, after that the identified risk analysis, and finally, communication. Communication includes the final report, preventive measures, associated diseases and risk aversion influence of the evaluator of the process.

Figure 2 - The proposed logical diagram for risk assessment

3. CONCLUSIONS This paper presents an occupational risk assessment model in sustainable business. Preliminary results have been focused on identifying the assessors’ attitudes towards risk.

The developed logic scheme is the base of the computer system that can be applied to any level of the work system.

Since its conception it has been tested in an enterprise with the possibility of continued modifying and testing.

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