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«FICHA TÉCNICA Título Segurança e Higiene Ocupacionais - SHO 2012 - Livro de Resumos Autores/Editores Arezes, P., Baptista, J.S., Barroso, M.P., ...»

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Occupational Safety and HygieneInternational Symposium on

No entanto, o propósito base deste projecto foi elucidar a viabilidade da utilização conjunta de vários métodos de avaliação de risco, independente da sequencialidade processual, aplicando-os a um processo de trabalho específico. A escolha dos mesmos e sua posterior conjugação não surgiram de forma aleatória, as opções tomadas, não só suportaram tecnicamente as conclusões do antecedente, como permitiram acrescentar variáveis relevantes, à medida que sucediam no cenário de utilização do acoplador de adaptação.

Além de viável, foi também verificável pelo fortalecimento e definição gradual das variáveis em análise, validando a sua utilização como elementos preponderantes na formação do risco, enquanto factores secundários de formação de risco sólidos e pertinentes, que permitiram materializar a significância e delinear a constituição real dos dois factores primários de formação do risco, probabilidade e dano, alcançando resultados finais mais próximos da realidade inteligida e criando a necessária base sólida para determinar as medidas de controlo adequadas, cuja falha mais frequente passa por subestimar e mesmo desprezar o risco existente, em consequência da utilização indevida e/ou incompleta dos recursos metodológicos disponíveis para o efeito.

Embora o propósito fosse demonstrar a complementaridade de métodos e acima de tudo o evidente contributo de factores secundários na formação do risco, será importante salientar que esta abordagem, pela especificidade do propósito determinado, não considerou a globalidade das variáveis que compreendem a actividade, ao nível das potenciais interferências humanas, materiais e organizacionais, isoladas ou enquanto sistema, numa clara contrariedade ao ideal de gestão do risco, sistémica, estruturada e dinâmica ao nível dos vários indicadores de desempenho em SST.

Tal decisão, não significa que este projecto tenha ficado aquém dos objectivos propostos, pelo contrário, às variáveis e subsistemas alvo, aplicaram-se os propósitos e métodos idealizados, daí resultando dados pertinentes e significativos para a actividade da segurança do trabalho.

4. CONCLUSÕES Os resultados obtidos e a consistência dos mesmos validam a opção tomada, sendo que os quantitativos e respectiva significância do risco identificado não representam a meta, mas sim o ponto de partida da etapa seguinte, sua consequente verificação e monitorização, motivadas pelo carácter dinâmico do risco laboral, na senda da melhoria contínua. O tipo de risco identificado deve ser mantido o mais baixo possível num esforço constante, seguindo a tendência ALARP – As Low As Reasonable Practicable (Melchers, 2001).

A abordagem directa e presencial efectuada para o estudo, permitiu entre o volume de informação recolhido e confirmado, destacar acontecimentos de quase acidentes conforme definição da Norma OHSAS 18001:2007, os quais acabam por escapar às malhas da segurança ocupacional, motivando uma leitura errada dos respectivos indicadores.

A inexistência de qualquer ocorrência profissional danosa numa organização por um determinado período, não traduz a eficácia desse sistema de gestão de risco face a outro, noutra organização, que no mesmo período tenha contabilizado ocorrências danosas. Nem tão pouco a continuidade desse estado positivo de redução, transmite o verdadeiro estado da organização, que face a objectivos produtivos pode encorajar o encobrimento de indicadores da segurança laboral (Cadieux et al. 2006).

Pretendeu-se ainda, despertar nos utilizadores habituais destes e de outros métodos, a noção de que a sua utilização não é estanque e pode constituir novos desafios, contribuindo para anular a tendência, segundo a qual se considera frequentemente uma avaliação de risco como uma etapa aborrecida, imposta por disposições legais, o que pode originar abordagens selectivas de conveniência, afectando a fiabilidade dos resultados finais.

5. REFERÊNCIAS Cadieux, J., Roy, M., Desmarais, L. (2006). A preliminary validation of a new measure of occupational health and safety. Journal of Safety Research, 37, 413-419.

Matthews, G.; Davies, D.R.; Westerman, S. J.; Stammers, R. B. (2000). Human perfomance. Cognition, stress and individual differences. Psychology Press. ISBN 0-415-04406-5 Melchers, R.E. (2001). On the ALARP approach to risk management. Reliability Engineering and System Safety, 71, 201-208.

Nunes, F. O. (2009). Segurança e Higiene do Trabalho. Manual Técnico 2ª edição. Edições Gustave Eiffel. ISBN 972-832-645-9 Oliveira, C.G. (2009). Avaliação e Controlo de Riscos Profissionais. Apontamentos Teóricos, 87. Instituto Superior de Educação e Ciências.

Oliveira, C.G. (2010). Proposta de uma metodologia integrada de avaliação de riscos profissionais, 321. (Tese de Doutoramento não publicada em Higiene, Segurança e Saúde no Trabalho). Universidade de Léon, Léon.

Tixier, J., Duserre, G., Salvi, O., Gaston, D. (2002). Review of 62 risk analysis methodologies of industrial plants. Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, 15, 291-303.

William B. L., Mostia Jr. (2009). Got a risk reduction strategy? Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, 22, 778-782.





A retrospective reflection/investigation on occupational noise exposure Costa, Susanaa, Arezes, Pedrob a Universidade do Minho, Departamento de Produção e Sistemas, email: ID3536@alunos.uminho.pt; b Universidade do Minho, Departamento de Produção e Sistemas, e-mail: parezes@dps.uminho.pt

1. INTRODUCTION Not so scarcely, a researcher is faced with an article or report that assesses the occupational noise exposure for a particular activity, or states the overall exposure of a certain country, and even, from somewhere in the world (Fernández, Quintana, Chavarría, & Ballesteros, 2009; Kaczmarska, Mikulski, & Smagowska, 2004; Matos, 2004; Mihailovic, Grujic, Kiurski, Krstic, Oros, & Kovacevic, 2010; Pai, 2007; Rudno-Rudzinski, 2005; Sadhra, Jackson, Ryder, & Brown, 2002; Tijunelis, Fitzsullivan, & Henderson, 2005; Wilson, Vaidyanathan, Cinotti, Cohen, & Wang, 1990; Zun & Downey, 2005).

In one hand, it is known that science tends to refine methodologies and with time, provides more accurate measurement methods. Then, as it does so, what happens to previous results, obtained through the use of former methodologies?

On the other hand, not all countries adopt the same measurements methodologies, which leads to the question: ―Are those results comparable between them?‖.

In other terms, how does one, in light of the new standardized occupational noise exposure measurement strategies, read the previous values obtained by the several authors who have assessed occupational noise exposure so far?

Are they close to the values obtained by the new standardized procedures (are they still applicable?) or do they deviate from them, and no longer can be used as reference values?

The evolution of science, encompassed by technology development and consequent growth of amount of scientific work, has developed an urge to sort the good from the bad amongst scientific work. The way to do it is to follow the ―path‖ of quality.

Ultimately, its importance relies on the fact that measurement results can make or break conceptions, reveal new relationships between variables; in short, results are the ground for decision-making (usefulness) (Bich, Cox, & Harris, 2006; Taverniers, De Loose, & Van Bockstaele, 2004).

Following the assumptions of quality, in order to be credible, results have to be traceable (Taverniers et al., 2004). Of course one can argue that results can be available upon request, but for major studies (e.g., involving several kinds of industries, review articles) aiming to obtain that amount of data can be a tough and decompensating job (even more so, keeping in mind that the authors are not obliged to do so).

Utility and reliability determine the quality of measurement data and the most important factor in reliability is the comparability of results, whatever their source. Moreover, comparison between results is enabled by traceability to common standards (Taverniers et al., 2004).

Also, for results to be comparable, they must be reported along with their associated expanded uncertainty, or else they have no value, since they cannot be interpreted, therefore not adding value to the global output of scientific work (Taverniers et al., 2004).

Considering this, the aim of this paper is to propose that, taking into consideration that results traceability and measurement uncertainty are necessary features for the reliability and utility of the results, thus indissociable from quality science work, the joint publication of three pieces of information be mandatory, them being: results of observations, methodology followed and measurement uncertainty.

2. MATERIALS AND METHOD

Materials used for the pursuit of this paper’s objective were papers or reports in which occupational noise exposure was assessed (see References).

3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

In many papers, results of observations are not shown, only aggregated statistical data is presented and even so, many only reveal the instrument used to do the assessment, not even explaining the methodology followed.

These omitted data have, more than ever, to be taken into account and recognized as very important for two reasons:

traceability (which grants credibility to the work) and reference usefulness.

Another important piece of the measurement results comparability puzzle lacks not so seldom on several articles: the associated measurement uncertainty. It’s known that measurement uncertainty estimation reveals the level of confidence in an obtained result and its association to reliability defines the quality of data obtained (Taverniers et al., 2004).

In the case of occupational noise exposure, the consideration of the measurement uncertainty can determine the difference between the worker being exposed to below the legal noise exposure level or surpassing it.

Hence, if the researcher does not have access to generally omitted data, such as the original (pre-analysed) data – that he can use to directly apply the new procedure contained in the standard and compare results, the methodology followed to evaluate the exposure, and to the uncertainty associated with the results obtained, the reader cannot assume that those

Occupational Safety and HygieneInternational Symposium on

results are comparable to any he has obtained in the course of his investigation and thus, he cannot use them as reference, as the results are not reliable.

Taking into account the amount of published papers that fail to present some, or all, of the information needed, there is a lot of scientific work soon to be considered as obsolete.

4. CONCLUSIONS Many published papers about occupational noise exposure assessment present results that lack the two most useful data quality-wise: the data traceability and the uncertainty of the measurement.

Without them, the results of these papers lack quality and therefore, are unreliable and cannot be compared to other results.

Despite having been created with the (good) intent to ease the comparison between worldwide science work production, standardization seems, still, far from being global. Therefore, a measure must be imposed from now on, so as to attain quality results regardless the strategy used: always bring forward the assessment methodology, the ―raw‖ results obtained (previous to statistical analysis and corrections) and the corresponding measurement uncertainty.

5. REFERENCES Bich, W., Cox, M. G., & Harris, P. M. (2006). Evolution of the ―Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement‖. Metrologia, 43, S161.

Fernández, M. D., Quintana, S., Chavarría, N., & Ballesteros, J. A. (2009). Noise exposure of workers of the construction sector.

Applied Acoustics, 70(5), 753–760.

Kaczmarska, A., Mikulski, W., & Smagowska, B. (2004). Noise in office rooms. Eleventh International Congress on Sound and Vibration, St. Petersburg, Russia Matos, L. M. (2004). Avaliação de ruído em postos de trabalho na indústria extractiva - Um exercício de análise de risco –. Acústica 2004, Guimarães, Mihailovic, A., Grujic, S. D., Kiurski, J., Krstic, J., Oros, I., & Kovacevic, I. (2010). Occupational noise in printing companies.

Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 1–12.

Pai, J. Y. (2007). A Study in Hospital Noise—A Case From Taiwan. International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics (JOSE), 13(1), 83–90.

Rudno-Rudzinski, K. (2005). Noise exposure prediction for musicians. Twelfth International Congress on Sound and Vibration, Lisbon, Portugal.

Sadhra, S., Jackson, C., Ryder, T., & Brown, M. (2002). Noise exposure and hearing loss among student employees working in university entertainment venues. Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 46(5), 455.

Taverniers, I., De Loose, M., & Van Bockstaele, E. (2004). Trends in quality in the analytical laboratory. I. Traceability and measurement uncertainty of analytical results. TrAC Trends in Analytical Chemistry, 23(7), 480–490.

Tijunelis, M. A., Fitzsullivan, E., & Henderson, S. O. (2005). Noise in the ED. The American journal of emergency medicine, 23(3), 332–335.

Wilson, C., Vaidyanathan, T., Cinotti, W., Cohen, S., & Wang, S. (1990). Hearing-damage risk and communication interference in dental practice. Journal of dental research, 69(2), 489.

Zun, L. S., & Downey, L. V. (2005). The effect of noise in the emergency department. Academic emergency medicine, 12(7), 663–666.

Aplicação dos Princípios LEAN à Gestão da Segurança na Construção LEAN Principles Applied in the Safety Management in the Construction Sector Coutinho, Telmoa, Rodrigues, Fernandab ab Departamento de Engenharia Civil, Universidade de Aveiro, Geobiotecb, Campus Universitário de Santiago, Aveiro, telmocoutinho@ua.pt; b mfrodrigues@ua.pt

1. INTRODUÇÃO As atuais exigências de competitividade das empresas levam a que estas tenham de otimizar os seus meios e recursos.



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