«FICHA TÉCNICA Título Segurança e Higiene Ocupacionais - SHO 2012 - Livro de Resumos Autores/Editores Arezes, P., Baptista, J.S., Barroso, M.P., ...»
This event was a house of 600m2 built completely, in 200h, supported by four workstations with software and hardware specific. Were presented modern totally integrated automation solutions, including: Central Electric Automation, Connectivity Center, Central Personnel Monitoring, Central Monitoring Image Distance, Voice Command, Control, Lighting, sound and visual flags, Cleansers, phones for the Deaf, among others. Technologies already much widespread such as videoconferencing, have also been associated with previously cited, allowing meetings at home, for example, which would facilitate access for the disabled to the labor market. Importantly highlight that the target audience of this exhibition was not only composed of people with special needs, since the high level of comfort provided by this set of technologies was also appealing to other audiences, especially to young people.
Among the automation solutions above mentioned, it is worth highlight a study conducted in Brazil by Oliveira, Carvalho Junior and Sadok (S/D) at the Federal University of Pernambuco. The research is an analysis and study of key technologies of automation environments on the market, which resulted in the creation of a framework capable of providing support to the control environments. During its execution was identified the need to use various technologies to enable greater differentiation and diversity of forms of access and control system. The development of a prototype involving all of the technologies proposed in the framework served to demonstrate the feasibility of the project, besides serving as a starting point in the full implementation of all the specifications.
Another important research was also developed by Silva (2009), which was prepared an automation system low cost, with the use of a PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) and the implementation of one software. The supervisory software operates directly in the PLC, controlling and monitoring the different electronic devices connected to it. For the control and supervision, the homeowner uses this software installed on your computer. The proposed work contributed to the development of one system less complex and more accessible.
Studies in search of new technologies are being developed, among which can mention wearable computers, appointed by VISEU (2003) apud DONATI (2004) as bodynets, by emphasizing the interaction between body, technology and environment. According DONATI (2004), these products can be considered active agents, by synthesizing contemporary trends such as mobility, continuous information access, personalization, control and networking. In addition to bringing facilities, these devices transform and shape some physical activity and cognitive functions, because it is designed in an integrated manner with the user's movement, inserting themselves in their daily activities. An application of wearable computing that is important for society, it is in the disabled people that will be in possession of cameras, microphones and other sensors to enjoy a relatively normal life like most people. The wardrobe helps especially for home-care services, it relies on studies and research of health related products, such as the development of clothes that monitor blood pressure, heart rate and body temperature, and diagnose users without requiring complex system of wires and electrodes. This monitoring work, mostly via bluetooth, works informing emergency centers through SMS, e-mail or phone, in addition to forming a database of patient history.
Figure 2. Wearable Computer Integrating Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, GPS
The main obstacles that can be identified in the adoption of this technology in Brazil converge on four main issues:
privacy, infrastructure, interfaces and social aspects. Personal information may be accessed and filed by anyone without the perception and the users consent. Because of this, they should have the right to decide what information they want becomes available. As for infrastructure, is still needed a breakthrough especially in regard to wireless networks and software engineering. Because of the possibility of failure, it is important to have the option to operate "outside the system" when necessary. It is also important to ensure that people of different levels of education are able to interact with applications without the risk of confusion, stress or frustration. Finally, special care must be taken with the social implications that adoption of this system can cause. In Latin American countries in general, the need for social interaction tends to be higher than in other countries, much due the cultural reasons. The independence provided by this technology may result in the isolation of these individuals, when it is increasingly necessary to include them in activities common to the society in which they live.
Occupational Safety and HygieneInternational Symposium on
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DONATI, L.P. Computadores vestíveis: convivência de diferentes espacialidades. Conexão - Computação e Cultura, UCS, Caxias do Sul, v.3, n. 6, p. 93 -102, 2004.
HOWARD, S; KJELDSKOV, J; KKOV, M.V. Pervasive computing in the domestic space. Pers Ubiquit Comput, v. 11, 2007. 329Available in: http://unimelb.academia.eduSteveHoward/Papers/332341/Pervasive_Computing_In_the_Domestic_Space..
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MESSIAS, A.F. Edifícios “Inteligentes”: a domótica aplicada à realidade brasileira. 2007. 57 p. Monograph (Control and Automation Engineering) - UFOP, Ouro Preto.
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OLIVEIRA, L. E. M. C, CARVALHO JUNIOR, A. J. de, SADOK, D. Protótipo de ambiente controlado por dispositivo móvel e reconhecimento de voz. União dos Institutos Brasileiros de Tecnologia, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco - Recife, S/D.
SILVA, Danise Suzy. Desenvolvimento e Implementação de um Sistema de Supervisão e Controle Residencial. Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte. Programa de Pós-graduação em energia elétrica. Natal, 2009.
A survey of ergonomics in a group of Portuguese and Chilean small and mediumsized enterprises Castellucci, Héctor Ignacioa, Arezes, Pedrob a
Carrera de Kinesiología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Valparaíso, Valparaíso, Chile, e-mail:
email@example.com; bProduction and Systems Department, School of Engineering, University of Minho, 4800-058 Guimarães, Portugal,, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
1. INTRODUCTION Micro, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are the “engine” of the European economy. They are an essential source of jobs, create entrepreneurial spirit and innovation in the EU and thus are crucial for fostering competitiveness and employment (European Commission, 2005). Also, it is possible to argue strongly that almost all South American countries give great importance to SMEs, in terms of developing their economies (Hiba, 1997). Table 1 shows some data supporting this. Despite the differences between Portugal and Chile in terms of SMEs classification, which is verified mainly in the annual turnover criterion, the scenario is quite similar.
Despite this economical relevance, it seems that for several reasons workers in SMEs may be exposed to less favourable working conditions, therefore are subject to higher risk than the workers in large enterprises (Hasle & Limborg, 2006;
Hiba, 1997; Malchaire, 2006; Sørensen, Hasle, & Bach, 2007).
On the other hand, work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) are the single largest category of work-related illness, representing a third or more of all registered occupational diseases in the United States, the Nordic countries, and Japan (Punnett & Wegman, 2004).
The main aim of this study was to analyse and characterise working conditions in SMEs, with a special focus in ergonomics and WMSDs, from a group of Portuguese and Chilean enterprises.
2.1. Participants Given the goal of the study, the used sample tried to represent the largest amount of enterprises in Chile and Portugal. It should be noted that this was a sample of convenience obtained from two electronic databases for each reported country.
It is important to mention the use of an exclusion criterion, which was the need to ensure that no contact was made previously with the enterprise through OSH Practitioner.
In Chile, one of the used databases correspond to the PRO Chile (2009), an agency that belongs to the Directorate General for International Economic Relations of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Chile. The other used database was
the website for SMEs Chile (Pymes de Chile, 2004), which serves as a online guide on a diverse group of topics such as:
management, productivity, business opportunities, human resources, etc.
One of the used databases in Portugal was a database enterprises belonging to the University of Minho. However, to reach a greater number of enterprises, the database of the Agency for Investment and Foreign Trade of Portugal was also used (AICEP Portugal Global, 2009).
Also important to mention is the inclusion of large enterprises in the sample in order to compare and check the differences between them and SMEs.
As presented in Table 2, the used databases contained 11372 e-mail addresses. However, this number should be “corrected” with the number of error messages received, which totalised a value of 1817 and those messages that were not delivered to the recipient (for incorrect/outdate addresses, full e-mail boxes, etc.). Thus, the message had the potential to reach 9555 addresses and representing a same number of potential answers.
2.2. Characteristics of the survey Associated with the difficulty of applying the survey in two countries, for practical reasons and treatment of responses, it was decided that two web platforms should be developed, thus allowing collecting answers online through a specific website for each country separately.
In order to encourage the response to the survey, it was decided that the survey should be as simple and short as possible.
These characteristics allowed an estimated response time between 6 and 8 minutes.
Before applying the survey, a preliminary study with a group of about 25 people in each country was conducted. The group was formed by workers, entrepreneurs and other people with different basic backgrounds such as Ergonomics, Engineering, Law, Occupational Safety and Health (OSH), and others. This test intended to check their understanding of the language used, to obtain an estimate of the time that would take to respond, the suitability of the questions and to evaluate the functioning of the automatic data collection system.
The structure adopted in the developed survey, based on the 4 dimensions that were intended to be addressed: the characterisation of the enterprise, the quantification of the problem of WMSDs, existing knowledge about ergonomics and, finally, how enterprises had approached the working conditions in relation to ergonomics.
In the last part of the survey, it was referred the possibility to receive additional information, namely the overall results of the survey. Thus, by indicating the e-mail, enterprises could ask the sending back of information about the final results of the survey, the final report of the project, or both. This option was included considering that there is a recurrent request for answering electronic surveys and therefore, giving feedback was, or intends to be, an element of motivation to fill in the survey.
2.3. Statistical analysis All data were entered into Microsoft Office Excel 2007 and analysed using SPSS v16.0. Categorical data were summarised using percentages and analysed using the chi-square test (cross table) with 95 % confidence interval, which was performed for testing the independence between the variables and the enterprises size.
3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
3.1. Characterisation of the enterprises Based on 639 responses from the 2 countries, figure 1 shows the distribution of enterprises according to their size.
Comparing the sample with the economical reality of these 2 countries, mentioned above and described in table 1, it can be stated that the sample is somehow biased. However, there is a difference in the "gap" between both countries, being more pronounced in the case of Chile, while the Portuguese sample is more representative of reality. This situation may have been caused by the fact that the Portuguese sample (478 responses) is considerably higher than the Chilean sample (161 responses).
Figure 1 – Characterisation of the sample according to country and the size of the enterprise
3.2. Quantifying the problem of WMSDs Before the analysis between the considered variables of this area and the size of the enterprises, it is important to mention that only 23.5% of enterprises had a register of WMSDs occurrence. Nevertheless, 27% of the respondents have reported that they had some lost working days due to WMSDs.