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Ergonomic aspects related to urban mobility and accessibility in Brazilian historical centers Castanon, J.A.B., Carvalho, A.C., Paschoalin, R.F.
Faculty of Engineering, University of Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, Brazil, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
1. INTRODUCTION The historic cities of Brazil, despite its colonial structure, don’t fail to go through transformations that affect contemporary cities, which is the main source of problems, leading to new approaches to urban issues such as ergonomic mobility and accessibility. The uncontrolled growth of tourism in the historic cities can be considered as a big problem, because at the same time, they have committed to the conservation of its built heritage and demand control of the activities that occur in their areas without harm.
In fact, the development of tourism in historic centers generates specific demands, such as adaptation to new uses of the houses, intensive movement of people and vehicles, illegal parking, among others. Beyond threatening the city preservation, does not provide mobility and accessibility to tourists, because these cities were not designed for the tourism conditions and needs of contemporary life. Characteristic features of Brazilian baroque cities, such as topography, the narrow streets, narrow or nonexistent sidewalks, steep turns and ramps strong, are not suitable for vehicles and pedestrian circulation.
With expectations of prosperity in the tourism sector, the urban and social situation of these cities is getting worse because the sector's growth don’t follow the development of its urban infrastructure. It is understood that the city is not completely synchronous, the urban fabric, people's behavior, economic or social urban policies develop by different timelines. This fact explains the origin of problems related to the infrastructure of the historical cities. It can be considered from the history point of view that the theme of the city is within a more complex perspective, combining objective aspects as timing, form, uses and functions. This theme, in particular, questions the "stylistic" or temporal classifications mentioned, like the baroque city, based on matching a particular model or period 'frozen' in time (CARVALHO, 2009).
Mixtures of temporalities that historical cities show confirm their need for rehabilitation to the demands of contemporary life, because the new models of lifestyle and mobility are very different from those of the past (CAMAGNI; GIBELLI;
The study of ergonomic mobility and suggestions of accessibility interventions in historical sites was in fact the focus of this work because of their peculiarities, such as its specific characteristics of urban structure, morphology and occupation, these periods that reflect socio-economic and technological development are distinct from other areas of the city. In general, the historical centers are configured for long blocks, narrow streets and irregular, building without side setbacks and homogeneous heights on the scale of the pedestrian (RAMOS; MAIA, 200?).
2. MATERIALS AND METHODAs a methodology of work, we intend to review the literature, to analyze aspects of mobility and accessibility in historic locations. Therefore, the objective is to find design guidelines, based on data found. Systematize directed research, in other words, prioritize studies on the influence of tourism, traffic and infrastructure in cities tumbled, all derived from the modernization that affect them today.
3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONWith regard to mobility and accessibility, it is critical to understand and conceptualize the theory and practice of the term historical center because of its amplitude in front of concept of a historical monument. In fact, there is a new concept for urban heritage, positioning the value of the object as part of a system, integrating the practice of usefulness to museologic essence. Thus, the appreciation of the historical center is much more than the requalification of public spaces and particular buildings, is also the appreciation of who's there and who goes to the historical center (FURTADO; MACEDO, 2010).
The integrated urban conservation has as approach the interaction of historical preservation and appreciation of the environment with the dynamic socio-economic location. The discussion of urban mobility and accessibility emerges as a key factor for integrating physical-territorial and socio-economic historical areas and for the preservation of their cultural heritage.
It is known that the tourism development in historical cities generates specific demands, such as adaptation to new uses of the houses, intensive movement of people and vehicles, illegal parking, among others. Beyond threatening the city preservation, does not provide mobility and accessibility to tourists, because these cities were not designed for the tourism conditions and needs of contemporary life.
There is a technical standard of accessibility in force since 2004, the NBR 9050 (ABNT, 2004). She meets the principles of universal design and predicts an item referring to the historical buildings. According to the norm, accessibility adaptation projects should adopt the same conditions described for locations without historical interest, but must follow the criteria laid down by bodies of historical and cultural authorities. Thus, for to associate accessibility and preservation of cultural heritage, should seek to align the legislation on accessibility and preservation.
Figure 2– Highlight for configuration the road and houses (Tiradentes, MG)
The uncontrolled growth of tourism in the historic cities can be considered as a big problem, because at the same time, they have committed to the conservation of its built heritage and demand control of the activities that occur in their areas without harm. This fact is inevitable but can be mitigated in accordance with well-developed technical procedures. In this case, the relationship between heritage policies and urban planning becomes very important.
A permanent dialogue between conservatives and planners could be accomplished by joining the various sectoral policies. Thus, it is considered that the policies concerning the transport and a better distribution of the centers of urban activity can have significant impact on preserving the architectural heritage of the city and ergonomics (CASTRIOTA et al, 2010). Well as understanding that collective identity and memory are essential values that must be present in any urban planning task (LAPA; MELO, 2007).
Characteristic features of baroque Brazilian cities, such as the hilly topography, narrow streets, narrow or nonexistent sidewalks, steep turns and strong ramps are not suitable for heavy vehicles, traffic and pedestrian circulation. There is still a lack of traffic signs, which is a factor of extreme importance considering the ergonomic principles of mobility (WERNECK, 2002 apud SANDOVAL, 2009).
The access to historical sites is a right but it’s a great challenge, because they were not designed for people with restrictions. Currently, preservation laws protect them and serve as a barrier to implementation of existing accessibility standards (PAIVA, 2009).
4. CONCLUSIONS It is considered that preservation can not be dissociated from the modernization of cities, dynamic for excellence. Thus, it is important integrating conservation with urban and regional planning. It is recognized that the protection of historical heritage in cities should be the goal of urban and territorial planning, as well as, one should be aware that the municipalities are mainly responsible for conservation. “Urban development depends on a large set of economic, social, political and cultural factors, as well on concrete policies adopted by the Government, the private sector, the citizens in general, and organized society (LAPA; MELO, 2007)”.
Solutions to accessibility should facilitate access to the maximum but cannot damage the materials and the characteristics of the monuments. Some recommendations can be made in favor of this like provide suitable locations for the crossing of pedestrians, assign car seats to people with disabilities, adapting handrails on the sides of walks at uphill, using mechanical means to accessibility in stairwells, remove excess advertising to avoid clutter, to prohibit vehicular traffic in streets narrow and create other means of access to these sites, using tactile directional signs and appropriate street furniture (PAIVA, 2009).
"A whole country, from the roots of their economic policy and social to solutions technical and industrial, must be well informed and committed so that sustainable urban mobility can become a reality (SANTOS, 2011)." To be sustainable mobility is necessary to grant to pedestrian democratic access to urban land, with safety, comfort and, consequently, attractives.
There are elements essential to the pedestrian mobility and accessibility on right sidewalk, composed of three integral parts: the space of street furniture (lamp posts, vegetation, access crossings, among others), the ride, which must be at least 1.20 m wide with continuous and non-slip floor, and the space of access to property and may be covered or not (BRAZIL ACESSÍVEL, 2006).
Other points It can be attractive for pedestrians in historic cities, since her own architectural configuration, it becomes attraction, in other word, the historical and artistic environment can, by itself, increase the flow of people walking in city, combined with elements that favor the route, such as trees on street to give shade, benches, resting places and living together, adequate lighting.
To sum up, this work emphasizes the studies to problems of mobility and accessibility in cities tumbled, due to its features discoursed on the text. It aims to find alternatives to this fact by analyzing their physical growth disordered, the lack of attention of the competent bodies and the great encouragement to tourism on the rise. It is understood that the city takes place at different moments in time, hence the beauty and complexity of this, because the urban fabric, the behavior of the townspeople, the politics of urban planning develop in different timelines. Hence the concern to meet the ergonomic acessibility of the people in these cities because of all its complexity already explored.
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