«FICHA TÉCNICA Título Segurança e Higiene Ocupacionais - SHO 2012 - Livro de Resumos Autores/Editores Arezes, P., Baptista, J.S., Barroso, M.P., ...»
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Agents Approach to Occupational Health and Safety at construction sites Castanon, J. A.B., Castro, L. C., Lima, S. da S. M., Martins, A. E.
Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Faculdade de Engenharia sala 4156, email: firstname.lastname@example.org
1. INTRODUCTION Safety and Health at Work (SHW) is a topic that should be often debated, in view of the increased rates of accidents that point mainly to the lack of planning and training to perform the activities. (Miller, 2010, p. 13). In the case of industries, particularly the construction one, has the highest numbers, the probability of occurrence of injury is doble and fatality is the triple, having a value of 355 000 fatalities throughout the year worldwide, according to estimates by the International Labor Organization (ILO). Of these, almost 20% of cases occurred in construction sites, demonstrating the relevance of this study, as 60 thousand accidents are caused by dangerous character and actions with the timeliness with which the activities are exercised. (Lima Junior, 2005, p. 3) According to Fung, Tan, Lu & Lo (2010) work in the area of construction is high risk in modern society, caused by a combination of several factors, including low educational attainment of workers who are involved in this area. The authors also mention that the most effective way to secure a performance that is prevention who should range since the highest offices (providing equipment, making speeches, raising awareness and reporting the employees occurred), passing by the workers (identifying risks and acting caution) and being monitored by the responsible agencies (increasing compliance with the required items and recording the cases).
Protect workers from risks is a fundamental condition to minimize waste and increase productivity in construction, as Barreto (2011) says, these accidents beyond human factors, such as large losses and traumas, even cause great harm to the welfare system, and sources of waste and are not adding value to the production system, as complete Mariano and Krüger (2008).
As we can see in this brief literature review, the health and safety programs in construction work have emphasized the scope of safety, accident prevention by immediate visibility of these diseases when compared to the consequences of which are slow to appear. Compounding the situation, the health worker may also be affected long after their exposure to a particular contaminant or agent in the work (López-Valcárcel, 2005, p.39).
This paper therefore aims to show that the growth of construction and the need to meet deadlines make you hire a lot of manpower, which in most cases, and also disqualified, still need to work expeditiously, resulting in most accidents.
2. THE MARKET In the European Union the construction industry has a large economic stake and 18% of workplace accidents, 24% are fatal. According to the International Labour Organization (ILO) the distribution of these accidents is the world: 64% for Asia and the Pacific region, 17% for the Americas, 10% for Africa and 9% for Europe (Dias, 2005, p. 51).
As we can see in the Brazilian Yearbook Protection 2010, the estimates of the International Labour Organization (ILO) show that in this economic sector there are about 330 million accidents at work all over the world and 160 million new cases of disease occupational. About the deaths, the ILO points more than 2 million work-related: 1,574,000 by disease, accidents and 355,000 accidents per 158,000 path. In Brazil, the latest data are from 2009, which recorded 732,452 accidents, 421,141 being typical path in 89,445, 17,693 illnesses, 195,173 unregistered and more than 2,496 deaths.
Since these 54,142 accidents occurred in construction, 34,663 typical path in 4970 and 1064 by disease and 13,445 were not recorded. With this, the National Social Security Institute (INSS) spent in 2009 only to accidents at work about U.S.
$ 6,575,000,000.00. According to the Brazilian Chamber of Construction (CBIC) Brazil ranks tenth in the world ranking of occupational accidents.
Like most countries, Brazil's construction industry represents an important fraction of the economy because it generates many jobs, directly or indirectly. In an increasingly competitive market, the economy has driven small and large businesses to produce more and better products, at a small cost in order to survive. Whereas the Brazilian Association of Technical Standards (ABNT, 1999) defines work-related accident as "unexpected and undesirable event, instantaneous or not, related to the performance of work, which results or may result in personal injury," job security can be an important tool for reducing costs, since the investment spent on this sector is reversed in increased productivity, as well as ensuring quality of life, hygiene and health at work, allowing a good professional performance, as many those professionals who use brute force, and unskilled, still working under precarious conditions considered (Alvim, 2010, p. 11), the data are so relevant when talking about work-related accident, the first image that comes is to him occurred in the works, mainly because of the lack of "uniformity" in the tasks and high staff turnover. (Clement 2008, p. 15)
3. COLLABORATION OF EACH PARTY INVOLVEDA large number of accidents would be avoided if everyone complied with the safety standards, required training, improvement and compliance. Barreto (2011) argues that the installation of a Management System Occupational Health and Safety (SGSSO) must contain a number of initiatives, duly formalized through policies, programs, procedures and processes integrated into the business, in accordance with the requirements and duties legal, with the participation of directors, employees and fiscal, acting consistently and conducting activities with ethics and social responsibility.
Teo, Ling and Chong (2004) report that about 90% of workplaces are not completely safe to do so and, in some countries there are policies and systems of Safety and Health at the Work (SHT) programs aimed particularly the construction sector, which generally include regulations, technical standards, advisory and inspection services, information, studies, publications and provision of specific training for the construction sector. Thus, the active participation of employees in understanding the responsibilities of security is paramount to the success of the programs, correcting and reporting activities to a supervisor, you need to be competent enough to identify unsafe practices and encourage employees to follow procedures correct.
But this is not usually the case in most developing countries, where the action is somewhat different for each sector and lack of specific programs for SST construction (Lima Junior, 2005, p. 41). According to the Occupational Accident Law (Brasil, 1976) all accidents must be reported to the Regional Labor by Work Accident Communication (CAT), which in most cases, and not, when they do, in completing the document does not contain all the necessary data for identification of the lesion. Data from the Statistical Yearbook of Occupational Accidents in Brazil, 2009, show that of 54,142 accidents recorded in construction sites in 2009, only 40,697 were registered, showing that almost 25% were not overlooked by the record, even by those who suffered burden, making it impossible to record and later development of strategies for its prevention.
Like most of the risks you have in the work of construction are results of poor management, a work well-organized and well conducted is also a safe work, requiring a pre-planning. Each step of the work and operation of each work should be planned before. However, the quality, productivity and worker safety will be ensured only if, at the right time, have sufficient numbers of workers with the necessary skills, equipment and tools appropriate and in good condition, and quantity and quality of the material to be used sufficiently. On the other hand, it is known that there are several factors that complicate planning in construction: little uniformity of buildings, short time between the bid and the start of work, diversity of tasks, lack of definition or reforms in the project, unforeseen climatic changes, etc. However, you can always plan for the least amount of work for the safety in order to eliminate the cause of many accidents, that is, it is always possible to prevent (López-Valcárcel, 2005, p. 39-41).
According to Teo, Ling and Chong (2004) a difficulty with the management process is the large number of subcontractors in construction due to the diversification of activities. So, with subcontracting the chances of accidents are more frequent, since the lack of communication, coordination and control increase. The authors argue that the main contractors can change the security responsibilities for subcontractors, but cannot ensure that contractors provide a safe working environment.
According to Lima Junior (2005), usually the security programs in this sector have priority in the prevention of serious and fatal accidents related to burial, electrocution, falls from height and machinery and equipment without protection.
But you should also consider ergonomic issues, environmental, educational and health problems due to deficiencies in existing housing, food and transportation workers.
The variety of risks at various stages of the construction process, along with the schedule of work to be accomplished and environmental factors such as cold, rain, time, humidity, wind speed, etc., makes the absence of preventive measures and a effective management in the workplace is one of the main reasons for the high number of serious accidents and fatalities. It is also necessary to analyze the prediction and recognition of the risks; a technical literature search on the subject, and the profile of the manpower (Lima Junior, 2005, p. 20). To this end, Clement (2008, p. 42) evaluates the construction site as a place of transformation of a design work was influenced by various activities, which is an iterative process, where each change starts a new solution, hence the need an approach that will simplify and organize the decision-making should be adopted, for example, a study of layout in order to better location of machines and equipment.
4. CONSIDERATIONS To the Management of Safety and Health at Work get success is necessary that all members of the company participate in the improvement of the program, each group of employees have a responsibility to set policy and that these values work, giving it stability to exercise their office.
Thus, agents that are related to the phases of construction, including: the developer, security staff, top management, author of the project, managers, supervisors / coordinators, contractors, officers, and employees, will own tasks and responsibilities and gradual private functions, experience and knowledge in construction, which detailed the work completed. If there is still some unexpected, it is necessary to be reported, because with this action and documentation, companies (and all components involved) can together develop methods of prevention and awareness so that they do not happen again.
It is important to emphasize that each employee is responsible for their safety and the safety of other persons who may be affected by their work, in order to demystify the Health and Safety at Work are just the responsibility of specialists.
5. REFERENCES Alvim, C. M. (2010). Sinalização de Segurança em Canteiro de Obras de Edificações. (Monograph). Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Juiz de Fora.
Associação Brasileira de Normas Técnicas. (1999). NBR 14.280 - Cadastro de acidentes de Trabalho: Procedimento e classificação, Rio de Janeiro.
Barreto, M. de F. O. (2011). Sistema de Gestão de Saúde e Segurança Ocupacional em Pequenas e Médias Empresas da Construção Civil. (p. 8). Minas Gerais.
Brasil, M. P. S. (2011). Anuário Estatístico de Acidentes do Trabalho 2009. Retrieved from:
Brasil, (1976). Lei do Acidente do Trabalho: Lei número 6367, de 19 de outubro de 1976, Brasília.
Cardoso, F.F., Benite, A.G. (2003). The implementation of occupational health and safety management systems in one construction company in Brazil. In International Conference On Construction Project Management Systems (p. 10). São Paulo.
Clemente, R. P. (2008). A Segurança do Trabalho na Construção Civil. (Monograph). Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Juiz de Fora.
Dias, L. A. (2005). Segurança e Saúde no Trabalho da Construção na União Européia. In Segurança e Saúde no Trabalho da Construção: experiência brasileira e panorama internacional. OIT - Secretaria Internacional do Trabalho (pp. 51-72). Brasília.
Fung, I. W. H., Tam, V. W.Y., Lo, T. Y., Lu, L. L. H. (2010). Developing a risk assessment model for construction safety.
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