«FICHA TÉCNICA Título Segurança e Higiene Ocupacionais - SHO 2012 - Livro de Resumos Autores/Editores Arezes, P., Baptista, J.S., Barroso, M.P., ...»
In recent decades, the ergonomics have been more present in the production process, because a large number of companies have invested in high technology, developing new products and simulate future activities, as is possible to experience through virtual models manipulated in Virtual Reality Center (VRC). Thus it is possible to establish a predictability allied to the model in order to achieve higher quality with regard, safety, comfort and efficiency of all layers or components of a building system.
This work head to explore these possibilities of partnership of virtual models included in the concept of virtual reality, so that it can signal the advantages of having such tools to add advantages in the construction of the real model as efficiently as possible.
2. DISCUSSION ON ERGONOMICS AND JOB SECURITYTo solve problems related to a project until a few decades ago, it was necessary to gather information through many different professionals, which demanded a long time to make a decision. Professionals related to the project always took care to represent as clearly as possible their projects, using graphical representations of two-dimensional form. Recently, at the project offices, the use of Information Technology (TI) brought many benefits, that can improve communication and information control, speed, competitiveness and quality of work.
Currently, you can count on the help of a large number of computing resources, such as virtual reality and graphics computation in order to reduce these problems, facilitating the simultaneous use of the projects giving also more clarity and flexibility to them.
The main objective of virtual models is to improve visualization and understanding of what is proposed as a project or product, making the end result meets human needs. The use of these models reduces the need for physical models, the cost of manufacturing real prototypes and the time spent in creating projects.
On the other hand we can say that the design, along with ergonomics, is a line of work that improves the relationship between the user and his environment. The design is a creative and interdisciplinary activity, which aims at meeting the relationship between man interface and ergonomics, aesthetic aspects, with modern techniques to reduce the difficulties in a project. The integration between design and ergonomics makes better the interdisciplinary technology, creating new products, more satisfying and pleasurable, that suit most users.
With the use of virtual models it is possible to increase the predictability of situations through a more efficient number of simulations, faster and with more quality of analysis. As an example (picture 1), the situation in which a simple simulation of a body guard can be studied over and over again, in a fast and reliable, and adapted at its height or structure in an attempt to ensure better security.
Within the virtual environment, they become essential tools for the discussion of possibilities that will add quality, as can be seen in its relation to areas such as job security, through risk mapping or establishment of components that are intended not only security user, but also their comfort.
3. FINAL CONSIDERATIONSVirtual Reality (VR) brings many benefits, in all stages of the project, from conception to final implementation phase.
VR allows to share and evaluate ideas, in real time, within a project that integrate all processes, increasing the quality.
However, there are some factors that difficult the application of virtual reality, such as the need for skilled professionals and more powerful computers.
The supply of prototyping components to the construction industry still not a very common practice in Brazil, which difficult the work of professionals in design, thus preventing more complete results of the projects executed and faithful.
There is a high possibility that RV will become a tool of great importance for the construction industry. For this to be true, it is vital the dissemination of these concepts among the professionals, as well as the development of software, hardware and new technologies, increasingly seeking more affordable the use of VR.
The visualization of virtual models allows a greater understanding of what is being proposed by professionals, making the virtual models contribute to the ergonomics. These professionals have the use of virtual reality, an important tool that meets the requirements of ergonomics.
4. REFERENCES Cintra, M. A. H. (2005). Uma proposta de estrutura para organização do conhecimento em empresas de edificações. 190f. Tese (Doutorado em Ciências em Engenharia de Produção) - COPPE, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro.
Gasperini, R. (2010). Realidade virtual aplicada à ergonomia por meio do design participativo. 120f. (Dissertação de Mestrado em Design) – Faculdade de Arquitetura, Artes e Comunicação da Universidade Estadual Paulista “Julio de Mesquita Filho”, campus de Bauru, Bauru.
Grilo, L. M., Monice, S., Santos, E. T., Melhado, S. (2001). Possibilidades de aplicação e limitações da realidade virtual na arquitetura e na construção civil. Simpósio Brasileiro de Gestão da Qualidade e Organização do Trabalho - SIBRAGEQ, 2.: anais (CD-ROM). Fortaleza.
Hippert, M. A. S., Araujo, T. T. (2009). BIM na pequena empresa de projeto: um estudo de caso. In: Encontro Tecnológico da Engenharia Civil e Arquitetura. VII Encontro Tecnológico da Engenharia Civil e Arquitetura. Maringá: U-EM/DEC.
Monteiro, M. H., Malard, M. L., Santiago, R. P. (2008). The implications of Virtual Reality project practices: ergonomic aspects of interactive virtual immersive environments. In: 14 Convención Cientifica de Ingenieria y Arquitectura - XII Congresso Internacional de Grafica Digital,SIGRADI. v. 1. p. 1-3.14 Convención Cientifica de Ingenieria y Arquitectura. Ministerio de Educación Superior.
Health and safety on small fishing vessels Calderon, Marlene Research and development consultant, Rua Sacadura Cabral 3, r/c dto, 2615-155 Alverca, Portugal email@example.com
1. INTRODUCTION More than 90% of the European Union (EU) fishing fleet comprises vessels less than 15 metres in length. Statistics about fishermen fatalities and accidents for this vessel-length segment are rather limited. However, the latest available figures from the European Commission (2009) assign to fishing the highest incidence rate for fatal accidents: 28.9 per 100,000 workers; as opposed to other ‘dangerous industries’ such as mining (15.5), agriculture (10.1) and construction (8.8). In fact, an analysis of the accidents which occurred in the United Kingdom showed that the number of fatalities and injuries remains high for the fishing sector, this despite various regulations and safety campaigns undertaken by the authorities (MAIB, 2008). Although most accidents are due to human error during fishing operations, several authors agree that the poor vessel design and pressure for economic survival have hampered the efforts to improve safety (See [Wiseman M. et al., 2000], [Boshier R., 1996] and[Norrish A. & Cryer C.P.,1990] ). An assessment of the implementation of health and safety directives in the various EU Member States concluded that the directives have made very little impact in the reduction of accidents (Commission document number 599, 2009). This situation clearly affects the goals of the Community Strategy on health and safety at work, which seeks a 25% reduction in the total rate of accidents per 100,000 workers by 2012 (Commission document number 62, 2007). Since the majority of fishermen working on small fishing vessels are self-employed and the directives exclude them, the European Commission called for the drafting of a non-binding guide of best practice for small fishing vessels. This paper briefly advises about the contents of the guide and reflects upon the experience gained during the 18 month-project, which included the participation of various organisations and experts from EU countries.
The project design included three major stages:
• The user requirement survey,
• Guide drafting and DVD design, and
• Evaluation and testing of the guide The user requirement survey consisted of two main activities: case study and online questionnaire. The cases studies were conducted in the four countries were the testing of the guide was planned. Concerning the online questionnaire, approximately 400 invitations were sent to authorities, associations and training centres.
The aim of the questionnaire was to answer the following research questions:
a) What are the major health and safety issues that need to be addressed in the guide?
b) What should be the format of the guide? (For example, page length, audio, or video).
c) What EU regulations are the most difficult to apply?
The guide was then designed and drafted using the feedback collected along the case studies and the online questionnaire.
Several versions of the guide were produced. The guide was organised into modules. The initial layout for the modules is presented in Figure 1. See also Figure 2, which presents the final contents of the guide.
Finally, the evaluation and testing of the guide required two major tasks: a panel evaluation and the testing event in four countries. Concerning the panel, fifteen experts from seven countries and two international organisations (FAO and ILO) participated. The comments and observations made by the panel members were incorporated in the guide, which was then tested by fishermen in Ireland, Spain, Poland and France. The testing events took the form of a workshop and were held in each country with a minimum of 10 participants. During the workshops, two sessions were organised. The first session required paired reading of selected sections of the guide. In total, thirty seven sections were reviewed by the attendants. The second session was dedicated to risk assessment. Three scenarios were there presented to the fishermen.
In the end, the participants were requested to fill on the ‘Risk Assessment Form’ showed in Figure 3. The form is based upon the five-step process recommended to carry out risk assessment. It was specially developed for the guide and taking into account the basic level of literacy of the fishermen who participated.
3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONThe project allowed the collection of valuable feedback from the sector. Concerning the EU survey, the cases studies demonstrated once again the difficulties in obtaining reliable and comparable data. Nevertheless, it was noticed that France and the UK have established formal mechanisms to investigate accidents and collect comprehensive data.
Analysis of such data would certainly help to identify the main target of safety campaigns and better regulation.
Technological limitations still prevail, not only regarding the design of vessels but also the manufacture of equipment for flotation and life-saving purposes. In any case, it was evident that small changes could be carried out inside the vessel to prevent musculoskeletal diseases. Education was found to be the main gap in most countries as basic training courses on safety issues are not yet compulsory. Neither, there is international legislation in force to address the construction of
Occupational Safety and HygieneInternational Symposium on
safer vessels and providing minimum standards for education and training. The online survey, moreover, allowed the identification of the issues that the guide must address for health promotion and improving technical safety. The majority of respondents agreed that the guide should not exceed 20 pages. For the DVD version, audio and video with no more than 20 minutes of duration were requested. The guide undergone several revisions but in the end it was decided to split the information into six modules and one annex. Taking into account that the end user of the guide does not enjoy very much reading, it was decided to make use of photographs and illustrations. Figure 4 presents the cover of the guide. In the end, the guide produced was very visually attractive and made use of motivational slogans and action phrases. One of the modules explains some real case incidents. The factors that contributed to such incidents as well as
the lessons to be learnt are illustrated here. The last Module presented advice on miscellaneous issues or topics, such as:
personal flotation devices, first aid and drills. Throughout the evaluation, the panel of expert filled on a questionnaire by the end of each section and module of the guide. The guide contained a total of 37 sections. From the responses given, the drafters obtained valuable feedback on how to improve the guide visually and technically. New sections were added or re-arranged into new modules. Finally, during the testing, the fishermen had the chance to critique the guide and suggest the inclusion of new sections or themes which had not been detailed addressed.
4. CONCLUSIONS Implementing a culture for safety prevention is crucial to change the current rate of accidents within the fishing sector.
The guide drafted for the European Commission, targets the human element. It identifies risks and provides recommendations on how to reduce and/or eliminate them. Nevertheless, the guide by itself is not sufficient to promote behavioural change and a life-saving attitude amongst fishermen. During the project one of the activities required the testing of the guide and this was achieved through the organisation of workshops among the fishing communities. This activity proved to be a very rich experience for fishermen and the guide drafters. Members States, therefore, may use the material contained in the guide to create risk awareness within a sector where formal training is not yet compulsory.
5. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The author would like to acknowledge the support of the European Commission - Directorate General of Employment, Social Affairs and Equal Opportunities. The author is also grateful to Labour Asociados, the company with whom she had the opportunity to be involved in this project as Co-ordinator.