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«FICHA TÉCNICA Título Segurança e Higiene Ocupacionais - SHO 2012 - Livro de Resumos Autores/Editores Arezes, P., Baptista, J.S., Barroso, M.P., ...»

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1. INTRODUCTION Minerals provide the most essential raw materials used by society, but their extraction and processing activities are accompanied by high risk to the health of workers. Even with the scientific and technological advances over the centuries, the mining environment remains unhealthy, and potential risks of morbidity and mortality. According to the International Labour Organization (ILO) in 2001, more than 1.3 million people died from workplace accidents worldwide, and the sectors that have the highest accident rates in the world are agriculture, construction and mining.

The risk environment becomes even more damaging when mining is in rudimentary and lack of technological development satisfactory. In the study environment, the miners often operate in dangerous working conditions, and work under high local temperatures associated with high reflective land mines, which raises the temperature too in the workplace. It is clear that the risk of accidents, along with poor hygiene in the workplace and lack of use of protective equipment collectively and individually, contribute to an inadequate work environment, site of the development of many diseases and accidents related to mining. According to Martins et al. (2004), mineral extraction activities in pegmatite bodies Seridó region, the states of Paraiba (which includes the Cooperative Miners, located in hewn stone) and Rio Grande do Norte last for more than half a century within the cycle involved informality, illegality, by the use of inappropriate techniques, the low investment capacity, the low productivity and low added value.

Concerning the city of PB-hewn stone, it appears that focuses most of its economic activities in mining, predominantly small mines, with methods and techniques of artisanal mining, which makes the work more strenuous. This article aims to outline the profile of accident risks present in the unit operations of the production process of the White Mountain gold mine, owned by the Cooperative Miners of hewn stone (COOMIPEL), whose gold mining activity is carried out in the open and involves the following operations : rock drilling, loading explosives and detonation, disassemble, manual sorting, loading and transportation of rocks.

2. MATERIALS AND METHOD

From the methodological point of view, the work is characterized as a descriptive field research and quantitative, carried out between March and June 2010. Data collection was through visits "in situ". The objective was to go all the mining and monitor all activities undertaken by workers, providing a more detailed identification of the work process, the types of tools and operations procedures developed by the miners. We sought to understand the whole process of mining and the conditions for the development of the tasks performed there, in addition to identifying the main risks associated with drilling operations, dismantling, loading and transportation.

3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

It was found that the miners are exposed to physical, chemical, ergonomic, biological and accident, in which are present in all operations of gold mining activity. The risks are associated with these agents: heat, dust, excessive physical exertion and falls. Associated with the processes that make up the mining operations, highlights the risks inherent in each activity.

• Drilling of rocks: drilling releases into the environment of the mineral dust from being drilled. It is observed that operation, the chemical risk mineral dust from drilling, excessive noise, poor posture, tool use in bad state of repair;

• Charging and detonation of explosives: the risk of accidents in this activity is imminent, and the chemical hazard from the large amount of dust explosion risk from the handling of explosives;

• Remove: The venue for the detonation does not conform to any previous study which impulssina risk of collapse. The risks of accidents and are directly related to ergonomic work techniques used in this operation;

• Separation manual: the worker exposed to all types of risk, highlighting the risk is mainly physical heat and ergonomic risks;

• Loading and transport: the loading and transportation of minerals, there is the risk of falling debris, as is also evident ergonomic risks.

Thus, the analysis conducted in this study confirms the existence of the risk and severity that the employee may have, relating to, beyond the atmosphere are developed, operations and techniques used.

In addition, there was a need for awareness of the miners in the use of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) in order to ensure no welfare, as well as the obligation cooperative COOMIPEL should have to provide adequate PPE's to every position work.

For the PPE achieves its purpose of protecting workers against accidents at work, there must be an integration between employers and employees. It is up to employers to provide appropriate PPE free of charge to the function must be

Occupational Safety and HygieneInternational Symposium on

performed, conducting training that enhance their awareness, monitor and collect its use. The employees make it the correct use, and keep in good repair and hygiene. Adopt appropriate prevention and protection are a means of blocking or eliminating agents who produce accidents and illnesses, and so protect the integrity of workers. To reduce accidents at work in the mining industry, is stepping up legislation by the government, which, in addition to being obeyed, should promote awareness of employers and employees to seek safe practices in the workplace.





For the reduction of accidents occurring at work is not enough to know and identify the causes and risks of accidents, we must above all learn to prevent them. Finally, it appears that the risks of accidents at work along with the absence of security procedures, contribute to an inadequate work environment, poor mining techniques on living workers in the mining Serra Branca.

4. CONCLUSIONS Through the issues raised about the conditions of work safety in mining Serra Branca, it was possible to identify the main risks of accidents related to the operations of mining and classify them according to the RN-9. It was found that workers are exposed to physical, chemical, ergonomic and accidents in all operations involving the mining activity. The risks are associated with these agents: heat, dust, excessive physical exertion and falls.

Operations that the miners claim to have knowledge to develop them, 60% of those classified as more dangerous, the operation "loading and detonation of explosives." The other 40% point to the operation "dismount." Even if these operations are considered more dangerous, it is clear that the miners do not make use of PPE, even those claiming to be provided by the cooperative.

Based on information collected in the survey, one can obviate the need for awareness of the miners in the use of PPE and the cooperative to provide the appropriate PPE to mining activity. Thus, it appears that the risk of accidents along with the absence of security procedures, contribute to an inadequate work environment, poor mining techniques. Moreover, the results of this work can be used as a basis for analysis of other mines in the city referenced, where miners have associated with the cooperative, emphasizing the need for adjustments to the reality of each mining. Finally we present a series of

recommendations to improve the manufacturing environment, namely:

• It is essential to create a Risk Management Program (RMP) by the cooperative in order that this program covers all the risks present in the mineral sector and should include actions to control or eliminate such risks;

• technical procedures should be adopted in order to control the stability of mining and mineral extraction methods, observing the engineering criteria. Therefore, it is essential to hire a mining engineer by COOMIPEL;

• Implement a policy of awareness in the use of PPE provided by the cooperative, since even the cooperative offering, there is not in routine use by miners;

• Install audible devices at the time of the explosions, as set forth in RN-22;

• The acquisition of mechanized equipment will be instrumental in reducing the physical effort by the miners in some operations, for example, the dismantling and loading and transportation;

• Finally, in the case of manual sorting operation, you can build a shelter to protect the miners from the sun, since this operation requires the miner to stay in the same place for hours.

5. REFERENCES

Brasil. (2007). Instituto Nacional do Seguro Social. Anuário Estatístico da Previdência Social. Brasília: MPS/DATAPREV, p. 491Brasil. (2009). Ministério do Trabalho e Emprego. Norma Regulamentadora 6 – NR 6. disponível em:

http://www.mte.gov.br/legislacao/normas_regulamentadoras/nr_06. pdf. Acesso em: 04 jun. 2010.

Brasil. (2008). Ministério do Trabalho e Emprego. Norma Regulamentadora 10 – NR 10. disponível em:

http://www.mte.gov.br/legislacao/normas_regulamentadoras/nr_10. pdf.. Acesso em: 04 jun. 2010.

Brasil. (2005). Ministério do Trabalho e Emprego. Normas Regulamentadoras. Disponível em:

http://www.mte.gov.br/legislacao/normas_regulamentadoras/ default.asp. Acesso em: 10 jun. 2010.

Martins, G. et al. (2004). Projeto Desenvolvimento em Rede do Arranjo Produtivo em Pegmatitos – RN/PB. MME/DNPM/14° DS.

Entraves à aprendizagem organizacional com a sinistralidade laboral Barriers to organizational learning with work accidents Veloso Neto, Hernâni

Instituto de Sociologia da Faculdade de Letras da Universidade do Porto, Via Panorâmica, s/n, 4150-564 Porto, e-mail:

hneto@letras.up.pt

1. INTRODUÇÃO O presente texto resulta das investigações que se tem desenvolvido com o intuito de compreender as formas e circunstâncias em que ocorrem os processos de construção social e organizacional da segurança e saúde do trabalho (SST) nas organizações. Esse intuito levou a que se desenvolvesse uma metodologia que colocasse em evidência os aspetos mais visíveis e menos visíveis da gestão pessoal e organizacional do risco e da segurança. A proposta metodológica desenvolvida permite a elaboração de um Portfólio Sócio-Organizacional de SST para cada contexto organizacional que se pretenda estudar. Um portfólio desta natureza representa “um dossiê personalizado de uma organização que comporta um retrato organográfico com múltiplos ângulos, dimensões e elementos relativos às condições de trabalho em matéria de segurança e saúde” (Neto, 2011:1). É uma análise que favorece a descrição do conjunto de características que especificam e projetam a organização, em termos de SST, no passado, presente e futuro (idem).

A aplicação desta metodologia permite colocar em evidência diversas dimensões sociais e organizacionais da segurança e do risco profissional (idem). Uma dessas dimensões diz respeito às estratégias e capacidades das organizações aprenderem com a sinistralidade laboral. Aproveitando-se um estudo de caso realizado numa grande empresa de metalomecânica sediada no distrito do Porto, procurou-se cultivar o fenómeno da aprendizagem organizacional com a sinistralidade, vincando os principais entraves evidenciados e os pressupostos que estavam subjacentes aos mesmos.

Serão esses elementos que se explorarão neste texto.

2. APRENDIZAGEM ORGANIZACIONAL COM A SINISTRALIDADE LABORAL

A aprendizagem reporta um processo específico através do qual se desenvolve o conhecimento, resultando de ações e interações específicas com a informação e as fontes informativas. É um processo de endogeneização de mudanças resultantes da introdução de alterações ao nível cognitivo e, eventualmente, ao nível comportamental, podendo manifestar-se aos níveis individual, coletivo e organizacional (Parente, 2006).

O facto de se poder manifestar a estes três níveis faz com que a aprendizagem seja um processo que pode ocorrer em qualquer circunstância e situação social. Quando ocorrem em contextos organizacionais, assumem a designação de aprendizagem organizacional. No entanto, é importante ter-se presente que quando se fala em aprendizagem organizacional considera-se, necessariamente, aprendizagem ao nível individual e coletivo, isto é, pressupõe que também se verifique a esses níveis. No entanto, pode ocorrer aprendizagem individual e coletiva sem que ocorra aprendizagem organizacional, mesmo no seio das organizações. Isto porque a aprendizagem organizacional é algo mais do que a soma das aprendizagens individuais e coletivas registadas nos contextos organizacionais (Argyris e Schön, 1996). Na base do conceito de aprendizagem organizacional encontram-se conceptualizações e formas de ação relacionadas com a produção, interiorização, gestão e partilha de conhecimento no interior das organizações e nas relações que estas estabelecem com o meio envolvente. Também pressupõe que se encontrem saberes partilhados por “sujeitos socializados”, cuja ação e conhecimento são influenciados “pelo tipo de modelos de organização do trabalho ou pelas propriedades dos produtos e dos dispositivos técnicos” (Veloso, 2009:257).

Uma organização que aprende dispõe de capacidades e recursos para criar, adquirir e transferir conhecimentos, bem como para modificar condutas de modo a refletir os novos saberes que vão surgindo no decurso da sua atuação (Garvin, 1993). Essas capacidades e recursos aplicam-se a todos as dimensões organizacionais, inclusive à sinistralidade laboral.

Aprender com os acidentes, segundo a Agência Sueca de Serviços de Socorro, é extrair, analisar e trazer de volta o conhecimento sobre os acidentes e quase-acidentes para todos os que precisam dessa informação (Lindberg, Hansson e Rollenhagen, 2010). É um processo que inclui etapas que vão desde a descoberta do curso do evento até à identificação e caracterização dos danos e causas. O intuito final será sempre o de reverter esses elementos para todos os que precisam dessa informação, porque só assim poderá haver aprendizagem com a situação. Porque só assim poder-se-á prevenir a ocorrência de eventos similares, limitar danos e melhorar a segurança do trabalho (idem).



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