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«FICHA TÉCNICA Título Segurança e Higiene Ocupacionais - SHO 2012 - Livro de Resumos Autores/Editores Arezes, P., Baptista, J.S., Barroso, M.P., ...»

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O processo de percepção de risco é influenciado por factores diversos que variam de indivíduo para indivíduo (Areosa, 2010), em função da sua estrutura mental e conhecimento adquirido. É verdade que pode existir uma estreita relação entre as percepções de riscos e os comportamentos seguros, mas é possível que as pessoas percepcionem correctamente os riscos e não se comportem em sintonia com essa percepção, ou seja, adoptem actos inseguros. E isto porquê? Entre outros factores podemos destacar os seguintes: Optimismo irrealista; Heroísmo; Precariedade no emprego; Falta de preparação para realizar as tarefas; Dificuldade em entender e/ou cumprir uma norma ou regra (eventualmente desajustada, isto é, diferença entre trabalho real e trabalho imaginado); Desatenção momentânea; Factores de personalidade; Motivação e literacia emocional; Elementos sócio-demográficos; Experiências anteriores, etc.

4. OS PRINCÍPIOS DO ABC (Antecedents, Behavior, Consequences) DA SEGURANÇA COMPORTAMENTAL Uma parte da segurança e saúde dentro das organizações depende dos comportamentos individuais. Os comportamentos considerados indesejados são vistos, muitas vezes, como os principais responsáveis pela ocorrência de incidentes, acidentes e doenças. É por este motivo que o estudo dos comportamentos humanos se tornou tão importante. A segurança e saúde comportamental, enquanto abordagem técnico-científica, nasce neste contexto. Porém, antes de se tentar modificar os comportamentos de risco será necessário compreender a essência dos comportamentos, ou seja, o que leva as pessoas a actuarem de um determinado modo e não de outro. Skinner (1974) preconizou que todos os comportamentos dependem dos designados “antecedentes” e, talvez, até em maior proporção, das “consequências” desses mesmos comportamentos. Assim, segundo este autor, os dois pilares explicativos dos comportamentos são os antecedentes e as consequências.

Na perspectiva de Skinner os antecedentes (activadores) servem para desencadear comportamentos específicos observáveis, enquanto as consequências reforçam ou dissuadem a repetição desses comportamentos. Há um consenso sobre o uso de consequências “inteligentes” para se obter o comportamento desejado, podendo ser usado o reforço positivo, o reforço negativo, a punição e a extinção. No mundo inteiro é reconhecido que a melhor prática é o reforço positivo. Contudo, não é apenas a administração correcta do tipo de consequências que torna um programa comportamental eficaz. A diferença reside no foco usado no modelo ABC.

O designado ABC da segurança comportamental assenta nos seguintes pressupostos:

 Identificação dos comportamentos críticos, contrários ao “processo de segurança”;

 Identificação dos activadores que estão na base desse comportamento “inseguro” e retirá-los do processo;

 Estabelecer activadores para comportamentos seguros, através da criação de cenários onde seja efectuada uma projecção de consequências negativas e positivas para cada comportamento;

 Reforçar positivamente os comportamentos desejados (constituindo-os em consequências positivas).

5. CONSIDERAÇÕES FINAIS No campo da segurança e saúde existem novas abordagens que podem ajudar a complementar e aprofundar os conhecimentos sobre a segurança e saúde comportamental, nomeadamente a perspectiva do “erro humano” (Reason, 1990; Dekker, 2006), a perspectiva da migração sistémica para o acidente (Rasmussen, 1997) ou de outros factores organizacionais susceptíveis de afectar a segurança (Reason, 1997; Perrow, 1999), bem como as questões ligadas à resiliência (Hale e Heijer, 2006).

Parece-nos importante reforçar a ideia de que a segurança e saúde comportamental não é um substituto do programa de segurança e saúde de uma empresa, embora, seja com toda a certeza um complemento a esse mesmo programa. Tal como refere Reynolds (1998) a aplicação apressada de métodos e técnicas comportamentais em programas de segurança e saúde organizacionais podem resultar num enorme fracasso. Quando numa empresa os colaboradores possuem o conhecimento e as competências para realizar o seu trabalho de forma segura, mas não o fazem, então deveremos olhar para os aspectos comportamentais da segurança e saúde e tentar aferir quais são os antecedentes que “motivam” esses comportamentos considerados inadequados. Apesar de já se terem identificados alguns erros à aplicação pratica das teorias comportamentais no âmbito da segurança e saúde, o programa de segurança e saúde comportamental é uma abordagem inovadora e proactiva, para as empresas, torna-se uma excelente mais valia para os seus sistemas de gestão de segurança e saúde. A segurança e saúde comportamental deve ser utilizada tendo como motivação uma preocupação sincera e verdadeira (por parte da gestão) com a segurança e saúde dos seus trabalhadores, dado que eles são o activo mais importante de qualquer organização. Em resumo, a implementação de um programa comportamental de segurança e saúde, em contexto laboral, tem muitas vantagens, desde a diminuição de acidentes e doenças até ao aumento da motivação, ética, produtividade e competitividade.

6. REFERÊNCIAS AREOSA, João (2009a), “O risco no âmbito da teoria social: quatro perspectivas em debate”, Revista Brasileira de Informação Bibliográfica em Ciências Sociais (BIB), 68, 59-76.





AREOSA, João (2009b), “Do risco ao acidente: que possibilidades para a prevenção?”, Revista Angolana de Sociologia, 4, 39-65.

AREOSA, João (2010), “Riscos de uma actividade de risco: um estudo de caso em contexto hospitalar”, Sociedade e Trabalho, 40, 21AUGUSTO, Natividade; ALVES, José (2011), Segurança Comportamental: Excelência da segurança baseada em comportamentos, Actas I Congresso Internacional sobre Condições de Trabalho, Porto, Universidade do Porto.

DEJOURS, Christophe (1991), A loucura do trabalho. São Paulo: Cortez Editora.

DEKKER, Sidney (2006), The field guide to understanding human error. Hampshire: Ashgate.

HALE, Andrew; HEIJER, Tom (2006), “Defining Resilience”, in HOLLNAGEL, Erik; WOODS, David; LEVESON, Nancy (Eds.), Resilience Engineering: Concepts and Precepts. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate Publishing.

PERROW, Charles (1999), Normal accidents: living with high-risk technologies. New Jersey: Princeton University Press.

RASMUSSEN, Jens (1997), “Risk management in a dynamic society: A modeling Problem”, Safety Science, 27, 183-213.

REASON, James (1990), Human error. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

REASON, James (1997), Managing the risks of organizational accidents. Aldershot: Ashgate.

REYNOLDS, Stephen (1998), “Back to the future: The importance of learning the ABCs of behavioral safety”, Professional Safety, 43 (2), 23-25.

SKINNER, Burrhus Frederic (1974), About Behaviorism. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.

TALEB, Nassim (2008), O cisne negro – O impacto do altamente improvável. Amadora (Alfragide): Dom Quixote.

Occupational Safety and HygieneInternational Symposium on

European post-graduate courses on Occupational Health and Safety - A general overview Arezes, Pedroa, Swuste, Paulb a DPS, School of Engineering, University of Minho, Portugal, email: parezes@dps.uminho.pt; b Safety Science group, TU Delft, The Netherlands, e-mail: P.H.J.J.Swuste@tudelft.nl

1. INTRODUCTION AND RESEARCH QUESTION

The designation Health and Safety, or Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) has been used to identify a scientific and professional area that is dedicated to the analysis of the working conditions, its impact in workers‟ health and/or wellbeing, to propose solutions to reduce occupational hazards and risk factors and measure its effectiveness. Professionals working in this domain can be very diversified in terms of education, and there is a large number of professionals carrying out tasks under different titles, including professionals such as physicians, engineers, psychologists, nurses, chemists and many others. However, it has been recognised that there are some professionals working in this area that are mainly dedicated to safety and, thus they are being designated as safety professionals. Often, in this group of safety professionals, a distinction is made between a safety manager and a safety technician. A safety manager is competent to give advice, support and guidance on safety policy and management to employers and others in the organisation. A safety technician is competent in technical aspects of safety.

The boundaries between the level of education and the position of a safety professional within an organization are not very sharp. Safety technicians can fulfil management tasks, most probably in smaller companies of organisations, and by its turn safety managers will find their employment in larger and international companies, or organisations. In some countries, the tasks allocated to each of the professional profiles are defined by law, as well as the academic education requirements for each profile. Together with the definition of the tasks or roles for these professionals, which has been addressed by several authors, it is also necessary to address the educational issues.

Training of safety specialists, both for governmental bodies and industry during the 1980s and before that time carried out in non-academic environments (Hale and Kroes, 1997). However, mainly due to legal requirements, some safety specialists‟ positions are now requiring people with an academic degree. Additionally, “modern” OHS professionals have to work in environments that are undergoing constant technological, economic, legislative, social and cultural change (Brun et al., 2002). Therefore, several aspects of occupational health and safety are becoming increasingly complex.

When considering the nature and diversity of the OHS courses, it seems important to analyse some common points in core curricula in the analysed OHS courses. In European countries, it seems that there are some discrepancies in what regards the OHS courses‟ programs, names, contents, research, etc (Arezes and Swuste, 2011). Some of these discrepancies may be related to national particularities, legal issues, but also to the nature of the institutions and people behind the courses, which means that also the cultural attitudes toward OHS. It is even possible to assume that some courses content may also be influenced by the role of the safety adviser/manager in a particular country (Swuste & Arnoldy, 2003).

Safety professionals show a high variety in their level of approved qualification, ranging from a technician level with entry at school leaving level up to university master courses, and more recently, doctoral programs. However, it is also expected that behind this apparent diversity there must be some regularity. Based on this scenario, a European project, called EUSAFE is being funded and carried out by several European partners with the aim of establishing a suitable range of standardized profiles to cover the different levels of qualifications and roles of OSH professionals. This work will, hopefully, enable OSH professionals to achieve competences‟ recognition and increase their mobility.

2. MATERIALS AND METHODS

The survey was coordinated by the authors, and covered the European diversity and describe the mainstream postgraduation courses in Europe, including courses characteristics and the organisers profile in academic terms. This information will be used as baseline for country specific surveys, which will analyse main subjects areas, the percentage of core hours devoted to similar subjects and outcome competencies for core content areas, as well as some characteristics of the teaching staff, in terms of their field activity, consultancy work, workplace experience and academic research. One of these surveys, on Portugal, will be presented at the conference as well.

For the European survey all national coordinators of the European Network of Safety & Health Professionals Organisations (ENSHPO) were contacted and asked to complete questionnaire. The final number of courses to be surveyed was obtained joining the received information from the countries and also by a systematic search on the Internet using specific keywords about the courses and limiting the site domain to each of the considered country. This search on the Internet was made both in English and, whenever possible, in the own national language. All EU-27 countries were involved in the survey, including non-EU countries as Macedonia, Norway and Switzerland. No information was obtained from Estonia, Greece, Lithuania, Luxemburg, Poland and Slovenia.

3. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS

Data from 24 countries were both indicated by the country coordinators and by Internet search in a total of 269 potential courses. The education of safety professionals shows a high variety in their level of approved qualifications, ranging from a technician level upto university master courses, and more recently, doctoral programs. In European countries, it seems that there are some differences in what regards the characteristics of the courses. These may be due to national particularities and legal issues, but also to the nature of the institutions and people „behind‟ the courses.

It is possible to highlight the fact that, as expected, the majority of the courses (59%) are Masters (or equivalent), and are organised primarily by Engineering, Applied Sciences and Management, schools/faculties, which together accounted for nearly 65% of the courses. In what regards the adopted quality systems reported by respondents, there is a predominance (65.8%) of the use of “internal” tools, such as the students and teachers evaluations and internal audits.

One of the main conclusions is that there is a large variability amongst the analysed courses. However, it should be emphasised that these results are not representative of the situation all around Europe, as it was not possible to obtain information from all OHS courses. Considering the identified differences within all the European countries, the harmonisation of post-graduation courses on OHS, if it is to occur, has a long way to go.



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