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«FICHA TÉCNICA Título Segurança e Higiene Ocupacionais - SHO 2012 - Livro de Resumos Autores/Editores Arezes, P., Baptista, J.S., Barroso, M.P., ...»

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Como se pode observar no gráfico 1, a movimentação manual de cargas que conduz ao risco de desenvolvimento de lesões músculo-esqueléticas relacionadas com o trabalho (LMERT), apresenta os valores máximos nos três turnos observados. Também se evidencia o risco químico pelos seus reduzidos valores.

A identificação das atividades desempenhadas que fomentam o desenvolvimento de determinados fatores de risco é extremamente importante pois permite obter um melhor conhecimento do que provavelmente estará na origem desse fator de risco e, do mesmo modo, como se poderá ou deverá atuar para prevenir o não aparecimento ou para reduzir o desenvolvimento de determinado fator de risco.

Aquando do acompanhamento do trabalhador, denotava-se que, os movimentos repetitivos, as posturas incorretas e a ausência de pausas, criavam no profissional um estado de cansaço que se ía acumulando ao longo dos turnos, tendo esta situação sido por vezes verbalizada pelo próprio profissional. Todo esse cansaço possibilita que a fadiga se acumule dando origem a uma progressiva diminuição da capacidade e habilidade para a continuação com o trabalho, aumentado a sensação de desconforto e de dor, contribuindo também para a taxa de absentismo por doença e originando lesões no sistema músculo-esquelético.

Saliente-se o acelerado ritmo de execução das tarefas que foi devidamente observado e presenciado. De facto, o trabalhador tendo noção das tarefas que tem de cumprir em cada turno, intrínsecamente sabe que “não pode parar”, que tem de realizar as tarefas de forma continuada e impondo um elevado ritmo de trabalho, por vezes colocando de parte a sua saúde e segurança.

De modo ilustrativo e exemplificativo, o gráfico 2 evidencia as atividades/tarefas desempenhadas pelo trabalhador segundo a repetitividade da tarefa e o correspondente tempo de exposição ao risco de desenvolvimento de LMERT.

Como se apura do gráfico 2, a tarefa com maior tempo de exposição 25 DI (deitar 25 idosos no turno da tarde) é a segunda em termos de maior repetitividade, mas com uma diferença muito pequena para a de maior repetitividade. De facto, a tarefa 26 FC (fazer 26 camas no turno da manhã), é a mais repetitiva, no entanto é a quinta em termos de maior tempo de exposição ao risco de desenvolvimento de LMERT, pois é uma tarefa que a trabalhadora realiza de uma forma muito rápida. Já a tarefa 25 DI (deitar 25 idosos no turno da tarde), é uma tarefa árdua, penosa e cansativa para a trabalhadora, pois além da repetitividade ser elevada, o tempo de exposição ao risco de possível desenvolvimento de LMERT é o mais elevado de todas as tarefas que compõem a jornada diária de trabalho.

Principais atividades/tarefas identificadas: FC- Fazer camas, DI – Deitar idosos, RI – Refeição ao idoso, VI – Virar o idoso, HM – Higienização da manhã, HT – Higienização da tarde, LWC – Limpar casas-de-banho, AE – Auxiliar a enfermeira, LZS – Limpar zonas sociais.

Gráfico 2 – Representação gráfica das actividades/tarefas segundo a repetitividade e tempo de exposição ao risco de desenvolvimento de LMERT

4. CONCLUSÕES Do estudo realizado e principalmente da realidade presenciada e vivida, fica a percepção e uma real noção do trabalho desempenhado pelo Assistente Operacional de um Lar de Idosos, como um trabalho muito exigente ao nível do trabalhador, quer fisica quer psicologicamente. Além desta realidade, uma outra não menos importante é a falta de reconhecimento dos Assistentes Operacionais da área da saúde como uma profissão regulamentada deviamente aprovada e reconhecida pela Agência Nacional de Qualificações, como já é o caso da profissão de Técnico Auxiliar de Saúde para a qual estão a decorrer cursos profissionais.

O cumprimento do quadro legal em matéria de segurança e saúde ocupacional como critério essencial para a abordagem das questões de segurança e saúde nos setores de trabalho dos Assistentes Operacionais, proporciona a estes trabalhadores um registo de sensibilização e de relevo no âmbito da prevenção dos riscos profissionais no seu local de trabalho. Na realidade, as boas práticas referidas em diversos manuais de prevenção e as formações a serem administradas, apesar de positivas não resolvem o problema fundamental.

Seria imprescindível a instituição de um regime de acesso e exercício da profissão, com definição das competências necessárias ao seu exercício e dotação de densidades mínimas de profissionais ao serviço de cada instituição.

5. AGRADECIMENTOSOs agradecimentos ao Lar de Idosos onde o estudo foi realizado.

6. REFERÊNCIAS Direcção Geral da Saúde. (2008). Programa Nacional Contra as Doenças Reumáticas: “Lesões Musculoesqueléticas Relacionadas com o Trabalho – Guia para a Prevenção”. Direcção Geral da Saúde.

Agência Europeia para a Segurança e Saúde no Trabalho. (2008). E-FACTS 28: Técnicas de Mobilização de Doentes para Prevenir

Lesões Músculo-Esqueléticas na prestação de cuidados de saúde. [Consultado Janeiro 2011]. Disponível em:

http://osha.europa.eu/pt/publications/e-facts/efact28.

Agência Europeia para a Segurança e Saúde no Trabalho. (2008). E-FACTS 38. Equipamento de trabalho, ferramentas e trabalhadores de limpeza. [Consultado Janeiro 2011]. Disponível em: http://osha.europa.eu/pt/publications/e-facts/efact38/view.





Agência Europeia para a Segurança e Saúde no Trabalho. (2010). The European Survey of Enterprises on New and Emerging Risks (ESENER). [Consultado Fevereiro 2011].

Disponível em:

http://osha.europa.eu/en/publications/reports/esener1_osh_management/view?searchterm=.

Serranheira, F., Lopes, F.,Uva, A. Lesões músculo-esqueléticas e trabalho: uma associação muito frequente. Jornal das Ciências Médicas. Tomos CLXVIII (2004) 59-78.

Cabral, F. et al. (2009). Segurança, Higiene e Saúde no Trabalho, Módulo 09 – Ergonomia do Trabalho, Lesões Músculo-Esqueléticas Relacionadas com o Trabalho. Verlag Dashofer – Edições Profissionais.

Occupational Safety and HygieneInternational Symposium on

Diagnosis of cognitive ergonomics of the task in a marble: a case study in business processing of ornamental stones in the city of Campina Grande, Paraíba Santos, A. G. a; Lacerda, E. F.a, Martins, D. R. a; Araújo, M. C. B.a, Morais, S. F. A.a, Albuquerque Neto, H. C.b, Schramm, F. a a Federal University of Campina Grande, Academic Unit of Industrial Engineering, Av: Aprígio Veloso, 882 Bodocongó.

Campina Grande-PB Brazil, email: fernandoschramm@globo.com; bDepartment of Industrial Engineering and Management, University of Porto, Dr. Roberto Frias S/N 4200-465, Porto/Portugal, e-mail: helio.neto@fe.up.pt

1. INTRODUCTION The rapacious globalization linked to the rise of new technological approaches of communication not only renewed the methods of acquisition and sale of products, but also the procedures of how they are designed, because innovation is personified as the key factor of this new market model. Large corporations invest part of their energy and capital in the continuous pursuit of innovation, encouraging employees to contribute to the improvement of products and / or techniques. This innovative art of diving in the deepest foundations of the human mind, linking diverse knowledge in many areas, with the scope of the creation and / or implementation of specific techniques to improve the existing situation.

However, to relate the fine line of tacit knowledge and empirical studies of people with different degrees of information is a complex process for any enterprise, requiring synergistic effort by the managerial staff. Companies that are not alert to this issue and are not dynamic enough, they run the risk of not surviving in today's competitive landscape. Faced with this, cognitive ergonomics has emerged as an approach that combines the cognitive actions of man to the development of his work, explaining the various facets caused by this work and their impacts.

Among its segments, the task has cognitive ergonomics of the focus on decision-making process regarding the resolution of problems or improvements of situations, highlighting the influence of the process of exercising such activities in the minds of workers. Therefore, it is essential to realize that these environmental stimuli and their colleagues, and based on information received, seek to maximize the positive effects of decisions in order to build other artifacts that serve to support decision making. In addition, high stress can cause mental disturbance that will generate physical discomforts due to high mental concentration.

Thus, you can not think of the work without regard to human action, because their subjects are related to psychological phenomena and processes present in the work activity, and physical activity. Regardless of the nature of their activity, decision making is aided by the strategies that the subject uses to judge the likelihood of success between different choices. Understanding the cognitive processes used by each employee is critical to understand how these processes are generated and used in decision making as these, as shown by Vidal and Carvalho (2008), may be the subsidy for the development of training programs new professionals, or greater fit between the prescribed work and real work.

Therefore, the purpose of this article is a diagnosis of two main stages of production of a marble quarrying located in the state of Paraíba / Brazil on the ergonomic aspects of cognitive task analysis in an attempt to clarify the written operating procedures that are in the form of knowledge tacit. Then, it proposes a series of measures for the company to improve their cognitive ergonomic conditions in which workers are exposed.

2. MATERIALS AND METHOD

The subject company is a marbling works with the processing of ornamental stones. The literature on the issue involved was the largest foundation for the development of research in order to ascertain the routes to be followed in achieving the goals. This occurred through literature searches of books and scientific articles, which helped the contemplations of observations in situ and in situ in the company, allowing the verification of practices on existing production system.

To obtain information followed the assumptions of the ergonomic analysis of the cognitive task, supported by the thinkaloud technique, qualitative, looking at the processes performed by employees, investigating in detail the steps of receiving, evaluating the design and manufacture of the product and listening these statements in relation to the product development process as such require high level cognitive tasks by workers. The above method consists of an open questionnaire where the worker must express their tacit knowledge-empirical performed in the course of their work and relate later, the collected information with the relevant indicators of the cognitive approach to work, in order to get a better overview of the purpose of this work.

This research also provides for the quantitative aspect of the study, through the use of NASA-TLX methodology designed by Hart (1985), adapted by Correa (2003). This methodology covers aspects of quantitatively assessing the mental load of workers, divided into six dimensions: mental demand, temporal demand, physical demand, level of effort, level of achievement and frustration level. For each dimension was created structured questionnaires based on studies of Correa (2003) and applied and an individual assessment of the performance of each employee from seven indicators of levels of discomfort of the metal requirement, as follows: 1 - metal requirement insignificant, 2 - mild mental requirement, 3 - semi-mental requirements; 4 - requiring mental acceptable; 5 - requiring mental flashy, 6 - mental critical requirement; 7 - extremely uncomfortable mental requirement. Given this, the diagnosis made is the result of an exploratory research, applied, since the information collected offer a practical use in the company, delivering results that enable a series of recommendations that have the aim of improving the manufacturing environment from the perspective of workers, improving including the quality of company products.

Moreover you can assign a descriptive feature to study, since it outlines the company's current production model, emphasizing the cognitive aspects exist, are positive or negative to provide further improvement actions regarding the company's business scope object study.

3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

In order to diagnose the cognitive aspects involved in implementing the activities of workers, researchers tracked the development of two products involving the first stages of the process: Receipt and evaluation of design and manufacturing of the product. Before this, they were asked to tell their employees of their operational strategies derived empirical knowledge gained throughout their professional life.

In the first stage of the process it was found that the designs of new products are based on sketches on paper manuscripts office, so disorganized and without any reference to the steps and tools to be used. There is no document that prescribes the exact coordinates of the geometric product (chamfers, thinning, headers and design details), a factor that causes difficulties of interpretation, beyond the outline chart does not represent reliably (scale) measures and positions cuts, allowing the emergence of misconceptions may contribute to further configuration error. Given this, there are factors intrinsic to making decisions based on such information, such as geometric shape of the cuts and measures required by the products. Thus, workers aided by their experiences, skills and knowledge, they find that instruments will be used in developing the product and from their own adaptations, if they deem necessary, pass to the next stage.



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