«FICHA TÉCNICA Título Segurança e Higiene Ocupacionais - SHO 2012 - Livro de Resumos Autores/Editores Arezes, P., Baptista, J.S., Barroso, M.P., ...»
No que se refere ao conforto térmico e sendo o conforto térmico definido como a sensação de bem-estar experimentada por uma pessoa, como resultado de uma combinação satisfatória, da temperatura radiante média, humidade relativa, temperatura e velocidade relativa do ar com a atividade desenvolvida e o vestuário usado é por assim dizer uma sensação e portanto subjetiva que depende de aspetos biológicos, físicos e emocionais dos ocupantes. Com efeito, a relação quantitativa entre a temperatura e a produtividade em escritórios pode variar dependendo das características dos edifícios, das características dos seus ocupantes e do tipo de trabalho. Foi demonstrado por Seppanen (2005), através de um exemplo simples, que a utilização de ventilação durante a noite melhora os ambientes interiores, aumentando a produtividade. No entanto, o mesmo autor também refere a existência de estudos que apontam que não existe relação significativa entre a temperatura e a produtividade quando se trata de valores dentro da zona de conforto. No entanto, mas quando as temperaturas sobem para valores entre 24,8ºC e 26ºC, nota-se um decréscimo de 15% na produtividade. Já num ambiente e actividade diferentes, no caso de uma fábrica de confecção têxtil, foi registada uma redução de 8% na produtividade para variações de temperatura entre 23,9ºC e 32ºC (Seppanen, et al., 2005).
4. CONCLUSÕES Face aos resultados obtidos conclui-se que o ambiente térmico influencia o Ser Humano, afetando a atividade que por sua vez afeta o desempenho e a produtividade. Conclui-se também que muitos são os fatores que afetam a produtividade dos trabalhadores, no entanto, as condições ambientais têm um peso significativo, podendo trazer consequências de vária
Occupational Safety and HygieneInternational Symposium on
ordem. Os resultados mostram que o desconforto térmico causado pela temperatura do ar elevada tem um efeito negativo no desempenho. Esse efeito é verificável a partir das alterações de comportamento, humor, fadiga, desmotivação, velocidade de reação e aumento de absentismo. Salienta-se, contudo, o tempo fora da tarefa, causado pela paragem do trabalho ou pelo facto do calor ter causado distração. A relação entre o nível de distracção causado pelo calor e o nível de stresse térmico não é ainda, no entanto, conhecido. Por conseguinte, serão necessários mais estudos para esclarecer as condições de ambiente térmico ideais relacionadas com alta produtividade, uma vez que a temperatura conhecida como temperatura de conforto não está diretamente relacionada com esse fator.
5. REFERÊNCIAS Bluyssen Philomena M. Towards new methods and ways to create healthy and comfortable buildings TNO Built Environment and Geosciences, P.O. Box 49, 2600 AA delft, The Netherlands Building and Environment 45 (2010) 808–818 Bodil Nielsen, J. R. S. Hales, S. Strange, N. Juel Christensent, J. Warberg: and B. Saltin. From the August Krogh Institute, University of Copenhagen, the Department of Internal Medicine and Endocrinology, Herlev Hospital, University of Copenhagen, and the IDepartment of Medical Physiology C, Panum Institute, University of Copenhagen, Denmark. Human circulatory and thermoregulatory adaptations with heat acclimation and exercise in a hot, dry environment. Journal of Physiology (1993). 460. pp.
467-485 Costa, Emília Rosa Quelhas, Baptista, João Santos, Diogo, Miguel Tato, Magalhães, António Barbedo, Hot Thermal Environment and its impact in productivity and accidents in João Santos Baptista, A. S. Miguel, Gonçalo Perestrelo, Nelson Costa, Mónica Barroso, Pedro Arezes, P. Carneiro, P. Cordeiro, Rui Melo, International Symposium on Occupational Safety and Hygiene - SHO 2011, pp.211Eston, S.M. 2005. Problemas de conforto térmico corporal em minas subterrâneas. Revista de Higiene Ocupacional. 13, 2005, Vol. 4, pp. 15-17.
Falk B. Ribstein Center for Research and Sport Medicine Sciences,Wingate Institute, Netanya, Israel. Effects of thermal stress during rest and exercise in the paediatric population Sports Med. 1998 Apr; 25(4):221-40. PubMed U.S. National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health.
Fanger, P O. 1986. Thermal Environment-Human Requirements. The Environmentalist. Technical University of Denmark, 1986, Vols.
Volume 6, Number 4, pp. 275-278.
J.A. Hole, Dr. Mukesh Pande. Worker Productivity, Occupational Health, Safety and Environmental Issues in Thermal Power Plant.
Research Scholar R.G. Technological University Bhopal, M.P, India Dy. Registrar (Acad.) R.G. Technological University Bhopal, M.P, India. Proceedings of the 2009 IEEE IEEM Kenefick, Robert W. e Sawka, Michael N. 2007. Hydration at the Work Site. Journal of the American College of Nutrition, Vol. 26, No. 5, 597S–603S (2007). 2007, Vol. 26.
Lan, Li, Lian, Zhiwei e Pan, Li. (2010). The effects of air temperature on office workers´well-being, workload and productivity evaluated with subjective ratings. Elsevier - School of Mechanical engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China Li Lan, Pawel Wargockib, Zhiwei Liana Quantitative measurement of productivity loss due to thermal discomforta Institute of Refrigeration & Cryogenics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy, Technical University of Denmark, Building 402, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby, Denmark. Elsevier Energy and Buildings 43 (2011) 1057–1062 Raimo Niemela, Mika Hannula, Sari Rautio, Kari Reijula, Jorma Railio. The effect of air temperature on labour productivity in call centres—a case study. Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Topeliuksenkatu 41 Helsinki, Finland. Tampere University of Technology, Tampere, Finland. Association of Finnish Manufacturers of Air Handling Equipment, Helsinki, Finland. Energy and Buildings - Elsevier 34 (2002) 759–764 Parsons, Ken. 2003. Human Thermal environments: the effects of hot, moderate, and cold environments on human health, comfort and perfomance. 2nd ed. London : Taylor & Francis, 2003. ISBN0-415-23793-0(pbk) ISBN:0-415-23792-0(hbk).
Parsons 2009. Maintaining health, comfort and productivity in heat waves. Heat, Work and Health:implications of climate change.
Seppanen, Olli, Fisk, William J e Faulkner, David. 2005. Controlof Temperature for Health and Productivity Offices. ASHRAE. 2005, Vols. III, Part 2, pp. 680-686.
Witterseh, Thomas e Clausen, David P. Wyon and Geo. 2004. The effects of moderate heat stress and open-plan office noise distraction on SBS symptoms and on the perfomance of office work. 2004, Vols. Inddor Air 2004;14(Supp):30-40.
Zhao, Jing, Zhu, Neng e Lu, Shilei. 2009. Productivity model in hot and humid environment based on heat tolerance time. Building and Environmement. 16 de January de 2009, Vol. 44, pp. 2202-2207.
Cost/Benefit Analysis in Occupational Health and Safety: CBAOHS Model Ramos, D. G., Arezes, P., Afonso, P.
Universidade do Minho, Guimarães, email@example.com; firstname.lastname@example.org; email@example.com
1. INTRODUCTION The Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) management system can be regarded as the part of the management system of an organization used to develop and implement the OHS policy and manage the related risks (OHSAS 18001:2007;
Santos et al. 2008).
Carrying out an occupational risk assessment is necessary to take into account the associated costs and benefits.
However, only a cost-benefit analysis (CBA) can capture all impacts resulting from work accidents and/or from prevention measures regarding OHS. The CBA is used to determine whether a project is feasible, from the standpoint of social welfare, by the sum of the costs and benefits, discounted over time (EVALSED, 2009; Cullis and Jones, 2009).
2. COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS In a cost-benefit analysis (CBA), the present value of all costs and benefits for all stakeholders can be combined to produce a net present value (NPV).
Furthermore, a CBA should take into account the costs throughout the life cycle of the subject under study, involving both economic costs and "accountable" benefits, but also the impacts that are not "accountable", known in the literature as externalities. According to Cullis and Jones (2009), externalities consist of social costs or benefits that manifest themselves beyond the realm of the project and influence the welfare of third parties without any monetary compensation.
Van Beukering et al. (1998) consider that an externality occurs when an economic decision has an impact on the welfare of another economic agent not directly involved in the process, resulting from the fact that the possibility of impact has not been properly addressed at the planning stage. In general, an externality is present when the welfare function of some economic agent (utility or profit) includes real variables whose values are chosen directly by others, without special attention to the effect on the welfare of the agent that they affect. Where the project needs or deserves an evaluation by a public entity, the externalities generated are taken into consideration. However, the evaluation of projects of a private nature does not consider the effects on third parties arising from associated externalities. Indeed, the externalities generated by a project are in many cases difficult to quantify. This is the case, for example, of calculations related to the "value" of human life.
According to Cullis and Jones (2009), externalities may be positive (external benefits) or negative (external costs) and occur both at production or consumption.
The concept of externality can and should be applied to the area of OHS, namely through the implementation of a costbenefit analysis. When an organization performs a risk analysis within its OHS management system, several steps are suggested to solve the identified risk situations. Usually the organization makes a detailed analysis of the monetary impact (positive or negative) for the organization of each considered measure. However, it is also important to perform an analysis of the impact of each measure for the society, i.e., to measure the involved externalities. The measures taken by an organization in terms of risk prevention may have an indirect positive effect (positive externality) for the society, while no action, due to the costs for the organization, may have significant negative effect for the society (negative externality). It follows that these effects should be duly considered in decision making.
3. DELPHI METHODOLOGYAlthough there is some published work in this specific domain, the subject of CBA including externalities in OHS appears to have been insufficiently addressed in the literature (Ramos et al., 2011a). Thus, a proper model and a welldefined set of procedures are needed.
This project aims at discussing the use of the cost-benefit analysis within the OHS domain. With this purpose, a qualitative exploratory study is proposed, using the application of the Delphi methodology (Ramos et al., 2011b). In this study it is intended to get some input from an expert panel by conducting a series of questionnaires in order to determine the most important factors to consider in the cost-benefit analysis on OHS.
The main steps of the Delphi methodology are the following: 1) Experts selection, 2) Completion of the questionnaire, 3) Statistical analysis of results, 4) Preparation of the questionnaire for further rounds and 5) General conclusions and final report.
The questionnaire has been developed with the purpose of apply it to a panel of experts with different backgrounds. It is expected that with three rounds it may be possible to obtain important conclusions and to have a better understanding of the importance of the application of the cost-benefit analysis in the OHS domain.
The expert panel includes 10 Academics, 7 OHS Professionals/Technicians and 6 OHS Consultants/Auditors. All these experts have confirmed their participation. The first Delphi round started in September.
Figure 1 presents the methodology to be followed for the three rounds. The questions in which there is a consensus in the first round (IQR1) will be deleted from the second round.
Occupational Safety and HygieneInternational Symposium on
The experts are invited to indicate their agreement or disagreement respect to the median answer. The following alternatives are possible for each expert: a) change the answer to the median answer, b) keep the original answer and c) change the initial answer for another answer.
The same methodology will be followed for the second round, as shown in figure 1. After the third round the global report will be issued and communicated to the experts.
The opinions of the expert panel will clarify what issues are important to consider in the development and application of the cost-benefit analysis in the OHS domain. In fact, the implementation of corrective and preventive actions under OHS requires a proper and systematic economic evaluation, in order to compare alternatives and understand the impact of each of them. For this, it is important to consider not only the costs and benefits for the organization but also the so-called externalities, which correspond to the impact of each measure in the whole society.
Following the results, a model (CBAOHS model) will be proposed for the application of CBA in OHS. This model will be permit to perform economic evaluations of risks and prevention initiatives from both the company and society perspectives and will be tested with data from two case studies (a hospital and a construction company).
Figure 2 – The following scheme summarizes the CBAOHS model to be developed.