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«FICHA TÉCNICA Título Segurança e Higiene Ocupacionais - SHO 2012 - Livro de Resumos Autores/Editores Arezes, P., Baptista, J.S., Barroso, M.P., ...»

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Regardless of the outcomes, those and similar studies evaluated the effects of ACC on the driving performance based on participants who, in large majority, never experienced the system before the research experiment. Only later, as a consequence of the wider market introduction of the system, subjective assessments started including in the panel experienced users of the system. The analysis focused on the usage of the device (Strand et al., 2010), on the critical situations experienced by the drivers with ACC (Larsson, 2011) and on the perceived trust in the system (Dickie & Boyle, 2009). The methods adopted for the investigation were focus groups (Strand et al., 2010) and questionnaires (Dickie & Boyle, 2009; Larsson, 2011). Although a first step has been taken on that direction, more research is necessary to uncover patterns of use and problems encountered with the system. This is even more true considering that those issues might be various in different countries, due also to drivers’ cultural differences.

Then, the main objective of this research is getting users’ impressions about the usage and the effectiveness of Adaptive Cruise Control.

2. MATERIALS AND METHOD

Focus groups interviews were planned in order to retrieve users’ impressions about the usage and the effectiveness of Adaptive Cruise Control. The study design previews 3 focus group sessions, each of them including a number of participants between 6 and 8. At the moment, the first focus group has been already carried out and the remaining 2 sessions are foreseen to be performed before the end of October. In this abstract, the preliminary results issued from the first focus group session are outlined. Then, in the subsequent article, the full results will be reported.

2.1. Participants In order to collect the highest amount of comments about the system, the selected participants were experienced (more than 15 years of driving licence) and frequent (daily usage of the car) drivers and, at the same time, users of ACC (overall, all participants drove, at least 200 kilometres with ACC active). They were all Volvo drivers and the vehicles utilized were S60, V60 and XC90. The participants were contacted and recruited through the help of a Volvo dealer located in Braga and, therefore, the selection strategy can be defined as a ‘convenience sampling’ (non-probabilistic sampling) because the sample was simply available by virtue of its accessibility (Bryman, 2008).

2.2. Procedure The first focus groups session lasted approximately 1 hour and a half and followed a pre-defined guide. Before starting the interview, 2 questionnaires, one personal and one related to the usage of ACC, were presented to the participants. A short presentation of the system was also displayed in order to remind the participants the basic functioning of the ACC. The following discussion was led by a moderator but, as well, an assistant moderator and a note-taker were present in order to help the former in keeping the control on the situation. The focus group session was video recorded in order not to lose any relevant information during the following transcription.

3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The discussion of the results is divided in 2 sections, one related to the usage of ACC and the other one concerning the effectiveness of the system.

3.1. Usage of Adaptive Cruise Control The drivers who took part in the focus group stated to use the system mainly in roads with speed limit equal or higher than 90 kph. Only one participant revealed to employ the system in urban environment (road with speed limit of 50 kph).

Participants think that the system is ideal for light or, more in general, stable traffic conditions. This is because, in roads filled of cars, the system keeps on braking and it is not possible to maintain the desired distance. However, one participant mentioned that he uses the system only in intense traffic conditions.

Finally, the majority of participants indicated that they adopt the system in any weather conditions, being only 2 participants to avoid using it with heavy fog or hard rain.

3.2. Effectiveness of Adaptive Cruise Control The participants stated that the system has a beneficial effect on the comfort of the driving task. They indicated that, during the driving with ACC, they feel more relaxed and, therefore, they move the feet from the pedals, cross the legs, and adopt a more reclined seating position. A participant mentioned to drive the car only through the “speed up” and “speed down” buttons of the ACC and, other person revealed steering the car left and right in order to find a target vehicle for the device. The participants stated that the gains in using ACC can be easily seen when compared to the usage of Cruise Control (system which allows the set of a speed but without headway adjustment) even because the latter cannot decelerate or brake the car in case the vehicle in front is reducing its speed.

As well, all the participants had a very positive opinion about the increase of safety during the driving task with the system activated; especially, through the setting of headway, the driver is restrained from adopting an aggressive driving style such as keeping a very short distance to the vehicle in front. One participant mentioned that, in long trips, he just sets the ACC and follows the car in front until home, sometimes forgetting how he reached the final destination.





The participants stated that the ACC never fails if you know the logic behind the system; one person in the group mentioned that the system should not be used in winding roads due to the fact that the device cannot detect vehicles which disappear behind a curve.

4. CONCLUSIONS AND DISCUSSION

Up to now, research has been already carried out on the possible effects that ACC might introduce on the driving task. However, there is still lack of studies which involve the actual users as participants. This scientific research tries to gather the opinions of ACC users concerning the usage and effectiveness of the system in order to spot which are the consequences on traffic safety.

From the preliminary results, it is clear that the drivers consider the system very useful and effective in increasing driving comfort and safety, especially comparing the ACC with the simpler Cruise Control. However, from the stated usage of the system, some attitudes reveal an incomplete comprehension or a disregard of the limitations of the system. In fact, previous researches revealed some critical situations which might occur when driving with the system activated but, in the first focus group, none of those situations came out during the discussion.

More details will be available after the running of the other 2 focus group sessions. Yet, in any case, further research is required in order to collect objective data about the usage of the system. For this reason, the research team plans to carry out a Field Operational Test in the next months.

5. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Commission Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement no. 238833, Project ADAPTATION (Drivers' behavioural adaptation over the time in response to ADAS use).

6. REFERENCES Bainbridge, L. (1983). Ironies of automation. Automatica, 19(6), 775-779.

Bryman, A. (2008). Social Research Methods (3rd edition). Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Dickie, D. A. & Boyle, L. N. (2009). Drivers’ Understanding of Adaptive Cruise Control Limitations. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 53rd Annual Meeting. Santa Monica, CA: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

Hoedemaeker, M. & Brookhuis, K. A. (1998). Behavioural adaptation to driving with an adaptive cruise control (ACC).

Transportation Research Part F, 1(1998), 31-39.

Larsson, A. F. L. (2011). Driver usage and understanding of adaptive cruise control. Applied Ergonomics, 2011 (Article in Press).

Rudin-Brown, C. M. & Parker, H. A. (2004). Behavioural adaptation to adaptive cruise control (ACC): implications for preventive strategies. Transportation Research Part F, 7 (2004), 59-76.

Occupational Safety and HygieneInternational Symposium on

Stanton, N. A., Young, M. & McCaulder, B (1997). Drive-By-Wire: The case of driver workload and reclaiming control with Adaptive Cruise Control. Safety Science, Vol. 27, NO. 2/3, 149-159.

Strand, N., Nilsson, J., Karlsson I. C. M. & Nilsson L. (2010). Exploring end-user experiences: self-perceived notions on use of adaptive cruise control systems. IET Intelligent Transport Systems, Vol 5, Iss. 2, 134-140.

SWOV (2010). Advanced Cruise Control (ACC). SWOV Fact sheet. Retrieved September 12, 2011, from http://www.swov.nl/rapport/Factsheets/UK/FS_ACC_UK.pdf.

Vollrath, M., Schleicher, S. & Gelau, C. (2011). The influence of Cruise Control and Adaptive Cruise Control on driving behaviour – A driving simulator study. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 43 (2011), 1134-1139.

A (In)Segurança Viária: Uma Análise Comparativa Brasil vs. Portugal Road (Un)Safety: A Comparative Analysis Brazil vs. Portugal Pinheiro, Francisco Alvesa, Tato Diogo, Miguelb a Universidade do Porto / DemSSO / FEUP / Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, s/n 4200-465/ Porto/ Portugal / +351 225 081 997 / pee10019@fe.up.pt; b Universidade do Porto / CIGAR Centro de Investigação em Geo-Ambiente e Recursos / FEUP / Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, s/n 4200-465/ Porto/ Portugal / +351 225 081 997 / tatodiogo@fe.up.pt

1. INTRODUÇÃO De acordo com as projeções da Organização Mundial da Saúde (WHO, 2000), em 2020, os acidentes viários serão a terceira causa de morte no mundo. Segundo a Comissão Europeia para a Segurança Rodoviária (COM, 2003), verificamse, na Europa, anualmente 1.300.000 acidentes com danos pessoais que causam mais de 40.000 mortos e 1.700.000 feridos, sendo os grupos mais vulneráveis, os jovens, os peões e os ciclistas. O custo, direto ou indireto, foi avaliado em 160 mil milhões de euros, ou seja, 2% do PIB da União Europeia (EU27).

Pode-se classificar as causas dos acidentes de trânsito em: causas decorrentes da via e do meio ambiente, causas decorrentes do condutor e causas decorrentes do veículo.

1.1.Causas decorrentes da via A. Pavimento O pavimento é uma estrutura projetada e construída para resistir ao volume de tráfego dos veículos automotores sob diversas condições climáticas e ainda para melhorar as condições de rolamento em relação ao conforto e à segurança.

Defeitos no pavimento, como buracos, afundamentos e ondulações podem comprometer a segurança do usuário, além de aumentar o tempo e o custo das viagens (CNT, 2010).

B. Berma A berma é um elemento da geometria viária muito importante para os usuários, pois em caso de pane mecânica, permite a parada segura do veículo. Por essa razão, as normas rodoviárias exigem que a berma tenha largura suficiente para abrigar um carro e uma pessoa trabalhando ao lado do mesmo (CNT, 2010).

Na pesquisa CNT (2010), verificou-se berma em 54.705 km, 60,2% dos quilómetros pesquisados. Destes, 10,9% apresentam bermas defeituosas ou destruídos, comprometendo a eficácia do dispositivo na protecção e prevenção de acidentes.

1.2. Causas decorrentes do condutor O “erro humano”, em todo o mundo, é responsável por mais de 90 % dos acidentes registados. As imprudências determinantes de acidentes fatais no Brasil são, por ordem de incidência: velocidade excessiva, dirigir sob efeito de álcool e drogas, distância insuficiente em relação ao veículo dianteiro e desrespeito à sinalização. Poder-se-ia elencar como fatores determinantes destas imprudências: impunidade/legislação deficiente, fiscalização corrupta e pouco educativa, desvalorização da vida, ausência de espírito comunitário e exacerbação do caráter individualista e, mais grave, uso do veículo como demonstração de poder e virilidade.

A. Condutor Alcoolizado Diversas leis regulamentam o uso de álcool por condutores de veículos motorizados. Nas legislações de trânsito dos diferentes países, foram estipulados limites legais de alcoolemia (concentração de álcool no sangue).

Carvalho & Leyton (2000), apresentam os níveis de alcoolemia, em gramas por litro de sangue, permitida para alguns países:

 Austrália, Finlândia, França, Japão, Portugal e Suécia: 0,5 g/l.

 Bélgica, Canadá, Dinamarca, Espanha, Itália e Alemanha: 0,8 g/l e,  Estados Unidos, em alguns estados é de 1,0 g/l.

 Brasil: Esfera administrativa – 0 g/l (zero); Esfera Penal - 0,6 g/l

1.3. Causas decorrentes dos veículos Os veículos podem contribuir com os acidentes, seja pela sua própria concepção e estrutura, seja pelo tempo de uso e desgaste. Quanto à concepção e elementos de protecção dos usuários dos transportes, destacam-se as motocicletas, por serem ágeis, baratas, económicas, mas que expõem demasiado o usuário ao acidente, na maioria dos casos fatal.

A gravidade especifica dos acidentes de trânsito é ligada obviamente à implicação dos veiculos, que podem se transformar em instrumentos extremamente perigosos em consequência da violência do choque, de defeitos de manutenção, ou da utilização incorreta.

1.4. Causas decorrentes dos eventos climáticos Questões atmosféricas têm influência capital nos acidentes rodoviários, na maioria dos países. Países do norte, Escandinávia e em regiões montanhosas da Europa, têm como causa ambientais dos acidentes rodoviários, as condições

–  –  –

climáticas adversas, como ventos fortes, neve e gelo. No caso do Brasil, os principais fatores climáticos de risco de acidentes rodoviários, são as chuvas e os nevoeiros.

2. MATERIAL E MÉTODO O método empregado nesta pesquisa foi dedutivo de caráter descritivo. A coleta de dados foi através de uma revisão bibliográfica acerca da segurança viária brasileira e portuguesa em sítios de organismos públicos, privados e ONG.

A análise dos dados foi no sentido de tentar perceber as similaridades das causas dos acidentes viários entre Brasil e Portugal.

3. RESULTADOS E DISCUSSÕES



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