«Adapted from Making Content Comprehensible for English Language Learners, The SIOP Model by Jana Echevarria, Mary Ellen Vogt and Deborah J. Short. ...»
Numbered heads together • Similar to Jigsaw, but without forming expert groups. Each student works on one portion of assignment and then students share.
Four corners • This activity lends itself well to introducing a topic or chapter of study. Write one question or idea on each chart paper. Divide class into 4 groups, each group has a different color marker. Each student group moves to one corner chart and a designated student begins writing their ideas on the chart. Students then move clockwise to next corner, read responses and add their comments.
Roundtable • Use with open-ended questions, grammar practice. Small groups of students sit at tables, with one sheet of paper and a pencil. A question, concept, or problem is given to each group by the teacher; students pass paper around table, each writing his/her own response. Teacher circulates room.
3-Step Interview • Students are paired. Each student listens to the other as they respond to a topic question. At the end of 3 minutes, each pair joins another pair of students and shares what their partners said. This activity provides students with a good way to practice language.
Writing Headlines • This activity provides a way to practice summarizing an activity, story, or project. Provide models of newspaper or magazine headlines. Students work in pairs writing a headline for an activity. Pairs share their headlines with the rest of the class and the class votes on the most effective headlines.
Wait Time Wait time varies by culture. Research has shown that the average amount of wait time in American classrooms is not sufficient.
Allow students to express their thoughts fully without interruption.
• Allow students to discuss their answer with a partner before sharing with the whole group • (known as Think-Pair-Share).
Have more advanced students write their response while waiting.
• Clarify Key Concepts Clarify vocabulary and language concepts in the students’ first language when possible.
• Use bilingual paraprofessionals, teachers and peers as those who can help clarify • concepts, vocabulary and procedures.
Use native language texts, dictionaries and word lists as tools.
6. Practice and Application Lessons should include multiple opportunities to use hands-on materials or manipulatives to learn and practice the content and should include activities for students to apply content and language knowledge in their learning. Hands-on activities and materials enable students to forge connections between abstract and concrete concepts. Students make these connections most effectively when they are engaged in activities that integrate all language skills such as listening, speaking, reading, and writing.
Hands-on Materials and Manipulatives for Practice
ELL students need to connect abstract concepts with concrete experiences.
Especially in mathematics, manipulatives can be organized, counted, rearranged and dismantled.
Physically manipulating objects helps the student make these necessary connections.
Application of Content and Language New content and abstract concepts need to be presented in personally relevant ways that spark a
student’s prior knowledge and experiences. Some examples include the following:
• Keeping personal learning journals
• Making and/or playing a game for reviewing content (Bingo, Jeopardy etc.)
• Writing test questions or creating math problems for another student to solve
• Teaching a concept to another student Encouraging students to discuss, interact, and work together makes abstract concepts more
concrete. These are some ways to do this:
• Making and using graphic organizers
• Solving problems in cooperative groups
• Engaging in discussion circles
• Partnering students for a project Opportunities for social interaction promote language development. Encourage partner work, small group work, and the reporting of information both orally and in writing. It is important for us to model correct English language grammar after a student has made a grammar or pronunciation error in order to instill appropriate grammar and word usage. However, it is also important to do so in a gentle but effective manner.
Integration of Language Skills Oral language development and language skills such as reading, writing, speaking, and listening need to be developed in conjunction with one another. They are all interrelated and integrated naturally.
• Practice in any one area promotes development in the other areas as well.
• Connections between abstract and concrete concepts are best made when all language processes are incorporated and integrated during practice and application.
7. Lesson Delivery Lesson delivery includes how well the stated content and language objectives are supported during the lesson, to what extent students are engaged in the lesson, and how appropriate the pace of the lesson is to students’ abilities. The research relating to engaged time on task states that instruction that is understandable to ELLs, that creates opportunities to talk about the lesson’s concepts, and that provides hands-on activities to reinforce learning, captures students’ attention and keeps them more actively engaged.
Content Objectives Content objectives describe what the students will learn during the lesson.
Content objectives should be stated orally; be written where all will see, preferably in the same space each time; and be limited to one or two per lesson. Clarifying these objectives help
Language Objectives Language objective describe how the student will learn the content of the lesson.
Language objectives should be stated orally and should be written where all will see, preferably in the same space each time. Language objectives can be specific academic “school words” and they need to be recognizable in the lesson’s delivery.
Pace of Lesson Pacing refers to the rate at which information and concepts are delivered during a lesson. The pacing rate for ELL students must be quick enough to keep students’ interest but not so quick that it makes understanding difficult.
8. Review and Assessment Throughout the lesson, and especially at the end, it is important to determine how well students have understood and have retained key vocabulary and content concepts. The determination of whether to move on or offer additional instruction and support is the key to effective assessment and instruction. It is essential for the success of English language learners. It is important for teachers to incorporate review and assessment into the daily lesson to assess student learning and effective teaching. Effective sheltered instruction involves reviewing important concepts, providing constructive feedback through clarification, and making instructional decisions based on student response.
Review of Key Vocabulary Review key vocabulary by
Scaffold student learning through paraphrasing—rephrase a sentence to help in clarifying a word;
• systematic word study—since isolated word lists and dictionary definitions do not • necessarily promote vocabulary or language development, it is important for students to be able to become familiar with and study words in a variety of ways (write them, say them, see them, act them out, draw them, sing them, etc.); and word study books or personal dictionaries—student-made personal books in which the • students enter frequently used words, concepts, and ideas.
Review of Key Content Concepts
Review key concepts before, during, and after a lesson using the following strategies:
• Informal summarizing—“Discuss with your partner the three most important things you have learned up to this point.”
• Chunking of information—Lead students in a periodic review aloud of text or material.
• Structured review—Students summarize with partners or in small groups, listing key points.
• Linking review—Link the review back to content objectives to ensure a focus on essential concepts.
• Final review—Allow students to ask questions to clarify their own understanding.
Providing feedback during review clarifies and corrects misconceptions, helps students develop English proficiency, and allows teacher to paraphrase and model correct grammar and usage.
Assessment of Lesson Objectives
Assessment comes first, then evaluation.
• Informal Assessment o involves on-the-spot and on-going opportunities to determine the extent of student learning.
Adapted from Making Content Comprehensible for English Language Learners, The SIOP Model by Jana Echevarria, Mary Ellen Vogt and Deborah J. Short.
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