«Adapted from Making Content Comprehensible for English Language Learners, The SIOP Model by Jana Echevarria, Mary Ellen Vogt and Deborah J. Short. ...»
The Eight Components
Adapted from Making Content Comprehensible for English Language Learners, The SIOP Model
by Jana Echevarria, Mary Ellen Vogt and Deborah J. Short.
The Eight Components of Sheltered Instruction
The Eight Components of Sheltered Instruction
The Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol (SIOP) was developed to make content material
more comprehensible to English Language Learners. The model was developed by Jana
Echevarria, Mary Ellen Vogt and Deborah J. Short.
The SIOP Model includes the following eight components:
1. Lesson Preparation 5. Interaction
2. Building Background 6. Practice and Application
3. Comprehensible Input 7. Lesson Delivery
4. Strategies 8. Review and Assessment
1. Lesson Preparation Planning must produce lessons that enable students to make connections between their own knowledge and experiences and the new information being taught. Well-planned lessons include content area objectives as well as language objectives. Concepts must be appropriate for the age and educational level of the student. The teacher and students should use supplementary materials such as charts, graphs, pictures, illustrations, multimedia and manipulatives, as well as demonstrations. Graphic organizers, such as outlines and labeling, should also be used, in addition to study guides, marginal notes, adapted text, and highlighted text.
Content Objectives and Language Objectives Clearly define content and language objectives — Write on the board • State orally • Content objectives describe what the students will learn during the lesson.
Language objectives describe how the students will learn the content of the lesson.
(Explained more thoroughly in 7—Lesson Delivery) Adaptation of the Content Make texts available to students and simplify without “watering down” the material. Choose content concepts for age appropriateness as well as educational background level of students.
Graphic Organizers Use graphic organizers to assist students in grasping the “wholeness and parts” of a concept.
Graphic organizers are also used to improve mathematics reading comprehension, verbal communication, writing and story problem solving skills. Use to supplement written or spoken words before, during and after the lesson.
• Before lesson—guides and supplements the building of background for difficult text or challenging mathematical concepts and helps organize mathematical thinking.
• During lesson—focuses students’ attention and makes connections to prior knowledge.
• After lesson—to assist in recording personal understandings and responses and to double-check mathematics problem solving sequence and understanding.
Examples of graphic organizers for mathematics:
• Venn Diagrams
Outlines Use teacher-prepared outlines to guide students in taking notes in an organized manner.
• T-charts can be useful for organizing and outlining information.
• For those who need visual support, display a completed outline first until it becomes a familiar and routine format for organizing information.
Highlighted Text For newcomers, highlight key concepts, important vocabulary, and summary statements in student’s text. Student reads only highlighted sections.
Marginal Notes Teacher makes notes in the margin of the newcomer’s text assisting in focusing attention on important concepts or ideas, key words, and definitions. It can also draw attention to important supporting facts for “why?” or “how?” Tip: Use sticky notes rather than actually writing in textbooks.
Adapted Text Sometimes it is necessary to rewrite dense text in order to make it easier to comprehend. Short, simple sentences are easier for newcomers. The format should include a topic sentence followed by several sentences with supporting details. All sentences need to be relevant to the context.
Maintaining a consistent format affords easier reading and more connections to prior knowledge.
One or two members of each cooperative team are chosen by the teacher to be responsible for one section of an assignment. A separate team is formed for each of the identified sections. Text sections are read aloud within the team and then discussed and reviewed to determine essential information and key vocabulary, and to create a better collective understanding of the concept.
When clear understanding is reached, “expert team” members return to their original cooperative teams to teach their teammates, demonstrating peer-modeling. English language learners benefit from this system because they are learning from others while not burdened with reading the longer text individually.
Leveled Study Guides Teacher composes study guides to accompany students’ textbook.
Study guide may include
• summary of text,
• questions, and/or
• statements of learning Teacher can designate questions for different proficiency levels by marking as * (easiest), ** (moderately challenging), or *** (most challenging).
Cornell Notes Developed by Walter Pauk of Cornell University, Cornell Notes are used to provide a permanent record of learning. Students are taught how to take notes by using abbreviations, pictures, and diagrams; how to write down key questions; and how to summarize notes in a final paragraph.
For more information on using Cornell Notes contact the AVID Program at www.avidonline.org Supplementary Materials Use supplementary materials to provide students with concrete experiences, visual support, and scaffolding of learning.
• Hands-on manipulatives
• Pictures, photos, visuals
2. Building Background Concepts must be directly related to the students’ background experiences, when possible, whether personal, cultural, or academic. Teachers must make explicit and direct links between past learning and new concepts. Emphasize key vocabulary, and present new vocabulary only in context. Studies have shown that there is a strong correlation between vocabulary knowledge and student achievement. It is therefore necessary to explicitly teach academic language and academic content vocabulary.
Contextualize Key Vocabulary
Vocabulary Self-Selection Students self-select vocabulary words that they think are essential to understanding the concept.
This empowers students by allowing them to choose the most appropriate vocabulary words and key concepts.
Personal Dictionaries or Glossaries
Math Vocabulary Games Use the cloze technique to teach and review content vocabulary in context.
• o Choose a sentence that has a strong contextual support for the focus word.
o Have students brainstorm possible replacement words.
o Teacher assists students in choosing correct word.
Word sorts are used to categorize previously introduced vocabulary according to • meaning, structure, word endings, or sounds. This reinforces word relationships, spelling, and word structure.
Visual vocabulary can be used to form pictures or graphic representations of words and • concepts.
Vocabulary through music can help students remember concepts and patterns.
• Word generation games help students relate a new word to one previously learned • through analogy. Students brainstorm words that contain a chunk of a word.
3. Comprehensible Input Teachers must use speech that is appropriate to the students’ language proficiency level. The teacher should speak slowly, enunciate clearly, repeat more frequently, and adjust speech as needed. The teacher should avoid jargon and idioms and use body language, gestures, and pictures to accompany spoken words. The explanation of a task should be made clear in a stepby-step manner using visuals. Teachers should use a variety of techniques to make concepts clear, including paraphrasing and repetition.
Wait Time Many English language learners need more time to formulate answers and should be given ample wait time (up to 20 seconds).
Clarifying Key Concepts in First Language English language learners need to be allowed to confer in their primary language about subject matter and their own thinking—with each other or with the teacher.
Application of Content and Language Knowledge “Discussing and doing” make
concepts more concrete to students and allow students to practice English in a safe environment.
Integration of Language Skills with Mathematics Reading, writing, speaking, and listening are mutually supportive and need to be integrated into content areas.
Review of Key Vocabulary
4. Strategies Strategies include techniques, methods, and mental processes that enhance comprehension for learning and retaining information. Learning strategies include meta-cognitive, cognitive, and social/affective strategies. Students should be provided ample opportunities to use learning strategies, which have been taught through explicit instruction. Teachers should consistently use scaffolding throughout a lesson and decrease support as students acquire experience. The goal is for students to become more independent in self-monitoring their own learning strategies.
Common strategies include thinking aloud, preview and prediction, prompting, elaboration, and questioning that promotes higher order thinking skills.
Sheltered Instruction strategies include the following:
Thinking Aloud The teacher models thinking through concepts and problems by verbalizing his or her explicit thinking with students.
Creating an “I Wonder” Chart
Prompting, Questioning and Elaborating Prompt higher order thinking skills by questioning and asking students to elaborate on new
learning. Extend new learning by using these:
• Graphic organizers
• Illustrations of new learning
• A gallery walk to respond to question or topic
5. Interaction English language learners benefit from opportunities to use English in multiple settings across content areas. Learning is certainly more effective when students have an opportunity to participate fully, actively discussing ideas and information. Instead of teachers talking and students listening, sheltered content classes should be conducted in a way that allows students to interact in their collaborative exploration of the content. Through meaningful interaction, students can practice speaking and making themselves understood by asking and answering questions, negotiating meaning, clarifying ideas, and other techniques. Important teacher strategies used to promote interaction include a variety of grouping options which support language and content objectives, ample wait time for responses, and opportunities for clarification in the student’s native language when possible.
Opportunities for Interaction
Effective teachers strive to provide a more balanced linguistic exchange between • themselves and their students—ELL students need the practice in speaking!
Interaction accesses the thought processes of another and solidifies one’s own thinking.
• Talking with others, either in pairs or small groups, allows for oral rehearsal of learning.
• Encouraging More Elaborate Responses It is important to encourage students to elaborate on their verbal responses and challenge them
to go beyond “yes” and “no” answers:
• “Tell me more about that.” • “What do you mean by...?” • “What else...?” • “How do you know?” • “Why is that important?” • “What does that remind you of?”
The teacher can also model and clarify by restating the student’s answer:
• “In other words... Is that accurate?” It is also important to allow wait time for students to formulate answers. If necessary, the teacher
can also call on another student to extend his or her classmate’s response:
• “That’s correct. Can someone else tell me more about... ?” Fostering Student Interaction Provide interactive activities that allow interaction with varied student groupings.
Grouping Configurations All students, including English language learners, benefit from instruction that frequently includes a variety of grouping configurations. It is recommended that at least 2 different grouping structures be used during a lesson.
Homogenous or heterogeneous grouping:
Group students homogeneously by language proficiency, language background, and/or • ability levels.
Heterogeneous variety maintains students’ interest.
• Movement from whole class, to partners, to small group increases student involvement.
• Heterogeneous grouping can challenge students to a higher level and provide good • student models.
Varying group structures increases the preferred mode of instruction for students.
• Cooperative Learning Ideas Information gap activities • Each student in a group has only one or two pieces of the information needed to solve the puzzle or problem. Students must work together, sharing information, while practicing their language and using critical thinking skills.
Jigsaw • Jigsaw a reading task by chunking text into manageable parts (1–2 pages). Number students in each group (1–4 or 1–5). All #1s read the first 2 pages, #2s read the second 2 pages, and so on. These numbered expert groups then discuss their reading and share ideas. The original groups then reconvene, discuss the whole text, and share their expertise. Students pool their information.