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The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) develops and publishes international standards on a wide variety of subjects. ISO members include organizations from the public and private sectors.
Chapter 2. Applications of WSNs and standardization initiatives The International Electro-technical Commission (IEC) is an international standards organization that develops and publishes international standards for the areas of electrical and electronic technologies.
The ISO/IEC Joint Technical Committee (JTC) 1 was formed as a merger between ISO and IEC groups to focus on information technology. Recently, the JTC 1 Work Group 7 was created to undertake standardization in the area of generic solutions for sensor networks and application-oriented sensor networks.
The European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) has created the machine to machine technical committee (M2M TC) to define standards for M2M communications. It is expected that in 2017, 7000 billion (connected) objects will be serving billion people . A tremendous increase in the following years is also envisaged. According to ETSI  the M2M communication is in the heart of personal health monitoring, intelligent tracking and tracing in the supply chain, smart utility metering, remote control of vending machines, industrial wireless automation and ambient assisted living, applications related commonly to WSN.
NIST stands for National Institute of Standards and Technology. NIST plays the role of research institute and also contributes to the harmonisation of technologies, such as sensor-related standards. In this regard, NIST promotes a working group for the information exchange related to sensor equipment interoperability.
2.2.7. Other standardization efforts The organizations included in this subsection are industry alliances, which promote the use of a certain technology as a de facto standard.
220.127.116.11. ZigBee Alliance The ZigBee Alliance  is an association of companies that develops the specifications of the ZigBee technology, which defines security, network and application layer functionality on top of IEEE 802.15.4 (see Chapter 11).
18.104.22.168. Bluetooth Special Interest Group The Bluetooth Special Interest Group (SIG) is a privately held association.
The main tasks for the Bluetooth SIG are the publication of Bluetooth specifications, and the protection and promotion of Bluetooth technology .
The recent Bluetooth Low Energy (BT-LE) technology is suitable for certain applications in the area of WSNs. For more details about BT-LE, the reader may refer to chapters 3, 4 and 11.
22.214.171.124. Z-Wave Alliance The Z-Wave Alliance  is an open consortium of manufacturers who create products and services based on a proprietary technology called Z-Wave (See Chapter 11).
126.96.36.199. Wavenis Open Standard Alliance The Wavenis Open Standard Alliance  is a body whose participants work to define the Wavenis technology roadmap and new Wavenis features and capabilities. For details about Wavenis technology, the reader may refer to Chapter 11.
188.8.131.52. INSTEON Alliance The INSTEON Alliance  is a community of product designers and technologists that cooperate towards the adoption and development of INSTEON technology. For details about INSTEON, the reader may refer to Chapter 11.
Chapter 2. Applications of WSNs and standardization initiatives 2.
2.7.6. EnOcean Alliance The EnOcean Alliance  is an organization which develops and promotes the use of self-powered wireless monitoring and control systems by making use of EnOcean technology. For details about EnOcean, the reader may refer to Chapter 11.
REFERENCES IEEE web site: http://www.ieee.org/web/aboutus/home/index.html  IEEE 802.15 Task Group 4 web site:
http://www.ieee802.org/15/pub/TG4.html  IETF web site: http://www.ietf.org/about/  IETF 6LoWPAN WG charter:
http://www.ietf.org/dyn/wg/charter/6lowpan-charter.html  IETF ROLL WG charter:
http://www.ietf.org/dyn/wg/charter/roll-charter.html  ITU web site: http://www.itu.int  “Ubiquitous Sensor Networks (USN)”, ITU-T Technology Watch Report #4, February 2008.
 “The Internet of Things”, ITU Report, 2005.
 ZigBee Alliance web site: http://www.zigbee.org/  Bluetooth SIG web site: http://www.bluetooth.com/Bluetooth/SIG/  Z-Wave Alliance web site: http://www.z-wavealliance.org  Wavenis Open Standard Association web site: http://www.wavenis-osa.org  INSTEON Alliance web site: http://www.insteon.net/allianceabout.html  EnOcean Alliance web site: http://www.enoceanalliance.org/en/home/
 E. Kim, D. Kaspar, N. Chevrollier, J.P. Vasseur, “Design and Application Spaces for 6LoWPANs”, draft-ietf-6lowpan-usecases-05, IETF Internet draf (Work in Progress), November 2009.
 J. Martocci, P. De Mil, Vermeylen, N. Riou, “Building Automation Routing Requirements in Low Power and Lossy Networks”, draft-ietf-roll-buildingrouting-reqs-09, IETF Internet draf (Work in Progress), January 2010.
 O. Akrivopoulos et al., “Demo Abstract: Using Wireless Sensor Networks to Develop Pervasive Multi-player Games”, in proc. of SenSys’08, Raleigh, North Carolina, USA, November 2008.
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“Wireless sensor networks for habitat monitoring”. in proc of the 1st ACM international Workshop on Wireless Sensor Networks and Applications. Atlanta, Georgia, USA, September 28 - 28, 2002.
 J Burrell, T Brooke, R Beckwith, “Vineyard computing: sensor networks in agricultural production”, IEEE Pervasive Computing, Vol. 3, Issue 1, March, 2004. pp. 38 – 45.
 V.C. Gungor, G.P, Hancke, “Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks:
Challenges, Design Principles, and Technical Approaches”, Industrial Electronics, IEEE Transactions on. Vol. 56, Issue 10, Oct. 2009, pp. 4258 – 4265  Ning Wang, Naiqian Zhang, Maohua Wang, “Wireless sensors in agriculture and food industry--Recent development and future perspective”, Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, Vol. 50, Issue 1, January 2006, pp. 1-14  Jung-Wook Lee; Yoon-Bong Yoo; Jae-Jeung Rho; Sae-Sol Choi, “An enhanced parking lot service model using wireless sensor network”, Industrial Informatics, 2008. INDIN 2008. 6th IEEE International Conference on, 13-16 July 2008, pp. 349 – 354  Chunguo Jing; Dongmei Shu; Deying Gu, “Design of Streetlight Monitoring and Control System Based on Wireless Sensor Networks”, Industrial Electronics and Applications, 2007. ICIEA 2007. 2nd IEEE Conference on, 23-25 May 2007, pp. 57 – 62
Chapter 2. Applications of WSNs and standardization initiatives
 http://sensors-transducers.globalspec.com/ProductFinder/– Sensors_Transducers_Detectors  http://www.sensorsmag.com/  http://www.electronicsmanufacturers.com/Optoelectronics/UV_sensors/  http://www.libelium.com/documentation/waspmote/gases-sensorboard_eng.pdf  http://www.lasprovincias.es/valencia/20080503/costera/aparatohospital-xativa-permite-20080503.html  http://www.samaylive.com/news/researchers-develop-ultrasensitiveozone-sensor/672510.html  MTS 300 and MTS 310 sensor board datasheet.
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 C. R. Baker et al., "Wireless Sensor Networks for Home Health Care," Advanced Information Networking and Applications Workshops, 2007, AINAW '07. 21st International Conference on, Vol. 2, pp. 832-837, 21May 2007.
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Shnayder, G. Mainland, M. Welsh, S. Moulton, "Sensor networks for emergency response: challenges and opportunities," Pervasive Computing, IEEE, Vol. 3, No. 4, pp. 16- 23, Oct.-Dec. 2004.
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http://ercim-news.ercim.eu/coopers-automotive-visions-beyond-incar-driver-assistance  M. Strohbach, J. Vercher, M. Bauer, "A case for IMS," Vehicular Technology Magazine, IEEE, Vol. 4, No.1, pp. 57-64, March 2009.
Chapter 2. Applications of WSNs and standardization initiatives
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 MOCOM 2020 - Future Vision Video: http://www.mocom2020.com/  http://www.computerworld.com/s/article/9132386/Opinion_10_ game_changing technologies?source=NLT_HW
3. Physical layer Physical reachability is one of the conditions that must be fulfilled to allow direct communication between two devices in any network. Because the devices of a WSN use radiofrequency (RF) signals, data transmissions are challenged at the physical layer by several phenomena including interference, multipath and attenuation. Hence, the solutions for data transmission must be robust to radio impairments. However, because the devices of a WSN must be designed for low power consumption, the solutions must also be simple.
This chapter first focuses on the propagation of RF signals and presents some of its main problems. Next, the chapter overviews the most relevant frequency bands for WSNs and other wireless applications. Then, the chapter gives a background on modulations and spreading techniques that are currently used in WSNs. Finally, the chapter describes the physical layers (PHYs) of the IEEE 802.15.4 family and Bluetooth Low Energy (BT-LE).
3.1. Radiofrequency signal propagation
Communication between two wireless devices requires the signal power at the receiver antenna to be above the receiver sensitivity. However, the reception of a radiofrequency signal is affected by several elements and phenomena, including the distance between the devices, the propagation environment and external interference sources. This subsection summarizes the main aspects that may affect the propagation of radiofrequency signals.
Path loss can be defined as the attenuation suffered by a transmitted signal when it arrives at the receiver after traversing a certain path. It can be obtained as the ratio between the transmitted and received power, as
shown in equation (1):
(1) where PL, Pt and Pr are the path loss, transmitted power and received power, respectively.
In free space, and assuming the use of an isotropic antenna (i.e. an antenna that transmits the same signal level in all directions), the maximum received power at a distance d can be obtained from the Friis equation:
(2) where λ is the wavelength in meters, Gt and Gr are the gains of the transmitting and receiving antennae. Note that received power decreases proportionally to f2, where f is the signal frequency in Hertz, and to d2.
The free space model is not accurate enough in real world scenarios, due to several phenomena including signal absorption in different materials, signal reflection, etc. Several experimental models aim at predicting the received power. These models include parameters that depend on the environment considered in each case. A general model that can be used is the
Since equation (2) is not consistent for d=0, many models like this use a distance, do, which is called the received-power reference point and is generally chosen to be 1 m . In addition, in equation (3) PL is expressed in dB, γ denotes the power-law relationship between the received power and the distance, and χσ is a zero-mean Gaussian random variable of standard deviation σ, which represents the variation of the received power that can occur when using this model. In effect, γ = 2 models free space propagation, but in realistic scenarios γ is in the range between 2 and 4. In some particular environments, γ can even take values beyond this range. Experiments in office buildings have shown that γ can be between 1.6 and 1.8 in line-of-sight (LOS) , while it can reach values greater than 4 when there is no LOS communication . When the antennae are near the ground (which is the case of many WSNs), γ is close to 4 .