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The number of nodes in an industrial automation WSN may be up to hundreds. The nodes will offer the data they capture to one or more sinks. The deployment of nodes is done manually.
Another scenario where WSN-based applications may be of high interest is harsh industrial environments (e.g. chemical, energy or water treatment industries). In this scenario, the location of the workers can be obtained in real time and also enable them to trigger an emergency request if this would be necessary. In those scenarios, the monitoring of chemical agents in the environment or fuels and gas tanks levels to ensure security is another application area.
2.1.8.Smart utility 22.214.171.124. Automatic Meter Reading Traditionally, data collection from utility meters has required human intervention. Automatic Meter Reading (AMR) systems based on wireless sensors enable a low cost solution for collecting electric power, gas and water usage of a residence (see Fig. 2.4 for an example).
Fig. 2.4. Advanced metering equipment from Nuri Telecom being installed on an existing metering equipment 126.96.36.199. Real time energy control Smart utility meters can be used to detect usage peaks and alert to the household devices that may be causing them.
188.8.131.52. Advanced Metering Infrastructure Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) is a system that allows two-way interaction with smart meters. Strictly speaking, AMR systems only provide information from the meters to the utilities (i.e. “uplink”), but do not support interaction in the opposite direction (i.e. “downlink”).
Energy supply companies can exploit AMI to perform energy load management and to offer pricing information to the home (e.g. by offering special
Chapter 2. Applications of WSNs and standardization initiatives
incentives for customers who shed load during peak periods), where the devices activity can be intelligently scheduled based on that information.
In addition, uplink communications will facilitate customers to become energy suppliers, for instance selling the utility their remaining power generated by solar panels, bio-fuel, or any other green energy source (which is usually called microgeneration).
184.108.40.206. Smart Grid Within the Smart Grid future vision4 , the integration of WSNs with advanced data telecom network infrastructure may have a chance in providing the required “intelligence” to the electricity networks, because they may be used to monitor delivery and use of energy in the elements of the electrical supply chain (generation, transmission, distribution and consumption).
For example, sensors and actuators may be used for power flow assessment, voltage control and systems protection. Indeed, AMR/AMI can be seen as a small part of the future Smart Grid vision.
2.1.9.Urban monitoring and control WSNs can be used in an urban environment for many applications. A non-exhaustive list follows.
220.127.116.11. Traffic monitoring Sensor nodes placed in roads and streets can provide vehicle traffic measurements for carrying out traffic management and to alert vehicle drivers of dense zones.
This type of applications are usually framed under the acronym Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) [44, 51], which are systems aiming There is not a standard global definition for “Smart-Grid”. However, it is expected that it will provide a secure data communications network integrated with the electricity network that collects and analyzes power data captured in real-time (in combination with prognosis) from all the elements of the electrical supply chain. Based on these data, predictive information and recommendations should be provided to utilities, their suppliers and their customers on how best to manage power.
to allow people to get more from vehicular transport networks, with greater safety and with less impact on the environment. Both car-to-car and car-toinfrastructure communication applications are identified in this area addressing not only traffic control or road situation monitoring, but also road usage charging (see section 2.1.10), fleet management or driver assistance information (e.g. driving assistance supported by data recorded from road signals information placed along the route ).
18.104.22.168. On-street parking operations and payment
Vehicles equipped with sensor nodes may interact with fixed control devices placed at parking zones for carrying out the parking payment. The sensor node attached to the vehicle may provide the identification of the car owner and may also be used to measure the vehicle parking time [22, 45].
22.214.171.124. Green zones watering control
Underground humidity sensors may be placed at green zones (e.g. grass areas). When the humidity level is below a certain threshold, the sensors can send a message to an actuator that controls the irrigation system. Hence, the irrigation mechanism can be automatically turned on or off, based on the green zone watering needs. Fig. 2.5 shows a sensor node that includes a humidity sensor.
Fig. 2.5. Example of a sensor node that includes a soil moisture sensor Chapter 2. Applications of WSNs and standardization initiatives 2.
1.9.4. Rubbish selective recollection Sensor nodes can be placed inside of rubbish containers for sensing the rubbish occupancy level of each container (see Fig. 2.6). This information can be transmitted (possibly, in a multi-hop way) to the vehicles in charge of rubbish collection. This way, the vehicle can follow optimized routes, avoiding the need for passing by streets where the rubbish containers are empty.
Fig. 2.6. A sensor node placed inside of a rubbish container for measuring its occupancy level by using ultrasound signals 126.96.36.199. Lighting At night street light illuminate the city to facilitate the people movement and improve the security. The usage of a sensor network can detect the presence of people and modify or even switch off and on light in order to save energy when nobody is in the area close to the lamp pole [23, 46].
188.8.131.52. Public safety Applications related to public safety may be enabled by means of WSNs, as for example chemical agents monitoring in civilian settings. In addition sewage remote management is other related area of potential applicability.
2.1.10.Road usage charging Sensor nodes placed in vehicles can be used in Road Usage Charging (RUC) operations. Such sensor nodes may store the identity of the vehicle owner and may include information to enable payment operations.
When a vehicle approaches a toll barrier, the sensor node in the vehicle can communicate with another sensor placed close to the barrier, so that both devices can exchange the information necessary to enable the payment required . In some advanced proposals sensors detect the number of people inside to apply different charging depending on the vehicle occupation.
2.1.11. Disaster recovery
For a quick public service response to disasters, a set of sensor nodes could be distributed in the rescue area (for example robots or fire brigades could have these nodes with their wearable equipments) and ad-hoc wireless mesh networks could be quickly set up to map out the disaster area and transmit it to the command centre .
2.1.12.Rural monitoring and control
WSNs can significantly enhance the efficiency and productivity of agricultural and livestock management [19, 21]. For example, specialized sensor nodes can be placed to cover the area of interest for monitoring the temperature, frosting, plagues, soil moisture (see Fig. 2.7) or sunlight.
These sensor nodes can provide measurements with significantly greater sampling rate than any other human-based monitoring mechanism.
Due to farmers’ natural limitations, and the collected data can be centralized and managed in a PC. Based on the information collected, the farmers can better decide about water, energy or pesticide usage .
The number of nodes for such a network may be in the order of thousands and the nodes are static.
Chapter 2. Applications of WSNs and standardization initiatives
Similarly, livestock can be controlled by attaching a sensor node to each animal. Each sensor node can provide information about its location, its identification and about the environment. The nodes in this case are mobile (their mobility depends on the mobility of the animals), except for static sink nodes that receive the collected data.
2.1.13. Telecommunications applications
Sensor nodes embedded in telecommunications devices (e.g. mobile phones) can provide added value and a new range of services offered to the telecom operators customers. For example, the location of a user can be determined if other sensor nodes with known locations detect his/her sensor-enabled mobile phone. This information can be used to offer advertisements or information in general to the user, based on his/her location and interests. Mobile payment is another application for mobile users (the same idea presented in 2.1.10 can be extended to any type of payment).
WSNs have a large potential to enable gaming applications. Players with attached sensor nodes, or holding devices equipped with sensor nodes, can interact with each other and their environment by moving and gesturing in order to carry out game related actions . In fact, there exist games where devices with 3-axial accelerometer sensors are used, in order to emulate 3D actions.
Wireless sensor nodes can be embedded on various types of robots, for example, for measuring physical parameters in zones where human access is difficult. A group of robots can collaborate with each other, based on their measurements. These robots can be seen as a WSN composed of mobile nodes.
2.1.16. Contextual awareness
In general, everyday human life activities could be enhanced in terms of wellbeing, productivity, efficiency and sustainability concerns if the contextual relevant data obtained from a wide variety of sensors placed in the surrounding space of people could be properly managed . For example, today the sensor devices technology in a mobile phone exists in order to allow activating the keyboard illumination depending on the ambient light, to change the view depending on the terminal inclination or even to change the ringing volume according to the ambient noise. In an office building, presence sensors can switch off the lights or a temperature sensor can activate the heater.
2.2. Standardization initiatives This section presents some of the main standardization initiatives in the area of WSNs. We consider the initiatives that have been promoted and/or are promoted by the IEEE, the IETF, the ITU, the ISO/IEC and industry alliChapter 2. Applications of WSNs and standardization initiatives ances (such as the ZigBee Alliance, the Bluetooth Special Interest Group (SIG), the Z-Wave Alliance, the Wavenis Open Standard Alliance (OSA), the INSTEON Alliance and the EnOcean Alliance).
2.2.1. IEEE The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) is a professional association which develops and promotes engineering, computing and technology information . The IEEE is in charge of a large amount of publications, conferences, technology standards, and professional and educational activities.
With regard to WSNs, the main standard developed by IEEE is IEEE 802.15.4, which specifies the physical (PHY) layer and Medium Access Control (MAC) layer functionality of a low power radio interface (see chapters 3 and 4). IEEE 802.15.4 is actually a family of standards developed by the IEEE 802.15 Task Group 4, which was chartered “to investigate a low data rate solution with multi-month to multi-year battery life and very low complexity” . In fact, IEEE 802.15.4 has become the de facto radio interface used in WSNs.
Also in the area of WSNs, the IEEE produced the IEEE 1451 specification, which describes a family of smart transducer interface standards (see Chapter 12).
The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) is an open international community “of network designers, operators, vendors, and researchers concerned with the evolution of the Internet architecture and the smooth operation of the Internet” . The IETF develops and updates the protocols and architectures of the Internet. An important detail about the specifications developed by the IETF is that they are not standards from a formal point of view. They are de facto standards, which mean that these specifications are accepted and used by a large community.
Work in the IETF is carried out by Working Groups (WGs), which produce documents that aim at offering solutions and useful information with regard to specific problems on the Internet.
There are three main IETF WGs relevant to WSNs: the IPv6 Low power Wireless Personal Area Network (6LoWPAN) WG , the Routing over Low power and Lossy networks (ROLL) WG  and the Constrained RESTful Environments (CoRE) WG.
The main purpose of 6LoWPAN is to develop solutions for enabling the transmission of IPv6 packets on top of IEEE 802.15.4 networks. See Chapter 11 for more details.
The main goal of ROLL is the development of routing solutions for Low power and Lossy Networks (LLNs), which include WSNs. See Chapter 7 for more details.
CoRE is a WG that was recently created to define a Constrainednode/network Application Protocol (CoAP) for the manipulation of resources on a device.
The International Telecommunications Union (ITU) is the United Nations agency for the areas of information and communication technology issues . The telecommunication standardization sector is known as ITU-T.
Ubiquitous Sensor Networks (USNs) were the subject under study of a recent report carried out by ITU-T, which aimed at identifying candidate technologies for standardization work within ITU .
On the other hand, the ITU published in 2005 a report about the Internet of Things , a topic where WSNs play a fundamental role.