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«Carles Gómez Josep Paradells José E. Caballero Edita: Fundación Vodafone España Autores: Carles Gómez Montenegro* Universitat Politècnica de ...»

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17. Future directions in wireless sensor networks After the comprehensive review of WSN technologies provided in previous chapters, this chapter is devoted to outlining future directions in the field. Section 17.1 discusses how sensors are increasingly becoming a reality in everyday life. Section 17.2 focuses on the limitations (e.g. energy, memory, etc.) that characterize sensor nodes (in which those sensors are embodied). Section 17.3 discusses the current fragmented WSN ecosystem and the need for few standardised wireless sensor network solutions. In Section 17.4, the use of IP in WSNs and its relationship with the Internet of Things [1, 2] is analysed. Finally, Section 17.5 discusses open application development framework enablement.

17.1. More and more sensors in everyday life

A key future direction is fast becoming a reality now: “Sensors will be everywhere around you”, which basically means that people could carry wearable sensors (implants, textile sensors, sensors attached to the body, etc.); they will have more and more sensors in their phone (e.g. accelerometers, light sensors, proximity sensors, humidity sensors, etc.), and many remote sensors will found in their vicinity to provide various services (e.g. for providing people location, environmental monitoring, public safety, urban planning, etc.).

Sensors Everywhere

Emerging small, low-cost, and low-power consumption sensor technologies are becoming a reality, enabling a massive deployment of sensors in the spaces where people live and in the objects they use in their daily life. State of the art of chip manufacturing technologies are currently producing these types of devices; for example, surface micro-machining will lead to industrial mass-production for Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS).

Another key future direction is the incorporation of sensor devices into their corresponding “nodes” (for instance, embedded in materials like textiles, plastics or glass; built-in mobile phones or remote sensor nodes placed in any location around the user), thus creating efficient short range wireless system operations.

17.2. Efficient energy harvesting sensor nodes

From initial research initiatives in the WSN area, energy supply and conservation has been identified as being of utmost importance.

In recent years, energy harvesting has been investigated as a promising strategy for palliating the problem of feeding the nodes. However, more research is needed in this direction, since current energy harvesting mechanisms are limited. Design for energy constrained nodes will still be indispensable in WSNs, at least in the foreseeable future.

Another typical characteristic of sensor nodes that requires improvement is hardware constraints. Even so, the capabilities of recent hardware platforms are on the increase. This suggests that future WSN applications will benefit from enhanced processing capabilities, thereby enabling enhanced quality and functionality. Some of the protocol design principles (e.g. with regard to storage capacity of a node) may have to be revisited in due course.

17.3. Standardised WSN solutions Sensor nodes need to be interconnected and able to communicate with each other, preferably by implementing wireless mesh technologies in most

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cases. A key factor for future success is to avoid fragmentation of the WSN ecosystem with a multitude of proprietary solutions focused on specific applications. A future direction towards fewer standardised short-range wireless systems able to cope with a wide set of sensor based applications is envisaged.

Short range network topologies and protocols will be influenced by the evolution of processing power, as previously discussed.

17.4. IP-based WSNs and the Internet of Things

While most networking solutions for WSNs were first conceived without IP support, it is interesting to observe that convergence towards IP is a current major trend in the industry. Indeed, IP support offers significant advantages for WSNs in terms of interoperability, reuse of existing tools and remote access. While protocol overhead might be argued as a drawback for IP-based approaches, good performance IP solutions for WSNs already exist. Nevertheless, more effort is required in order to adapt existing protocols or to develop new ones (e.g. in the application, transport and security areas). The IETF will play a key role in defining the mechanisms for the use of IP in WSNs, which will add to those already developed by the 6LoWPAN and ROLL WGs.

On the other hand, WSNs will play a significant role in the Internet of Things. It is expected that many of the “next billion nodes” to be connected to the Internet will be WSN nodes. These nodes (i.e. “machines”) will outnumber the amount of users (i.e. “humans”) currently connected to the Internet. The convergence of WSNs towards IP may be a key technology factor enabling the Internet of Things vision.

Finally, the design of new architectures for the Internet (sometimes referred to as Post-IP initiatives [3]) may benefit from considering the solutions that already exist for WSNs. In fact, sensor nodes may become the dominant type of device in the Internet of the future. On the other hand, sensor nodes will be the most limited devices in the Internet. In consequence, it is reasonable to design the future Internet protocols and mechanisms in order for

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them to work properly on sensor nodes, since they will also work well on more powerful devices.

17.5. Applications development The development of a large amount of applications for WSNs will be made possible by adequate middleware and supporting platforms. These platforms should constitute the basic reference for a framework, thus allowing the development of a wide range of applications supported by an ecosystem in which the service creation, composition and reuse of modules are facilitated. This is a “horizontal” approach, aligned with the web 2.0 model successfully run for software applications.

On the other hand, a “vertical” approach where end to end solutions based on middleware platforms developed for one or few specific applications will also exist, especially for massive applications utilising this investment.

<

REFERENCES

[1] http://www.itu.int/osg/spu/publications/internetofthings/ [2] ITU-T Technology Watch Briefing Report Series, No. 4 (February 2008).

[3] R. Tafazolli, “e.Mobility Post-IP Working Group White Paper”, December

2006. http://meshup.org/eMobility_PostIP

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AAL Ambient Assisted Living 74, ACL Access Control List 253 Access control 253 ACK Acknowledgement 139, 150-154, 171, 239-240, 244-245, 298, 303, 305 ACQUIRE ACtive QUery forwarding In sensoR nEtworks 201-202 Active state 141. 166 Actuator 59-60, 80, 165, 177, 326, 345 Electric switch 179

Sensors Everywhere

Infrared transmitter 180 Ultrasound transmitter 179 ADC Analog to Digital Converter 167 Address assignment algorithm 288 Address auto-configuration 291 ADV message Advertise Message 200 AES Advanced Encryption Standard 252-245, 257, 267, 268 298-299, 301, 306, 310 AES-CBC-MAC AES - Cipher Block Chaining - Message Authentication Code 253, 254 AES- CCM AES - Counter with CBC-MAC 253, 254 AES-CTR AES- Cipher Counter 253, 254 Agents 199 Aggregation 321, 386-387 AIMD Adaptive Increase Multiplicative Decrease 227, 234 ALOHA protocol 134 Ambient Systems 276, 311-312 AmbioSystems LLC 311 AMI Advanced Metering Infrastructure 78-79, 283, 297 AM Amplitude Modulation 103 AMR Automatic Meter Reading 78-79, 283, 297 ANSI American National Standards Institute 322 ANSI N42.42 Data format standard for radiation detectors used for Homeland Security 322 ANT 308, 309-310 Antenna 172-177 Balun 176 Ceramic 175, 176 Connector 176 Dipole 172, 173-174 Folded Monopole 174, 175 Full wave loop 174 Helix Antenna 174 IFA Inverted F Antenna 175 Isotropic 98, 178

Glossary

Meander Antenna 174 Whip 174 AODV Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector 206-210, 285 AODVbis 210 AODVjr 210 API Application Programming Interface 170, 299 APL Application Layer 255-256, 258, 284, 286 Application framework 286 Application object 286 APS APplication Support sub-layer 286 Arch Rock Corp. 182 Arduino 182 ARQ Automatic Repeat reQuest 235 ARM Advanced RISC Machine processor 166 ARM Cortex 166 ARM7 275, 278 ARM9 278 ASCII American Standard Code for Information Interchange 346 ASK Amplitude Shift Keying 104, 112-114, 172, 302 AT command ATtention command 181 Atmel Corporation 166, 171, 181 Attenuation 97, 99, 376 Augmented reality 320 Authentication 251-261, 262, 294, 306-307

B

Back-off procedure 135, 149, 229 Backpressure messages 227 BCH codes Bose, Chaudhuri, Hocquenghem error correcting codes 300 BR Basic Rate 293-295 Beacon-enabled network 148-152 BFSK Binary Frequency Shift Keying 297 Bluetooth 283, 292, 292-297, 327, 387 Controller 285, 294-295

Sensors Everywhere

Core spec 293-294 HCI Host Controller Interface 294 Host control 294 Low energy 88, 121, 156, 171, 292-293 SDP Service Discovery Protocol 387 SIG Special Interest Group 85, 88,107, 293 BOM Bill of Materials 180 BOSH Bidirectional-streams Over Synchronous HTTP 343 BPM-BPSK Burst Position Modulation BPSK 117-118 BPSK Binary PSK 104-105, 108-110 Broadcast communications 285, 302 BT-LE Bluetooth - Low Energy 88, 97, 121, 156-160, 171, 198, 267-268, 293-295 Buffer occupancy 233, 234 Building automation 283, 288, 297, 299, 301 BXML Binary XML 323

C

CADR Constrained Anisotropic Diffusion Routing 199 CAN Controller Area Network 327 CANOpen 327 CAP Contention Access Period 149, 153 CAP Compact Application Protocol 255, 340 CBCS Cluster Based Collaborative Storage protocol 321 CBRN Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear 322 CBRN data model 322 CBTC Cone Based Topology Control 192-193 CCA Clear Channel Assessment 112 CCM Counter with Cipher block chaining-Message authentication code 294 CCM* CCM variant 254, 257, 306 Checksum 298 Chipcon AS 166, 171, 180 CCF Congestion Control and Fairness 229-230, 232, 234 CSMA Carrier Sense Multiple Access 11

Glossary

CFP Contention Free Period 149 Channel blacklisting 307 Child node 228 Children node, 228-231 CLS Coordinated Local Storage 321 Cluster-based network 188 Cluster head 133, 188, 202-203, 321 CoAP Constrained-node/network Application Protocol 86 CODA Congestion Detection and Avoidance 227-234 Coexistence 123-126 Collision avoidance 112, 135, 138, 297, 303 Collision detection 135 Commercial Building Automation 211 Confidentiality 251, 254, 306 Congestion control protocols 221-225, 226, 227-232, 233-240, 244-245 Congestion detection 226-241 Congestion mitigation 226-241 Congestion notification 226, 231, 241 Conitel 346 Continuous flow 240-244 Contention-based protocols 133, 134 Contention window schemes 137 Convolutional coding 117 COOJA Contiki OS Java Simulator 278 CoRE Constrained RESTful Environments working group 86, 292, 345 Coronis S.A.S. 299 COUGAR routing protocol 201-202 CPU Central Processing Unit 166, 323 CRC Cyclic Redundancy Check 171-172, 294, 302 Cricket 275, 375 Crossbow Technology 182, 275, 309, 359 CS Carrier Sense 300 CSMA Carrier Sense Multiple Access 112, 134, 300, 311 CSMA/CA CSMA with Collision Avoidance algorithm 112, 135, 149

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CSMA/CD CSMA with Collision Detection algorithm 135, CSK Chirp-Shift Keying 120 CSS Chirp Spread Spectrum 115, 119-120 CSV Comma-Separated Values 345 D DAA Detect and Avoid mechanism 113 DAG Directed Acyclic Graph 212-213, 291 DAG Identifier 212 DAG root 212 Data encoding and aggregation protocols 322 Data interpretation 321 DATA message 192 DAC Digital to Analog Converter 167 DecaWave 376 Destination sequence number 207 Device ID 304 DFSS Distributed Frequency Spread Spectrum 309 Diffraction 99-100 Digi International Inc. 181, 310, 336 DiGiMesh 308, 310 DIO DAG Information Object 212-213 Directed diffusion routing protocol 198-199, 236, 239 DMA Direct Memory Access 167 DMAC 141-142, 146 DNP3 Distributed Network Protocol 3 346 Downstream 226, 229, 239 Doze mode 167 DQPSK Differential QPSK 119 DSMAC Dynamic Sensor-MAC protocol 139-140, 146 DSSS Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum 106, 108-115, 305, 310 DS-UWB Direct-Sequence UWB 107, 115 DTC Distributed TCP Caching 224 DTN Delay Tolerant Networking 333-336

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Duration field 138 Dust Networks, Inc. 304, 306 Duty-cycle-based protocols 138 DYMO Dynamic MANET On-demand routing protocols 207, 210 DYMO-low 210 Dynastream Innovations Inc. 309-310 E EAR Energy Aware Routing 199 ED Energy Detection 111-112 EDR Enhanced Data Rate 293, 295 EEML Extended Environments Markup Language 323, 345 Energy conservation 61, 131, 204 Energy saving 143, 160, 295 Energy consumption 121, 131, 187, 197, 199, 202, 224, 243, 355-359 Encryption 171, 251, 267-268 273 Encryption algorithm 289, 304 EnOcean GmbH 89, 297, 301-302 EnOcean Alliance Inc. 85, 89, 301-302 EEPROM Electrically-Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory 170 ECG ElectroCardioGraph 72-73 Error Control 150, 300 ESP Energy Service Portal 287 ESRT Event-to-Sink Reliable Transport protocol 241-244 ETSI European Telecommunications Standards Institute 87, 346 Event-driven flow 240-241, 243-244 EXI Efficient XML Interchange 322, 343 Exposed terminal problem 135-136, 139 F FCC Federal Communications Commission 101-107 FCS Frame Check Sequence 153 FEC Forward Error Correction technique 117, 300

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FFD Full Function Device 148 FHSS Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum 106, 123, 300, 305 Fingerprinting 372, 377 Flat Routing 198 FM Frequency Modulation 103 Forwarding interruption problem 141 Fragmentation 289, 291, 335, 397 Frame integrity 297 Freescale Semiconductor, Inc. 166, 171, 181 FreeRTOS Free Real-Time Operating System 275-276 Frequency Agility 289 Bands 97, 101, 286, 312 Hopping 294, 300, 305, 307 FSK Frequency Shift Keying 101, 117, 155, 172, 302 FTP File Transfer Protocol 223 Fuel Cell 361-362 Fusion 228, 234

G



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