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«Carles Gómez Josep Paradells José E. Caballero Edita: Fundación Vodafone España Autores: Carles Gómez Montenegro* Universitat Politècnica de ...»

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• Using CANopen46 following IEEE 1451.6.

• Using RFID according to IEEE 1451.7. The usage of IEEE 1451.7, based on RFID, has for its purpose identification and tracking as well as allowing new application combinations of RFID and sensors.

CANopen is a set of protocols above link layer (including the network layer) that uses the lower layers provided by Controller Area Network (CAN), a solution used for connecting devices in automation.

–  –  –

The IEEE 1451.4 defines for specific cases the interface between the transducer and the signal conditioning and conversion circuits.

REFERENCES

[1] S. Tilak, N. B. Abu-Ghazaleh, W. Heinzelman, “Collaborative storage management in sensor networks”, International Journal of Ad hoc and Ubiquitous Computing, Vol. 1, Nos 1/2, pp. 47 – 58, 2005.

[2] P. Juang, H. Oki, Y. Wang, M. Martonosi, L.S. Peh, D. Rubenstein, “Energyefficient omputing for wildlife tracking: design tradeoffs and early experiences with zebranet”, Proc. of ASPLOS 2002, ACM Press, San Jose, CA, pp. 96–107, 2002.

[3] A. Boulis, S. Ganeriwal, M. Srivastava, “Aggregation in sensor networks:

an energy-accuracy trade-off”, Proc. Of the First IEEE Internation Workshop on Sensor Network Protocols and Applications (SNPA), pp.128–138, 2003.

[4] C. Intanagonwiwat, D. Estrin, R. Govindan, J. Heidemann, “Impact of network density on data aggregation in wireless sensor networks”, Tech.

Rep. TR-01- 750, University of Southern California, November 2002.

[5] A. Sheth, M. Perry, “Traveling the Semantic Web through Space, Time, and Theme”, IEEE Internet Computing, Vol. 12, No. 2, pp. 81-86, 2008.

[6] Open Geospatial Consortium website: http://www.opengeospatial.org.

[7] Semantic Web Activity of the World Wide Web Consortium website:

http://www.w3.org/2001/sw.

[8] C. J. Augeri, D. A. Bulutoglu, B. E. Mullins, R. O. Baldwin, R. O, L.C. Baird, “An analysis of XML compression efficiency”, in Proceedings of the 2007 Workshop on Experimental Computer Science (San Diego, California, ExpCS '07, ACM, New York, USA, June 2007.

[9] N. Hoeller, C. Reinke, J. Neumann, S. Groppe, D. Boeckmann, V.

Linnemann ”Efficient XML Usage within Wireless Sensor Networks”, in Proceedings of the Fourth International Wireless Internet Conference (WICON 2008), ACM, Maui, Hawaii, USA, November 2008.

Chapter 12. Sensed data management

[10] M. Botts, “SensorML: XML description of In-situ and Remote Sensors“, NIST Workshop on Data Exchange Standards at the Construction Jobsite, Gaithersburg, USA, May 2003.

[11] A. Sheth, “Semantic Sensor Web”, Intelligent Sensors, Sensor Networks and Information Processing – ISSNIP., Melbourne, Australia, August 2008.

[12] A. Sheth, C. Henson, S. S. Sahoo, “Semantic Sensor Web”, IEEE Internet Computing, 2008.

[13] Resource Description Framework (RDF) / W3C Semantic Web Activity web site http://www.w3.org/RDF/ [14] Semantic Community Wiki web site: http://semanticommunity.wik.is/ [15] D. Wobschall, “IEEE 1451 – A Universal Transducer Protocol Standard”, 2007.

[16] G. Lasche, B. Huckins, “An Introduction to the ANSI N42.42 Data File Format”, August 2006.

[17] W. Snee, T. Johnson, “CBRN Data Model Implementation Approach”, October 2005.

[18] E. Y. Song, K. Lee, “Understanding IEEE 1451 – Networked Smart Transducer Interface Standard”, IEEE Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine, April, 2008.

[19] K. Lee, “The Smart Transducer Interface Standard (IEEE 1451)”, NIST Workshop on Data Exchange Standards at the Construction Jobsite, Gaithersburg, USA, May 2003.

[20] T. Kamiya, J. Schneider, "Efficient XML Interchange (EXI) Format 1.0", World Wide Web Consortium LastCall WD-exi-20080919, September 2008.

[21] Open Geospatial Consortium, "Binary Extensible Markup Language (BXML) Encoding Specification, Version 0.0.8", January 2006.

[22] EEML web site: http://www.eeml.org/ [23] Pachube web site: http://www.pachube.com/ Interoperability between wireless sensor networks and other networks Chapter 13. Interoperability between wireless sensor networks and other networks

13. Interoperability between wireless sensor networks and other networks WSNs require connectivity with other networks for several reasons which include remote control, remote access to collected data, software updates, etc.

To assure the interoperability across networks, different aspects need to be solved, but in general, transport and semantic interoperability should be guaranteed. Although there are some trends in WSNs towards cross-layering, the use of an architecture for WSNs based in layers can be advantageous in terms of interoperability since conventional networks use the layered approach.

The obvious network to which a WSN may be connected is the Internet.

Hence, connecting WSNs to IP networks has attracted the attention of the research community.

WSNs often run specialized, non-standardized communication protocols.

In such conditions, it is not possible to directly connect a WSN with an IP network. Two options have been proposed for solving this [1]: i) to use Delay and Disruption-Tolerant Interoperable Networking, or shortly, Delay Tolerant Networking (DTN) architecture and ii) to place a Protocol Translation Gateway (PTG), also referred to as ‘proxy’ in some contexts, between the WSN and the IP network. A different approach, which is gaining relevance as the related technology evolves and becomes available, is to directly connect the WSN to an IP network by running an IP stack in the WSN nodes themselves (see also chapter 11). This last approach facilitates the seamless inclusion of WSNs into the ip Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) framework, and consequently into evolved telecommunication networks and services infrastructures, like 3G and beyond cellular mobile networks.





Sensors Everywhere

This chapter is devoted to interoperability between WSNs and other networks (in particular, IP networks). Section 13.1 presents the use of a DTN architecture for this purpose. Section 13.2 is devoted to the use of Protocol Translation Gateways (PTGs). Section 13.3 focuses on the use of IP in WSNs. Section 13.4 presents a set of high level session/application protocols that facilitate the interoperability of WSNs with external TCP/IP-based networks. Finally, section 13.5 outlines the key aspects and research works related to the integration of WSNs into IMS.

–  –  –

This section first presents an overview of the DTN architecture and how a WSN can be connected to an IP network following a DTN-based architecture. Secondly, the advantages and drawbacks of this approach are discussed.

–  –  –

DTN is a specific communication protocol architecture designed for ‘challenged networks’47 [2]. These environments are characterized by high and variable end-to-end delays, potentially high bit-error rates and frequent network partitioning. Some examples are deep space communications and mobile networks with intermittent connectivity. The latter ones include certain forms of sensor networks [2]. In fact, the DTN architecture takes into account that the characteristics of end systems may include limited longevity, low duty cycle operation and limited resources [8], which are features encountered in WSNs.

DTN creates an overlay store-and-forward message switching on top of the transport (or another) layer and is independent of the underlying bearer protocols and addressing schemes. The messages are called ‘bundles’. A DTN comprises a set of regions. The devices in each region use the same protocol stack up to the transport layer within that region. The different regions share a common layer on top of the transport layer called the bunFor example; see Chapter 2, section 2.1.9.4 Rubbish Selective Recollection.

Chapter 13. Interoperability between wireless sensor networks and other networks

dle layer. This layer is in charge of persistent storage of messages when communications links are not available, and provides also message fragmentation and optional end-to-end reliability mechanisms.

The DTN architecture assumes the presence of one or more DTN gateways in each region. The DTN gateway interfaces two or more different regions and therefore supports the protocol stacks (up to the transport layer) of those regions. The DTN gateway forwards bundles between regions and maps globally significant identifiers called ’name tuples’ to locally resolvable identifiers. Devices within a region can communicate between them without the need of a DTN gateway.

Bundle forwarding assumes an underlying reliable delivery service with message boundaries. In consequence, a convergence layer is needed for each underlying transport protocol so as to augment its capability. For example, TCP must be augmented with message boundaries, while UDP needs reliability and sequencing in addition. On the other hand, the convergence layers support signalling for fragmentation and connection re-establishment [7].

A DTN overlay has been proposed for the connection between a WSN and an IP network [1, 7]. For this, a DTN gateway is needed between the WSN and the IP network, where the WSN constitutes one region and the IP network is another region. Fig. 13.1 depicts such architecture.

Fig. 13.1. A DTN-based architecture for connecting a WSN to the Internet

–  –  –

13.1.2. DTN discussion One advantage of DTN for connecting WSNs to other networks is the fact that the design principles of DTN consider the characteristics of WSNs. In addition, DTN is a generic purpose architecture, independent (through the appropriate convergence layers) on the underlying protocol stacks. However, this approach has not been widely adopted. Because DTN is delay-tolerant, it does not guarantee data delivery within a bounded latency, which reduces the scope of WSN applications it can be suitable for. Furthermore, the implementation of bundle and convergence layers adds complexity to the protocol stack of a sensor, which ideally should be kept as simple as possible.

13.2. Protocol translation gateways This section introduces first the concept of Protocol Translation Gateways (PTGs) and discusses their benefits and drawbacks.

13.2.1. PTG overview A PTG is a device which is able to communicate with both the sensors in the WSN and the hosts on another network (e.g. the Internet). For this, the gateway requires the support of two or more, possibly different, PHY interfaces and the semantics and functionality of two or more protocol stacks.

Two examples of a PTG which allows communication between a ZigBee domain and an IP domain are the commercially available ConnectPort X2 [3] from Digi and the patent referenced in [4].

Fig. 13.2 shows the protocol architecture of the gateway proposed in [4], where an IEEE 802.11-based interface is assumed in the IP domain. In this case, the user data from the IP client are first encapsulated in the corresponding application layer Protocol Data Unit (PDU), which is in turn encapsulated in the transport layer PDU, which then constitutes the payload of an IP packet. An IEEE 802.11x frame is then built for transporting the IP packet and the frame is transmitted using IEEE 802.11x MAC and PHY mechanisms. The frame is received by the gateway via its IEEE

802.11x interface and the user data are de-encapsulated once each layer entity

Chapter 13. Interoperability between wireless sensor networks and other networks

has processed its corresponding data unit. User data are then encapsulated in the ZigBee stack data units and are finally transmitted to the ZigBee client via IEEE 802.15.4 MAC and PHY mechanisms. When the IEEE 802.15.4 frame is received by the ZigBee client, the user data are de-encapsulated once each layer entity has processed its corresponding data unit. In the communication from the ZigBee client to the IP client, the opposite operation takes place.

Fig. 13.2. A proposed ZigBee-to-IP gateway architecture [4] 13.2.2. PTG discussion The use of a PTG allows the WSN to use a protocol architecture optimized for a specific purpose, while still being connected to another network like the Internet. However, PTGs exhibit a number of disadvantages. The first one is lack of end-to-end consistency, which makes difficult to perform tasks such as transport or QoS efficiently. In fact, the use of PTGs may require the adoption of a “least common denominator” approach to allow interoperation of the two sides of the gateway [5]. On the other hand, the fact that the WSN constitutes one domain and the IP network is another domain poses risks in terms of security, because there is a different security sphere at each side of the gateway. Furthermore, gateways add management complexity, because ad-hoc functionality is needed for different WSN architectures.

Fig. 13.3 illustrates the connection of various WSNs to the Internet using PTGs, because each WSN uses its own protocol architecture. Interestingly, this picture is similar to that of the 80s, where various proprietary protocol architectures were proposed for Local Area Networks (LANs), but required

Sensors Everywhere

PTGs for their connection to other networks like the Internet. The reasons why many non-IP-based WSN architectures have appeared in the market include the following ones: first, for certain applications, optimized and specialized architectures may offer improved performance compared with that of generic purpose stacks; secondly, for many years, many researchers argued that the Internet model was not suitable for the particular characteristics of WSNs.

Fig. 13.3. Various WSNs connected to the Internet by means of PTGs

–  –  –

This section presents first the benefits of the use of IP (and IPv6) in a WSN in terms of interoperability. Then, the section presents the trends in adoption of IP for WSNs and points out open issues at the time of writing this book.

13.3.1. Benefits of IP IP is by nature a good protocol for interoperability between networks.

In fact, IP was designed to connect various different physical networks so

Chapter 13. Interoperability between wireless sensor networks and other networks



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